Atmospheric Pollutants [CO2 and Temperature

Human activity is increasing the atmospheric concentrations of chemicals that are known or suspected to be toxic to plants (see Chapter 18, this volume) and De Kok and Stulen (1998) consider this topic in detail. Wheat is affected by gaseous pollutants, such as SO3 and O3, depending on their concentrations and nature, e.g. as dry or wet deposition (McKee et al., 1995; Barnes and Wellburn, 1998; Bender et al., 1998). The mechanisms of responses of wheat to pollution (concentration and duration of exposure) are complex. However, increased [CO2] decreases the impacts of gaseous pollutants, partially due to smaller gs, and also increased capacity for detoxification. UV-B radiation is increasing as a consequence of altered atmospheric chemistry (see Chapter 18, this volume). However, wheat has active protective mechanisms, such as accumulation of flavonoid pigments which reduce the UV-B transmissions into leaves. As wheat currently grows at high elevations, where fluxes of UV-B are large, it seems likely that there is sufficient genetic capacity to allow selection for future changes (Teramura, 1998).

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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