Further Reading

Ritter, Dale, R. Craig Kochel, and Jerry Miller. Process Geomorphology. 3rd ed. Boston: WCB/McGmw Hill, 1995.

geophysics Geophysics is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods, with different divisions including solid-Earth geophysics, atmospheric and hydrospheric geophysics, and solar-terrestrial physics. The many subdisciplines in the field include seismology, tectonics, geomagnet-ics, gravity, atmospheric science, ocean physics, and many others. Geophysics also includes the description and study of the origin and evolution of the major Earth systems, including the core, mantle, and crust of the continents and oceans. Geophysical methods include

• the use of tools of reflection and refraction seismology to use and measure the passage of sound waves through the Earth to mea sure the physical properties of the area in the Earth the waves pass through

• the use of electromagnetic sensors to quantify the electrical and magnetic properties of rocks

• potential field methods, which determine variations in gravity and magnetism across a region

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