Further Reading

Abrahams, A. D., and A. J. Parsons. Geomorphology of Desert Environments. Norwell, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers for Chapman and Hall, 1994. Ahrens, C. D. Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment. 6th ed. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 2000. Botkin, D., and E. Keller. Environmental Science. Hobo-

ken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. Bryson, R., and T. Murray. Climates of Hunger. Canberra:

Australian National University Press, 1977. Culliton, Thomas J., Maureen A. Warren, Timothy R. Goodspeed, Davida G. Remer, Carol M. Blackwell, and John McDonough III. Fifty Years of Population Growth along the Nation's Coasts, 1960-2010. Rock-ville, Md.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1990. Dawson, A. G. Ice Age Earth, London: Routledge, 1992. Douglas, B., M. Kearney, and S. Leatherman. Sea Level Rise: History and Consequence. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, International Geophysics Series, vol. 75, 2000.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge university Press, 2007. Available online. uRL: http://www. ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg1.htm. Accessed October 10, 2008.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contributions of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. van der Linden, and C. Hanson, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge university Press, 2007. Available online.

uRL: http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg2.htm. Accessed October 10, 2008. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contributions of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge university Press, 2007. Available online. uRL: http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccrep-orts/ar4-wg3.htm. Accessed October 10, 2008. National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA). "Earth Observatory." Available online. URL: http:// earthobservatory.nasa.gov/. Accessed October 9, 2008, updated daily. Reisner, M. Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its

Disappearing Water. New York: Penguin, 1986. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Climate Change homepage. Available online. URL: http://www.epa. gov/climatechange/. Updated September 9, 2008.

Goldschmidt, Victor M. (1888-1942) Swiss Chemist, Geochemist, Mineralogist Victor Goldschmidt studied chemistry, mineralogy, and geology at the University of Kristiania in Norway and is often considered to be the father of modern geochemistry. His work was greatly influenced by the Norwegian petrologist and mineralogist W. C. Bogger and also by earth scientists Paul von Groth and Friedrich Becke. Goldschmidt received a doctorate in geology in 1911 with his thesis "The Contact Metamorphism in the Kristiania Region." He became a full professor of geochemistry and director of the mineralogical institute of the University of Kristiania (later Oslo) in 1914. His doctoral thesis concerned the factors governing the mineral associations in contact-meta-morphic rocks and was based on the samples he had collected in southern Norway. In later years he became a professor on the faculty of natural sciences at Gottingen and head of its mineral institute. While at Kristiania he began geochemical investigations on the noble gases and alkali metals, and the siderophilic and lithophilic elements. He produced a model of the Earth that showed how these different elements and metals accumulated in various geological domains based on their charge and size, and on the polarizability of their ions. Goldschmidt is one of the pioneers in geochemistry who explained the composition of the environment.

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