Baltic Shield on the Kola Peninsula

The Kola Peninsula occupies 50,000 square miles (129,500 km2) in northwestern Russia as an eastern extension of the scandinavian peninsula, on the shores of the Barents Sea, east of Finland and north of the White Sea. Most of the peninsula lies north of the Arctic Circle. The peninsula is characterized by tundra in the northeast, and taiga forest in the southwest. Winters are atypically warm and snowy for such a northern latitude because of nearby warm Atlantic Ocean waters, and warm summers are filled with long daylight hours.

The Kola Peninsula is part of the Archean Baltic shield, containing medium to high-grade mafic and granitic gneisses including diorite, tonalite, trond-hjemite, granodiorite, and granite. Metasedimentary schist, metapelitic gneiss, quartzite, and banded-iron formation known as the Keivy Assemblage form linear outcrop belts in the eastern part of the Kola Peninsula. Mafic/ultramafic greenstone belts and several generations of intrusions are found on the peninsula; these may correlate with ophiolitic rocks of the North Karelian greenstone belts farther south in the Baltic shield. Metamorphism is mostly at amphibo-lite facies but locally reaches granulite facies, and deformation is complex with abundant fold interference patterns and early isoclinal folds possibly associated with early thrust faults. The Kola schist belts are intruded by several generations of mafic to granitic intrusions.

Continue reading here: Baltic Shield and Caledonides on Svalbard and Spitzbergen Island

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