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and mud facies to migrate laterally. When combined with continuous subsidence, passive margin sequences typically develop many sandstone wedges caught between shale layers. River systems and sandstone channels in muddy overbank delta deposits also form good trap and reservoir systems, since the porous sandstone channels are trapped between impermeable shales.
Most of the world's industrialized nations get the majority of their energy needs from petroleum and other fossil fuels, so exploration for and exploitation of petroleum is a major national and industrial endeavor. Huge resources are spent in petroleum exploration, and thousands of geologists are employed in the oil industry. In the early days of exploration the oil industry gained a reputation of being environmentally degrading, but increased regu-
Two geologists studying GeoProbe model. They are wearing glasses to make the model appear three-dimensional. (Chris Sattiberger/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
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