Further Reading

Galloway, W. E., and D. K. Hobday. Terrigineous Clastic Depositional Systems. New York: springer-Verlag, 1983.

Gordon, N. D., T. A. mcmahon, and B. L. Finlayson. Stream Hydrology: An Introduction for Ecologists. New york: John Wiley & sons, 1992. Ritter, D. F., R. C. Kochel, and J. R. miller. Process Geomor-

phology. 3rd ed. Boston: WCB-McGmw hill, 1995. schumm, s. A. The Fluvial System. New york, Wiley-inter-science, 1977.

flysch Flysch is a syn-orogenic clastic sedimentary deposit typically marked by interbedded shales and sandstones. The term was first used for sedimentary rocks deposited in the Alps in Cretaceous-Tertiary times, before the main erosional event that shed coarser-grained conglomerates known as molasse. sedimentary structures in flysch typically include a series of graded and cross-laminated layers in sands forming Bouma sequences, indicating that the sands were deposited by turbidity currents. Flysch is typically deposited in foreland basins and forms regionally extensive clastic wedges, underlain by distal black shales and overlain by fluvial deposits and conglomerates of fluvial origin.

The most common type of sedimentary deposit in flysch sequences are turbidite sequences. A turbidite is a deposit of a submarine turbidity current consisting of graded sandstone and shale, typically deposited in a thick sequence of similar turbidites. most turbidites are thought to be deposited in various subenvironments of submarine fans, in shallow- to deep-water settings. These form when water-saturated sediments on a shelf or in a shallow water setting are disturbed by a storm, earthquake, or some other mechanism that triggers the sliding of the sediments down slope. The sediment-laden sediment/water mixture then moves rapidly down slope as a density current, and may travel tens or even hundreds of miles at tens of miles per hour until the slope decreases

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