Earthquakes are associated with a wide variety of specific hazards, including primary effects such as ground motion, ground breaks (or faulting), mass wasting, and liquefaction. secondary and tertiary hazards are indirect effects, caused by events initiated by the earthquake. These may include tsunami in open ocean and bay waters; waves that rock back and forth in enclosed basins, called seiche waves; fires and explosions caused by disruption of utilities and pipelines; and changes in ground level that may disrupt habitats, change groundwater level, displace coastlines, cause loss of jobs, and displace populations. Financial losses to individuals, insurance companies, and businesses can easily soar into the tens of billions of dollars for even moderate-sized earthquakes.
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