Most economic copper deposits are found in association with volcanic-plutonic arc sequences in porphyry copper deposits, but other economic resources of copper are known from sedimentary deposits. In porphyry copper deposits the copper is carried by the sulfide mineral chalcopyrite, which is enriched and carried upward by the granitic magmas and by hydrothermal fluids associated with the plutons. Copper is also often found in association with nickel, gold, lead, and zinc deposits. Copper can also form in deep oceanic settings, when brine fluids from deeply buried sediments discharge and deposit copper, lead, and zinc directly on the seafloor.
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