Further Reading

Kious, Jacquelyne, and Robert I. Tilling. "U.S. Geological Survey. This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics." Available online. URL: http://pubs.usgs. gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html. Accessed March 27, 2007.

Moores, Eldridge M., and Robert Twiss. Tectonics. New

York: W. H. Freeman, 1995. Skinner, Brian, and B. J. Porter. The Dynamic Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

Lyell, Sir Charles (1797-1875) Scottish Geologist In the early 1830s Sir Charles Lyell authored the pioneering work Principles of Geology, a textbook that propelled uniformitarianism into the geological mainstream and is now considered a classic in the field. With this single influential work he firmly established geology as a science by convincing geologists to study the present in order to learn about the past. Since one cannot directly observe past processes, one must compare the results of those processes (such as fossils, mountains, and lavas) with modern geological phenomena currently forming by observable processes. Though the theme of Principles was not novel, Lyell reintroduced Scottish geologist James Hutton's ideas with a preponderance of supporting evidence that he gathered during numer ous geological excursions across Europe and North America. He also dared to profess that humans were much older than creationists believed and named several geological eras: Eocene, Miocene, and older and newer Pliocene.

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