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Mapping Areas to Meet or Set Targets

Another common type of biological target involves particular habitat and or vegetation types. Several sources of data are available to evaluate this type of target. Existing maps and classifications are often used, from national or regional inventories, for example. In other cases, new maps may be created from raw photographs or the processing of photographs or digital images. The most widespread source is remote sensing typically photographs or digital imagery from airplanes or satellite-borne sensors. New, high-resolution imagery (submetre) provides a good source for mapping natural habitats as well as human land uses, though cost can be a significant constraint.

Sources Of Glacial Meltwater

Figure 4.1 Examples of glacial meltwater drainage. (A) Supraglacial stream on the surface of Austre Br0ggerbreen in Svalbard. (B) Moulin on the surface of Austre Br0ggerbreen in Svalbard. (C) Englacial tunnel or conduit melting out of stagnant ice in front of Fox Glacier, New Zealand. Note the rounded and subrounded material melting out of the conduit. (D) Subglacial tunnel and meltwater emerging from the snout of Fox Glacier, New Zealand. Photographs N. F. Glasser Figure 4.1 Examples of glacial meltwater drainage. (A) Supraglacial stream on the surface of Austre Br0ggerbreen in Svalbard. (B) Moulin on the surface of Austre Br0ggerbreen in Svalbard. (C) Englacial tunnel or conduit melting out of stagnant ice in front of Fox Glacier, New Zealand. Note the rounded and subrounded material melting out of the conduit. (D) Subglacial tunnel and meltwater emerging from the snout of Fox Glacier, New Zealand. Photographs N. F. Glasser

Desert Research Institute

The Desert Research Libraries at Las Vegas and Reno maintain collections and services to support the DRI scientific community and other scholars. Resources include archival materials, aerial photographs, the DRI reports, maps, posters, and safety videotapes. One of the academic programs with which the DRI is affiliated is the Academy for the Environment, established in 2004, at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), as a multidisciplinary institute aimed at developing, enhancing, and coordinating environmental teaching, research, and service at the university. The faculty of the DRI are integral through teaching in the atmospheric sciences, ecology, evolution and conservation biology, environmental sciences and health, and hydrologic sciences graduate programs.

Sources Of Information

Not only written documents, but also maps, engravings, pieces of art, instruments, and artifacts have been widely used as sources of information in environmental history. Other less common records investigated are farmers' logs and travelers' diaries, meteorological and phenological records, terrestrial and aerial photographs, and proxy data in the natural sciences. Proxy data are supplied by a heterogeneous set

Methodological approaches

Glacial lineations, using Landsat MSS imagery as the primary data source and aerial photographs as complementary information at key sites where flow sets intersect, allowed Boulton & Clark (1990a,b) to reconstruct the Laurentide Ice Sheet evolution as a stack of events, marked by major shifts in the location of dispersal centres. No effort was made to systematically trace the deglaciation pattern, and meltwater landforms (eskers, marginal channels and glacial lake traces) were not used in the reconstruction.

Methanogenic Bacteria

Fig. 8.3 Electron microscopic photographs of methanogenic bacteria. (a) Methanosarcina barkeri (b) Methanobacteria ruminantium (c) Methanospirillum hungatii (d) Methanobacterium bryantii (Zehnder and Wuhrmann 1977). Fig. 8.3 Electron microscopic photographs of methanogenic bacteria. (a) Methanosarcina barkeri (b) Methanobacteria ruminantium (c) Methanospirillum hungatii (d) Methanobacterium bryantii (Zehnder and Wuhrmann 1977).

Yao Tandongf Pu Jianchenf and Liu Shiyingf

From the 1950s, scientists have been studying the glacial fluctuation in High Asia. The study at the very beginning is pure field investigation and aerial photographs. Some long-term monitoring stations were established in the 1960s, 1970s and 1990s, which improved the continuous monitoring of glacial fluctuations. In the 1990s, remote sensing and GIS methods were used to study glacial fluctuation. These studies have provided the base for our discussion here.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA

The Apollo program was designed to land humans on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 tested various components while orbiting the Moon, and returned photographs of the lunar surface. On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 landed the first man on the moon, Neil Armstrong.

Monitoring Distributions

Another new arrival, first seen in coastal Orange County during the last five years, is the bobcat (Flynn, 2006). Its small population is being monitored extensively by the U.S. Geological Survey, using motion-sensing cameras, radiotelemetry, and recording GPS collars attached to the cats. But visual sightings and photographs from the public have also made an important contribution to our knowledge of the distribution and movements of these animals, especially in and near urban areas. These sightings and photographs are being used to monitor tagged animals, to match pelt patterns to identify individual bobcats, and the public has also been engaged in collecting information on road kills and their locations. This helps the professionals to learn more about the genetic structure of the bobcat populations and to start to better understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation and land-use changes on the populations. Knowing the locations of the road kills (16 in the San Joaquin Hills,...

Scientific Contributions

In 1867 and 1868 Powell led a series of expeditions into the Rocky Mountains and along the Green and Colorado Rivers. His most famous expedition was in 1869, when he took nine men in four boats to explore the Colorado River and Grand Canyon. His geological observations led to the understanding that the canyon was formed by the river's gradually cutting down through the rocks of the region as the plateau was slowly uplifted. The team left Green River, Wyoming, on May 24 and entered the wild Colorado River near Moab, Utah. Powell took notes concerning the scenery and geology along the way, naming and traversing Glen Canyon, then reaching the Virgin River on August 30, 1869. One man had quit after the first month, and three more quit the expedition just before the junction with the Virgin River. Tragically, the three who abandoned the expedition at this point were killed in an ambush in the Wild West, but the perpetrators were never identified. On a second expedition along the same...

Choice of activity data

The activity data needed to implement a Tier 2 method are either ATij, area of crown cover for each class within a perennial type (Equation 8.2), or NTij, number of individual plants in each class within a perennial type (Equation 8.3). Crown cover is defined as the percent of ground covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the natural spread of the foliage. For Tier 2a, crown cover area data (ATj can be obtained from aerial photographs of urban areas, provided expertise in photo interpretation, image sampling and area measurement (Nowak et al, 1996) are available. Values in percent crown cover should be converted to total crown cover area for use in Equation 8.2 by multiplying the percent crown cover by the total area of the plants (trees or shrubs) within the outermost perimeter.

Remotely operated vehicles for undericeshelf and groundingline study

The spectacular side-scan-sonar images and associated core samples enabled by new marine technologies (e.g. Anderson et al., 2002 Canals et al., 2002) have served as the 'satellite photographs' of marine glaciology. The long debate about the glacial versus glacial-marine origin of Antarctic marine diamictons, for example, is easily resolved with a single picture of 100-km-long flutings across the continental shelf. However, that knowledge largely ends at the fronts of the ice shelves. What lies beneath is still poorly sampled at best.

Economic Pt Pd Concentrations in Natural Deposits

Fig. 2 Photographs of Pt- and Pd-rich rocks from (A) the Merensky Reef in the Bushveld Complex Chromite (Ch) forms a sub-horizontal layer cutting across the coarsely crystalline silicate minerals, (S) are Ni-Cu-Fe sulphides, (B) Noril'sk massive Ni-Cu-Fe sulphide ore containing a white platinum-group mineral (PGM) and (C) Cliff in the Shetland ophiolite black chromite (Ch) surrounded by Pt- and Pd-bearing green Ni carbonate next to dunite (D). Scale bars represent 1 cm. Fig. 2 Photographs of Pt- and Pd-rich rocks from (A) the Merensky Reef in the Bushveld Complex Chromite (Ch) forms a sub-horizontal layer cutting across the coarsely crystalline silicate minerals, (S) are Ni-Cu-Fe sulphides, (B) Noril'sk massive Ni-Cu-Fe sulphide ore containing a white platinum-group mineral (PGM) and (C) Cliff in the Shetland ophiolite black chromite (Ch) surrounded by Pt- and Pd-bearing green Ni carbonate next to dunite (D). Scale bars represent 1 cm.

Platinum Group Minerals

Fig. 3 Photographs taken using a scanning electron microscope of (A) a homogeneous Pt-sulphide with a smooth out line exsolved from a Cu-Fe-sulphide (Cpy) surrounded by chromite (Ch) and plagioclase (Pl) and (B) a mottled inhomogeneous altered Pt-Pd-oxide with a ragged outline enclosed in the low temperature alteration mineral serpentine (Serp) adjacent to chromite (Ch).

Pt and Pd Mobility at the Earths Surface

Fig. 4 Photographs showing (A) deep lateritic weathering in the Amazon caused by tropical weathering, with a faun coloured weathered unit overlying a more mottled unit extending down to the water, all of which are completely altered with no fresh rock (tropical trees give the scale) compared with (B) rusty rocks and rock talus covered by a very thin soil in the desert of Nevada (man in blue, centre left gives scale). Fig. 4 Photographs showing (A) deep lateritic weathering in the Amazon caused by tropical weathering, with a faun coloured weathered unit overlying a more mottled unit extending down to the water, all of which are completely altered with no fresh rock (tropical trees give the scale) compared with (B) rusty rocks and rock talus covered by a very thin soil in the desert of Nevada (man in blue, centre left gives scale). Fig. 5 Photographs taken using a scanning electron microscope of two Pt-Pd alloys derived from placers in the Espinhaco quartzites, Brazil, (A) an alloy that...

Complexity Uncertainty And Their Role In Shaping Management Decisions

From a conservation perspective, there were many desirable outcomes after the removal of the sheep and cattle from the western part of SCI. Aerial photographs indicated erosion rates had drastically declined, distribution and abundance of many endemic species increased (Schuyler 1993, Klinger et al. 2002), and recovery of woody species and shrub communities was occurring in many parts of the island (Wehjte 1994, Klinger et al. 2002). In these regards, few if any conservation practitioners would say sheep and cattle removal from SCI was not successful.

Evaluation of Forest Canopy Leaf Area Index

The forest canopy LAI was estimated by hemispherical canopy photographs taken in the forest understory at 14 locations covering the 1-ha plot. Photographs were taken with a digital camera (CoolPix 910, Nikon, Japan) equipped with a fish-eye lens (FC-E8, Nikon, Japan) mounted on a monopod. The camera was carefully leveled by referring to a bubble level. A thin wire was used to indicate south on the photographs. All photographs were taken while the sky was overcast in midday or in late afternoon. The photographs were analyzed with a commercially available software program, HemiView 2.1 (Delta-T Devices, UK). Gap fraction was determined for 160 specific sky sectors on the photographs and sectors within 30 from the zenith were used for the estimation of LAI. Data analyses for the selected area, thus, minimized the influence of trunk shadow and surrounding understory vegetation on upper slope of the observation points, which cover a significant area of the photographs.

MB sensitivity m water a1 deg1

Single characteristic altitude on the glacier rather than over the full altitude range. This is an important result because the degree-day model can now be applied to the estimated glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) over whole glacier regions. The mass balance at the ELA must be zero so the model can be tuned to give zero mass balance at this altitude and the degree-day model (and probably a simple energy-balance model) can be applied to thousands of glaciers where ELAs are roughly estimated from aerial photographs and topographic maps.

The Nostoc Bryophyte Symbiotic Experimental System

Nostoc punctiforme shows broad symbiotic competence within the phylogenetic spectrum of plants, including the bryophyte hornworts (Enderlin and Meeks 1983) and liverworts (Joseph and Adams 2000), gymnosperm cycads, from whence it was isolated (Rippka et al. 1979), and the angiosperm Gunnera spp. (Johansson and Bergman 1994), as well as the non-lichen fungus, G. pyriforme (Kluge et al. 2002). Photographs of the plant associations, illustrating the different compartments in which the cyanobacterium is localized, are presented in Fig. 2. It is difficult to imagine that N. punctiforme successively developed specific adaptive processes for each plant group as members of the group emerged over evolutionary time. Rather, it is logical to hypothesize that the plants must have independently evolved strategies to control key regulatory and metabolic pathways of the cyanobacterium that are normally expressed in free-living growth. For example, a shift to a heterotrophic mode of carbon and energy...

THE sciENcE of REMoTE sENsiNG

Remote sensing devices allow an interpreter to see objects at a distance or to see small objects better. Earth scientists use remote sensing to gather information about the Earth. The photographs they use are images that can be obtained from many types of remote sensing devices and that offer unique views of the Earth's surface unattainable in any other way. The most common platforms today are airplanes and satellites. The shortest wavelengths in the spectrum are gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet rays. Humans cannot see this energy (X-rays are what doctors use to take pictures of bones, and ultraviolet rays are what cause sunburn). As the wavelengths lengthens, visible light appears. These are the wavelengths that humans can see, but it is a tiny portion of the entire spectrum. Visible light can be broken into blue, green, and red light. Wavelengths longer than those of the visible spectrum cannot be seen by humans. These include infrared radiation, microwave radiation, and radio...

Box 62 Using Landforms Of Glacial Erosion To Reconstruct Glacier Dynamics

Glacial Recession

Figure 6.3 Ice-smoothed valley walls next to the San Rafael Glacier in Chile. (A) Smoothed bedrock showing evidence of both polishing by glacial abrasion and the development of fractures by glacial quarrying. Former ice flow left to right. (B) Close-up of the valley walls showing smoothing by subglacial meltwater and glacial abrasion (note the striations). Former ice flow left to right. Photographs N.F. Glasser Figure 6.3 Ice-smoothed valley walls next to the San Rafael Glacier in Chile. (A) Smoothed bedrock showing evidence of both polishing by glacial abrasion and the development of fractures by glacial quarrying. Former ice flow left to right. (B) Close-up of the valley walls showing smoothing by subglacial meltwater and glacial abrasion (note the striations). Former ice flow left to right. Photographs N.F. Glasser Figure 6.4 Examples of p-forms and s-forms. (A) Deep Nye channel in front of Glacier de Ferpecle in Switzerland (former ice and water flow away from the camera)....

Subglacial Landforms Formed By Ice Or Sediment Flow

Landsat Image North And South America

Figure 9.16 Oblique aerial photograph of a drumlin swarm in Langstrathdale northern England. Ice flow was from left to right. Photograph reproduced with permission from Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photographs Figure 9.16 Oblique aerial photograph of a drumlin swarm in Langstrathdale northern England. Ice flow was from left to right. Photograph reproduced with permission from Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photographs

Methane hydrate formation from melting ice direct observations and factors for complete reaction

Ice grains subjected to CH4 hydrate-forming conditions showed visible surface reaction at temperatures well below the H2O liquidus, almost immediately after exposure to CH4 gas. This surface appearance did not change appreciably as the grains were subsequently warmed through the H2O liquidus. Upon further heating, no expulsion of water was observed nor any cracking or collapsing of the hydrate encasement that would be expected to attend the volume contraction associated with bulk melting of the ice interiors. Instead, all grains maintained identifiable shapes and sizes throughout reaction, and changed only by becoming increasingly mottled in appearance as they approached full conversion to hydrate. In separate experiments in which the hydrate was slowly heated and then cycled through the equilibrium curve, however, newly-formed gas hydrate always grew as optically clear material, either coarsely crystalline or as single crystals. Further details and photographs of these experiments...

Mesoscale Features Of Glacial Erosion

Global Warming The Earth Then And Now

Figure 6.6 Examples of streamlined bedrock features. (A) Whaleback in resistant granite, Norway (former ice flow left to right). (B) Roche moutonnee above Nant-y-Moch, Wales (former ice flow left to right). Photographs N.F. Glasser Figure 6.6 Examples of streamlined bedrock features. (A) Whaleback in resistant granite, Norway (former ice flow left to right). (B) Roche moutonnee above Nant-y-Moch, Wales (former ice flow left to right). Photographs N.F. Glasser Figure 6.11 Photographs of typical meltwater channels (A) Ice-marginal meltwater channels next to a small valley glacier in Svalbard. (B) Subglacial meltwater channel near Helsby in Cheshire, England. Photographs N.F. Glasser Figure 6.11 Photographs of typical meltwater channels (A) Ice-marginal meltwater channels next to a small valley glacier in Svalbard. (B) Subglacial meltwater channel near Helsby in Cheshire, England. Photographs N.F. Glasser

InSitu Site Investigation Geomorphology Geology

The analysis of the geomorphological features at a given site provides a preliminary diagnosis of whether permafrost is present or not. In addition to the analysis of topographical maps and aerial photographs, in-situ site investigations are carried out to identify potential permafrost-related features, prior to more complicated and costly geophysical and geotechnical investigations. The use and relevance of geomorphological analyses is unfortunately often underestimated, although the method is a low-cost and simple one. A solid understanding of alpine morphology is nevertheless required for the successful interpretation of the features observed and therefore expert knowledge is to be sought.

Glacial Geology and Geomorphology

Ice Glacial Marine Sediment

Figure 3.7 Controlled moraine ridges superimposed on the inner blocks of a thrust-block moraine at the margin of the Eugenie Glacier, Dobbin Bay, Ellesmere Island. This area was overlain by glacier ice containing discrete ice margin-parallel debris-rich folia on 1959 aerial photographs. The melt-out of the buried ice and retrogressive flow sliding at this site is gradually destroying the controlled moraine ridges. Figure 3.7 Controlled moraine ridges superimposed on the inner blocks of a thrust-block moraine at the margin of the Eugenie Glacier, Dobbin Bay, Ellesmere Island. This area was overlain by glacier ice containing discrete ice margin-parallel debris-rich folia on 1959 aerial photographs. The melt-out of the buried ice and retrogressive flow sliding at this site is gradually destroying the controlled moraine ridges.

Bogoraz Vladimir Germanovich

Bogoraz's participation in the Jesup North Pacific Expedition (1897-1902), masterminded by Franz Boas and organized by the American Museum of Natural History in New York, marked yet another significant contribution. Together with Vladimir I. Iokhel'son, Bogoraz led the northern party of the Siberian section of the expedition. Bogoraz spent over 12 months in Chukotka and northern Kamchatka (1900-1901), and his travels introduced him to the Reindeer and Maritime Chukchi, as well as the Yupiget (Siberian Yupik). Bogoraz returned to St Petersburg with a wealth of ethnographic data, linguistic notes and texts, ethnographic artifacts, skeletal samples, archaeological specimens, as well as photographs and voice recordings.

Observations Of Abyssal Ocean Circulation

Three photographs charting the evolution of dye from source (white circle) to sink (black circle) using the apparatus shown in Fig. 11.21. The shallow end of the tank is marked with the 'N' and represents polar latitudes. FIGURE 11.22. Three photographs charting the evolution of dye from source (white circle) to sink (black circle) using the apparatus shown in Fig. 11.21. The shallow end of the tank is marked with the 'N' and represents polar latitudes.

The Planet As Sacrifice Zone

Essay by Reyner Banham, 1st edn (Albuquerque University of New Mexico Press, 1987), Richard Misrach, Richard Misrach (A Photographic Book Landscape Photography) (San Francisco, CA Grapestake Gallery, 1979), Richard Misrach, Violent Legacies Three Cantons, ed. Susan Sontag, 1st edn (New York Aperture, 1992), Patrick Nagatani, Nuclear Enchantment, editorial essay by Eugenia Parry Janis, Photographs by Patrick Nagatani (Albuquerque University of New Mexico, 1991).

Gilvin CDOM and total absorption coefficients

The dissolved yellow humic substances in surface waters have (Chapter 3) an absorption spectrum rising exponentially into the blue. Where, as in many lakes, rivers and estuaries, CDOM is the dominant contributor to light absorption, there are generally found to be simple relationships between CDOM concentration and the ratio of reflectance in the blue to that at some longer wavelength. Bowers et al. (2000) studied the relationship between subsurface radiance reflectance (rrs 1 ) ratios and CDOM in shallow inshore waters of the Clyde Sea (Scotland), a region receiving a considerable input of fresh water from land run-off. The ratio of reflectance in the red (670 nm) to that in the blue-green blue at 490,443 or 412 nm increased linearly with concentration of yellow substance, as expressed through measurement of 440 nm absorption (g440) on a filtrate. g440 could thus in principle be obtained from remotely sensed reflectance ratios. In the more turbid waters of the Conwy estuary (North...

Physical Fragility Versus Biological Stability And Diversity

Dune systems can look physically fragile and give an appearance of imminent coastal retreat. Such has been the case on the island of Vatersay in the Scottish Hebrides where the fragile nature of dunes on either side of a strip of much grazed machair has long given an impression of imminent disappearance. An early nineteenth century geological visitor described the island of Vatersay (Fig. 12.3) 'as two green hills united by a sandy bar where the opposite seas nearly meet. Indeed if the water did not perpetually supply fresh sand to replace what the wind carries off, it would very soon form two islands nor would the tenant have much cause for surprise, if on getting up some morning he should find that he required a boat to milk his cows.' However, comparison of the front line of these apparently badly eroded dune fronts with photographs taken 80 years apart (Fig. 12.4) shows little sign of any imminent retreat (Crawford, 2001). The dissected dunes are constantly undergoing a cycle of...

Clas Httestrand and Chris D Clarkf

In this study, we have used Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images to map the glacial geomorphology over Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas in northwestern Russia. This imagery has a spatial resolution of 15 m, which allows both eskers and meltwater channels to be mapped accurately (Fig. 39.1b), at least in areas without extensive forest canopy. For some regions, primarily in and around the central Kola mountains, the satellite-image-based mapping has been complemented with interpretation of aerial photographs (ca. 1m resolution) and field-based mapping in 2001 and 2002.

Local scale measurements

In autumn, we selected suitable plots with a length of approximately 5 m and a width of 1 to 1.5 m. At the beginning of the winter, a dye tracer was applied on the selected plots. We used the food dye Brilliant Blue FCF, which has been used in numerous soil physical field studies (e.g. Forrer et al. 2000). Brilliant Blue FDF is non-toxic, well visible in normal field soils and, depending on the pH, either neutral or anionic with a rather high mobility. During the spring snowmelt, we returned to the sites and excavated vertical profiles on the tracer plots, starting at the onset of the snowmelt and finishing shortly after the complete melt of the snow. For each date, we excavated two to four profiles. Each profile was then photographed using a digital camera (Nikon Coolpix 990) at a pixel resolution of less than 1.5 mm.

A24 Tools for data collection

Remotely sensed data, as discussed here, are those acquired by sensors (optical, radar or lidar) onboard satellites, or by cameras equipped with optical or infrared films, installed in aircraft. These data are usually classified to provide estimates of the land cover and its corresponding area, and usually require ground survey data to provide an estimate of the classification accuracy. Classification can be done either by visual analysis of the imagery or photographs, or by digital (computer-based) methods. The strengths of remote sensing come from its ability to provide spatially-explicit information and repeated coverage, including the possibility of covering large and or remote areas that are difficult to access otherwise. Archives of past remote sensing data also span several decades and can therefore be used to reconstruct past time-series of land cover and land use. The challenge of remote sensing is related to the problem of interpretation the images need to be translated into...

Case Histories of glacierpermafrost Interaction

Kolka Karmadon Rock Ice Slide

Lake 3 at Gruben before and after the construction of an overflow channel (circle in second image). Floating of the ice dam was probably prevented by the fact that the glacier margin is frozen to sub-glacial permafrost and water cannot penetrate directly to the glacier bed. Artificial lowering of the ice-marginal lake was necessary, because the retention capacity designed earlier for proglacial Lake 1 was not sufficient for combinations of events such as heavy precipitation or a subglacial water-pocket rupture combined with an outburst of Lake 3. Photographs by Andreas Kaab, 29 July and 7 August 2003 Fig. 4. Lake 3 at Gruben before and after the construction of an overflow channel (circle in second image). Floating of the ice dam was probably prevented by the fact that the glacier margin is frozen to sub-glacial permafrost and water cannot penetrate directly to the glacier bed. Artificial lowering of the ice-marginal lake was necessary, because the retention capacity designed...

Recommended Resources For The Reader

- This site is actually a review of the Lynn Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility (Lynn, Massachusetts), which is a primary and secondary treatment plant with a design purpose of the primary to remove settleable and floatable material (sludge, grease, etc.). The secondary treatment is directed principally toward the removal of biodegradable organic and suspended solids. What is very nice about this site is that it provides a reasonably good technical description of the basis for the overall design, and then focuses in on some of the key unit operations, including the primary and secondary clarifiers. There are plenty of installation and equipment photographs, and some simple but very effective animated drawings that illustrate how the equipment work. You will obtain a very good understanding of the practical aspects of clarification and sedimentation practices for a municipal water treatment facility by spending some time here. site that walks you through clarifiers, sedimentation...

Marine Sedimentary Biota as Providers of Ecosystem Goods and Services

Marine sediments cover more of the Earth's surface than all other ecosystems combined (Snelgrove 1999), yet direct human experience is limited largely to the narrow zone at the interface between land and sea. Although 62 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by water greater than 1,000 m deep, only approximately 2 km2 (Paterson 1993) has been quantitatively sampled for macrofauna (invertebrates greater than 300 microns but not identifiable in photographs) and only 5 m2 (Lambshead 1993) has been sampled for meiofauna (invertebrates greater than 300 microns but retained on a 44-micron sieve). With most of the ocean sedimentary biota out of sight, we tend to ignore their role in regulating rates and processes that maintain the integrity of marine systems (Snelgrove et al. 1997), instead focusing on biologically generated products or consequences that are of direct economic benefit. The publicity associated with the Kyoto Protocol (United Nations 1992), particularly with respect to...

Response Of Vegetation To The Present Warming Of Climate

Occurred across these regions the Arctic Oscillation. What is unusual now is how intense and sustained this phase is. From all the climate indicators that we have available, there has been no other period in the past thousand years where the Arctic experienced such warm temperatures for so long. This suggests that something beyond the natural background of climate fluctuation may be at work. On the ground, this warming translates into noticeable changes in the structure and species composition of tundra vegetation in northern Alaska and Canada. Many of the small ponds that dot the landscape have drained, as a result of the layer of icy soil (permafrost) that held them in place melting away, so terrestrial vegetation is taking over from the aquatic communities that lived there before. Shrubby vegetation of dwarf willows and alders is pushing into the grassy tundra on Alaska's north slope. On the far northern islands of Canada, where climate has always been too cold for a continuous...

Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Terrestrial Carbon Inventory

Aerial Jpg

Aerial photography Analysis of aerial photographs can reveal differences in land-use or land-cover system such as agriculture, grassland, forest tree species and forest structures from which the relative distribution and tree health may be judged. In agriculture, similar analyses can show crop species, crop stress or tree cover in agroforestry systems (Fig. 14.1). The smallest spatial unit that can be seen depends on the type of aerial photos used, but for standard products it is often as small as one metre (IPCC 2006).

Cerro Yanahuara Cerro Jollpa ridge 722325 W 1535 40 S to 722130 W 1543 40 S

Gokyo Contour Interval

At the southern end of the ridge at Cerro Jollpa, no moraines or other glacial features have been identified in the aerial photographs. Instead, the heads of the main valleys radiating south- and westward from Cerro Jollpa are occupied by long and narrow rock glaciers (Figs 2 and 3). They cover horizontal distances of up to 1 km and vertical distances of up to 400 m. Transverse surface ridges mainly occupy the lower parts towards the snouts, while the upper parts are generally smooth or show longitudinal ridges. The lower and middle parts also show 'trains' of transverse ridges that might indicate waves of renewed movement.

Assessments with Indicators

Gross domestic product (GDP), primary energy consumption, energy intensity, agricultural production (maize), caloric intake, total water withdrawal, changes in land use and cover, and habitat loss. By GEO 2000 (UNEP 2000), some indicators were given at the global and regional levels for the assessment of selected problems. In addition to the indicators used in GEO 1, these included cropland per capita, hunger, forest area, fishery production, carbon emissions, toxic waste, and urbanization. Many of these indicators were produced by one-off studies and did not present time series or trends. By GEO 3 (UNEP 2002), the effort to develop the data necessary for globally consistent indicators for assessments began to show results. Nearly every page includes text and one or more indicator tables or graphics showing states or trends. However, the indicators used still measure specific problems or social or economic trends and do not attempt an integrated view of system behavior. The indicators...

Vehicle Energy Storage Systems

Two of the more important characteristics of batteries are Energy Density (Wh kg) and Power Density (W kg). Energy Density is a measure of how much energy a battery can hold. The higher the energy density, the longer the runtime will be. Typical applications are cell phones, laptops, and digital cameras. Power Density indicates how much power a battery can deliver on demand. The focus is on power bursts rather than runtime.

Glacier and ice sheet volume

Glacier area can be well mapped from satellite imagery and aerial photographs, but global ice volume is more difficult to estimate. Mapping of ice thickness requires surface or airborne radar surveys. Electromagnetic wave frequencies of 5-50 MHz are typically used for glacier depth sounding, as these relatively low frequencies limit signal attenuation and allow penetration of radar pulses through several hundred meters of glacier ice. Resolution at these frequencies is of the same order as the wavelength, 6-60 m for the range 5-50 MHz. The ice-bed interface provides a strong electrical contrast, so these

Geomorphological expression of glacial erosion or lack thereof

The years following World War II saw earth scientists exploring a wide range of glacier environments from Antarctica to mountain glaciers and ice caps lying at the Equator. This geographical coverage combined with recruitment into the new field of 'glaciol-ogy' of physicists and mathematicians led to the development of models of temperature conditions at the bed of glaciers and the large ice sheets. Sugden (1977, 1978) wrote two seminal papers that first developed an estimate for the temperature at the bed of a North American Ice Sheet (the ice sheet was not temporally fixed), proposed how this might affect glacial erosion or glacial protection, and then used maps and aerial photographs to produce a map of the bed of the LIS showing areas of scour, selective linear erosion (e.g. fiords), alpine glaciation, and areas showing little evidence for glacial erosion. As a dramatic example of the protective nature of an ice sheet where the bed is frozen there is a thin (few centimetres thick)...

British Geological Survey West Mains Road Edinburgh EH9 3LA UK

Since the advent of satellite imagery, geomorphologists have used remotely sensed images to gain a better understanding of large-scale landform assemblages. The main benefits of using satellite imagery are clear the large field of view and the range of display scales, both allowing a higher speed of coverage. Many features undetectable on aerial photographs at large scales become readily apparent on LANDSAT images when viewed at a scale of 1 100,000 or more. Unfortunately, few studies use both types of imagery in tandem. This study shows the advantages of combining modern satellite images with aerial photographs and traditional field survey techniques to address problems across a wide range of scales. Using 1 24,000-scale aerial photographs, a more detailed inspection of the landform assemblage is possible. Further examination reveals a complex ridge-and-groove topography in Lower Annandale, with megaflutes and drumlins representing 'islands' defined by a large-scale network of...

Remote Sensing and Ground Reference Data

Land-use systems that are rapidly changing over the estimation period or that have features known to be easily misclassified should be more intensively ground-truthed than other areas. This can only be done by using ground reference data, preferably from independent actual ground surveys. High-resolution photographs may also be useful.

Examples Of Visibility Impairment

The camera ean be an effective tool in capturing the visual impact that pollutants have on a visual resource. Figures 12a to 12d show the effect that various levels of uniform haze have on a Glacier National Park vista. These photographs were taken of the Garden Wall from across Lake McDonald. Figures 13 and 14 show similar hazes of vistas at Mesa Verde and Bryce Canyon National Parks. The Chuska Mountains in Figure 13 are 95 km away, Navajo Mountain in Figure 14 is 130 km distant. This photograph should be compared with Figure la, a photograph of Navajo Mountain taken on a day in which the particulate concentration in the atmosphere was near zero. Figure 12 Effect of regional or uniform haze on a Glacier National Park vista. The view is of the Garden Wall from across Lake McDonald. Atmospheric particulate concentrations associated with photographs ( ), (b), (e), and (d) correspond to 7.6, 12,0, 21.7, and 65.3 (ig m . See ftp site for color image. Figure 12 Effect of regional or...

Models of Tree Influences on UVB Irradiance

Tree canopies, Grant and Heisler (1996) explored some relatively simple methods based on tree and sky view factors determined from hemispherical photographs (Fig. 12.2). The photographs were analyzed manually to estimate sky view by projecting the images onto a grid with radii and concentric zenith angle circles at 10 intervals beginning at 5 of sky zenith and azimuth, and then counting the number of grid intersections that fell on open sky. Measurement results for these sample locations beneath the street trees are presented in Table 12.2. where Pdir was the sun fleck probability of the crown through which the direct beam penetrated, and again, the summation is over the nine bands. The Pdir term was estimated by analysis of hemispherical photographs.

The methods and carryingout of geocryological surveys

Laying out the main problems of the survey to be conducted. For its realization field observations and published materials such as topographic maps, aerial photographs at large and small scale (black and white, colour and spectral range) and satellite photographs (when the small-scale survey is conducted), geological and tectonic reports and maps, descriptions of geological sections and exposures, geomorphological maps and Quaternary deposit maps, geobotanical maps, climatic and hydrogeological data are gathered and studied. The study of earlier geocryological, hydrogeological, engineering-geological and geophysical investigations showing the character of the geocryological surroundings, plays a special role. At the same time the reliability and representativeness of the materials of the previous investigations carried out during various periods of time, at various scales and usually using various methods, are established.

Box 63 Glacial Meltwater Channels In The Labyrinth Evidence For Huge Subglacial Floods From The Antarctic Ice Sheet

Source Lewis, A.R., Marchant, D.R., Kowalewski, D.E., et al. (2006) The age and origin of the Labyrinth, Western Dry Valleys, Antarctica evidence for extensive Middle Miocene subglacial floods and freshwater discharge to the Southern Ocean. Geology, 34, 513-16. Photograph courtesy of The Antarctic Photo Library, U.S. Antarctic Program .

An Inconvenient Truth

The first hour shows Gore explaining how the climate went out of control in just a few years. Graphs, photographs, data, short films, and anecdotes are shown. From the beginning, the film mentions a national disaster from 2005, Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, as a patent case of a tragedy that was not considered very important by the U.S. Government. At some point in the argument, these terrible events in New Orleans are presented as the direct consequence of the global warming. It also explains that the administration in Washington, D.C., does not seem to be fully aware of the danger of global warming to U.S citizens.

The Lamontdoherty Earth Observatory

And Ewing's retirement, brought about a change at Lamont-Doherty, which soon found itself in the forefront of concern about the environment. The U.S. space program accelerated concerns about the environment (with the Apollo VIII photographs of the earth from space, for example). There was a growing connection between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard research center and the Lamont-Doherty Observatory, both located at Columbia.

Chronology Of Developments

Remote sensing detects and measures the characteristics of a target without being in physical touch with it. Information about the object is derived through electromagnetic energy. Aircraft and satellites are the main platforms for remote-sensing observations. Aerial photographs are the original form of remote sensing and remain the most widely used method. Infrared thermometry provides a way to determine the surface temperatures of plants and animals. Precise handheld infrared thermometers are commercially available to provide these measurements. The technology allows the measurement of the surface temperature with a resolution of a few square centimeters.

Effects Of Fire On Soil Temperature And Moisture

In mid-August 1998, a series of burned and adjacent unburned black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. B.S.P.) forest stands were visited in interior Alaska. These stands were located near Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Tok, Alaska, within or near fires that occurred in 1972, 1987, 1990, and 1994. At the 1990 fire site, the unburned and burned stand were separated by a distance of approximately one kilometre, whereas at all the other sites this distance was less than 100 meters. The site examined in this study had fairly similar average tree height, diameter and density in both the burned and unburned areas. Examination of pre-burn aerial photographs for the sites were also used to confirm that the sites were similar.

Response Of Vegetation To Tiie Present Warming Of Climate

Www Climate And Vegetation Drawing

Continuous covering of tundra, comparison of aerial photographs taken in the 1930s and today shows that there has been an expansion of shrubby vegetation out from the most sheltered spots, which were the only places it was able to grow before (Figure 3.8a. b). It seems then that the landscape in the far north is changing, because of the warming that has occurred during that period.

These activities increase the level of awareness and thereby the level of concern felt by millions of citizens over

The public can be a tremendous resource for scientists interested in monitoring nature. There are plenty of skilled and observant people with knowledge of particular taxa or geographic areas, who are often passionate about these interests and are delighted to discover that their work may be useful. Many of them have independently developed knowledge bases and are collecting photographs of species, life cycles, behaviors, and the place of animals and plants in the wild. Others have become organized to carry out regular counts of birds or butterflies so that interesting trends may be detectable. Still more people have joined or started organizations for which one of the goals is to document and monitor certain taxa or geographic areas.

Human Judgments of Visual Air Quality

Several researchers have found that judgments of photographs can be used as surrogates for judgments made in the field provided the experiments have been properly designed. This is an important finding since one way to reduce the per-observation cost of obtaining judgment-based measurements of visual air quality is to use judgments of photographs rather than field observations. For example, Stewart et al. (1984) found that although visual air quality tends to be judged slightly worse in photographs than in the field, the relative differences among scenes are approximately the same whether visual air quality is judged from photographs or in the field. The implication of the visual air quality perception research described in the preceding paragraphs is that there are a number of variables such as sun angle, cloud cover, and scene composition that are firmly integrated into judgments of aesthetic value of a scenic resource. Therefore, studies designed to assess social, psychological, or...

Background to recent progress

Remote sensing has opened up new horizons on a revolutionary scale. Whereas fieldworkers in the 1960s relied on aerial photographs, often patchy in coverage, local and different in scale from place to place, it is now possible to view landscapes anywhere in the world at an unparalleled level of detail. We can monitor mass balance over the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets (Vaughan and Reeh, this volume, Chapters 42 & 44) and on mountain glaciers (Naruse and Yao Tandong, this volume, Chapters 46 & 55). Such real-time monitoring allows current trends of glacier health to be assessed, for example, in the dynamic parts of West Antarctica (Wingham et al. 1998 Shepherd et al., 2002). We can also test hypotheses on the beds of former mid-latitude ice sheets. For example, it is possible to ascertain the pattern of bed streamlining or transverse moraines on a continental scale (Andrews and Clark et al., this volume, Chapters 40 & 50).

Observation and measurements

Glacier observation and measurements for scientific purposes began in the European Alps. In 1842 a map of the Unteraar glacier was constructed (scale 1 10,000) by M.J. Wild (Zumbiihl et al., 1981). Another and cheaper approach to mapping glacier snouts is to measure the distance from one or more fixed marks in front of the glacier. In Switzerland, between 50 and 100 glaciers have been measured since the year 1890. These frontal measurements are supplemented by terrestrial and air photographs, and most recently by satellite imagery. In Norway, glacier-front positions have been measured systematically from about ad 1900.

Methods to Estimate Biomass

Various methods are available to interpret and analyse satellite data for measuring changes in land cover and hence biomass. However, no consistent method or technique is available for estimating carbon through remote sensing (Rosenqvist et al. 2003). The methods range from visual interpretation of photographs to sophisticated digital analyses and from wall-to-wall mapping (covering a contiguous stretch of land such as a province, country or continent) to analysis of hot spots and statistical

Developments in Drilling and Thinking in the Late 1970s

While the NZ programme had focussed on drilling in McMurdo Sound, the US programme developed a project to core through the Ross Ice Shelf 420 km from the ocean (Clough and Hansen, 1979). The Ross Ice Shelf Project (RISP) in two successive seasons drilled through 430 m of ice to measure and sample the properties of the 230 m water column, and take cores and photographs of the sea floor beneath (Webb, 1978, 1979). The sea floor cores revealed a few tens of centimetres of Late Quaternary mud overlying a metre of mid-Miocene glaciomarine mudstone with diatomite clasts several millimetres across indicating an interglacial period of ice- and sediment-free biogenic sedimentation at 82 S (Webb et al., 1979 Scherer et al., 1988). Terrestrial palynomorphs from the clasts indicate coastal beech forests at this time also.

Spatial Information And The Environment

Spatial information is geographically located data, that is, data that can be related to a position on the earth's surface. It can be obtained from many different sources satellite imagery, aerial photographs, field-recorded surveys, and weather station reports. The great power of location is that it naturally integrates data that lie close together in space but may be otherwise unrelated.

Illustrations

We are grateful to the following for permission to use modified or copyright figures and photographs Allen and Unwin (Figures 4.6, 5.2, 5.3, 7.8a), American Geophysical Union (Box 3.4, Figure 4.2), Antarctic Photograph Library, US Antarctic Program (Box 6.3), Balkema (Figures 8.6, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24), Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photographs (Figure 9.16), Elsevier (Figures 4.3, 6.5, 7.4, 7.11, 8.4, 8.5, 8.12, 8.14, 8.16, 9.3, 9.4, 9.6, 9.26, 9.30,12.5,12.6, 12.7, Boxes 1.1,1.2, 9.2, 9.5,12.6,12.7), Geo Books (Figures 8.2, 8.3) The Geological Society (Figures 9.31, 10.7, 11.5, 11.6), Geological Society of America (Box 9.6), Hodder Education Group (Figures 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 3.19, 8.21, 8.22,10.1,10.9, Box 3.2), INSTAAR, University of Colorado (Figure 4.4), International Glaciological Society (Figure 7.12, Boxes 5.3, 12.1), Kluwer Academic Publishers (Figures 3.6, 3.9, 3.15, 7.1), Longman (Figure 3.14), Methuen (Figures 3.10, 6.8, 6.10), NASA (Figure 2.4), National...

Methods

Unfortunately, past mapping has been non-standardized in different areas and the comparison of features from published sources is difficult. Ridges called end moraines in one area are not called end moraines in another (e.g. central Iowa). Similarly, different criteria are used to recognize streamlined features. This makes it difficult to compare areas using only existing glacial maps. Because of this, we examined the raw data sources (topographic maps, etc.) from which these maps have been created. We have used published maps and reports for information about sediment types. These are supplemented locally with high-resolution digital elevation models. Thus, we use a combination of published reports and maps and interpretation from topographic maps, digital elevation models and aerial photographs to add to the compilation.

Least Stable

Fig. 9-2 Photographs illustrating (a) long straight slopes in the Andes and (b) convexo-concave slopes transitional into very flat terrain. The view of the Andes is taken from Huayna Picchu, the small peak next to Machu Picchu. The view is up the valley of a small tributary to the Urubamba River. Note that the V-shaped valley formed by fluvial erosion becomes a U-shaped glacial valley at its highest end. The glacier was active during the last ice age. (b) The Guayana Shield in southern Venezuela, taken from an airplane. In the foreground is the Orinoco River downriver from the Casiquiare Canal, a natural channel that connects the Orinoco and the Amazon River systems. The hills in the foreground are granite and about 200 m high. Fig. 9-2 Photographs illustrating (a) long straight slopes in the Andes and (b) convexo-concave slopes transitional into very flat terrain. The view of the Andes is taken from Huayna Picchu, the small peak next to Machu Picchu. The view is up the valley of a...

Results

An ice-cored esker has been observed on aerial photographs to be emerging from the terminus of the glacier over the last 20 years (Fig. 2), indicating the englacial flow of sediment-laden water in the past. In the proglacial region there was up to 16 m of ice beneath 2 m of well sorted esker sand. The esker sediment stringer was also mapped with GPR to extend over 100 m back into the glacier at an elevation 10 m above the bed. The presence of clean ice beneath the esker sediment indicates that the conduit that formed the esker was above the basal zone of the glacier. Four caves have been mapped in the east lateral moraine near the terminus of Stagnation Glacier. These relict conduits extended deep into the ice core of the moraine some were over 2 m in diameter for up to 55 m when they extended along the long axis the moraine. The walls of the caves consisted of basal ice or glacial ice, or frozen glaciofluvial deposits. Cave 1 (CI in Fig. 1) formed on the outside of the moraine and is...

Discussion

The constant summer flow of the terrestrial stream from the basin beyond the east lateral moraine was clearly the dominant factor in the recent evolution of cave 1. This is displayed on the aerial photographs dating back to 1948. However, the sizes of caves 2 and 3 suggest that

Uwe Dornbusch

Abstract Mapping of glacial and periglacial features along a 15 km long, north-south trending ridge at the eastern end of the Cordillera Ampato (Fig. 1) has been carried out using aerial photograph interpretation. Over the length of the ridge a distinct change in features from moraines and small rock glaciers in the north to large rock glaciers and a lack of moraines in the south can be observed. It is suggested that this feature change reflects a steep precipitation gradient during the Pleistocene. Comparison with geomorphological mapping - both in the field and from air photographs - in other areas of the Cordillera Ampato and further west shows that this feature change is unique and that its location at the eastern end of the Cordillera is in good agreement with present-day precipitation distribution. This indicates that the general precipitation pattern, and thus the general circulation pattern, during the Pleistocene was very similar to that today. This paper will briefly analyse...

Conclusion

The changing assemblage of glacier and rock glacier features along the Cerro Jollpa ridge is unique in the Cordillera Amato and can be used to infer a steep local precipitation gradient during the late Quaternary. Although this study is only based on the interpretation of small-scale (c. 1 40,000) aerial photographs, it does show that large and active (as recent as the 1950s) rock glaciers exist at levels significantly below the regional annual 0 C isotherm. Only more recent aerial photographs, preferably at a larger scale, or field investigations can give details of present-day activity, and geophysical field investigations are necessary to support the interpretation on the genesis of the rock glaciers described.

Experimental setup

The experimental setup of Fig. 2 was constructed and installed. The specification of experimental apparatus is the same as Table 1. Figure 4 shows photographs of the optics (left) and the square mirror in the discharge chamber (right). The sides of the square mirror were 28cm in length, and its reflectance was about 95 . The number of the reflections on a single mirror was fixed at 12-14. The total round-trip optical path length was

Methodology

The photographs were digitized to obtain a pixel size of 0.5 m, orthorectified and georefer-enced. Two different resolutions were employed for the digital elevation model (DEM) to optimize results. One DEM (based on 1 10,000 maps) with a 10 m resolution was used for the main relief elements. Another, based on GPS field observations with 1 m resolution (Brossard et al. 1998), was used for particular landscape

Glaciers

The classic text on glacial geology is Richard Foster Flint, Glacial and Quaternary Geology (i97i), encyclopaedic coverage including an extensive bibliography. Recent hypotheses and observations on glacial erosion and deposition are included in David Drewry, Glacial Geologic Processes (i986), even though the coverage of glacial landforms is not complete. David E. Sugden and Brian S. John, Glaciers and Landscape A Geomorphological Approach (i976, reprinted i984), is an excellent detailed introduction to glacial land-forms and the processes that shaped them. More theoretical emphasis can be found in Clifford Embleton and Cuchlaine A.M. King, Glacial Geomorphology, 2nd ed. (i975), and Periglacial Geomorphology, 2nd ed. (i975). A.L. Washburn, Geocryology A Survey of Periglacial Processes and Environments (i979), contains numerous explanatory photographs and diagrams. A collection of articles is found in Cuchlaine A.M. King (ed.), Periglacial Processes (i976). The most comprehensive and...

Katrina Storm surge

One of the primary efforts in determining the physical performance of flood control structures in the area in and around New Orleans after the Hurricane Katrina disaster was the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force (IPET). A principal objective of the IPET was to determine the effects of Hurricane Katrina on flow control structures and to provide a framework for the subsequent repair and rebuilding of hurricane protection in New Orleans. The IPET was made up of experts from 25 universities, 25 private companies and 10 government agencies (Link, 2010). The IPET study used a combination of measured data and model-simulated data to characterize water level conditions over time. Measured data fell into two categories High Water Mark (HWM) measurements which capture peak water levels, and hydrographs, which capture the water level as a function of time (IPET, 2008). An extensive post-storm effort was undertaken to identify and survey HWMs following passage of the storm. While HWMs...

G98 World Bank

The MBLWHOI Library houses the Data Library and Archives, which, through a wide-ranging collection of administrative records, oral papers and histories, personal papers and diaries, photographs, film, video, instruments, and other documents, makes the history of the WHOI accessible to WHOI's scientific community. The library encourages access to the collection by other institutions and researchers, but its services are restricted to those compatible with the needs of WHOI and MBL. The MBLWHOI Library offers an impressive collection of online resources including the Alvin dive log database, the Alvin ocean floor photos, digital photos from the WHOI archives, a searchable database of nearly 4,000 films and videotapes in the library's collection, WHOI oral history project, a database providing links to data files from research cruises, and images and descriptions about WHOI ships.

Eyak Child Birth

In Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 7, Northwest Coast, edited by W.C. Sturtevant & W.P. Suttles, Washington, District of Columbia Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990, pp. 189-96. De Laguna, Frederica, Chugach Prehistory The Archaeology of Prince William Sound, Alaska, Seattle University of Washington Press, 1956 Johnson, John F., Eyak Legends Stories and Photographs,

Rock Glaciers

Talus Glacier

Aerial photographs from 1953 and 1964 indicate that a pingo with a diameter of about 50 m had formed in the inner part of Kuannersuit Kuussuat (Kuannersuit Valley) at a location, which had been deglaciated around 1920 (Jost, 1940). In 1995 - 1998, the 10.5 km surge advance of Kuannersuit Glacier overrode the site of the pingo. Thus, deglaciation of the foreland of surge-type glaciers may provide a valuable field laboratory for studies on the formation and evolution of periglacial landforms such as pingos.

Transhumance

Sadly, current trends in Europe reveal a large-scale abandonment of alpine pastures with trees readvancing over pastures that have provided summer grazings for centuries and probably millennia. Even in Norway, with its limited area of lowland pastures and long tradition of summer pasturage in the mountain saeter (stol), trees are now advancing up mountainsides that nineteenth-century photographs showed as treeless.

Comer George

The scope and variety of Comer's researches in Hudson Bay are extraordinary. He compiled a census of Inuit, including names, ages, heights, and weights. He constructed plaster casts of many faces, hands, and feet, wrote down stories and legends, described shamanistic practices, and made more than 60 wax cylinder recordings of songs and dances (the first ever made among North American Inuit). He took photographs depicting costumes, facial tattoos, the interiors of snow houses, and methods of traveling and hunting. On behalf of museums in New York, Berlin, and Ottawa, Comer purchased Inuit artifacts and excavated abandoned settlement sites to retrieve items representative of earlier cultures. Comer's collections for the American Museum of Natural History exceeded 2000 articles and objects. In addition to his ethnographic observations, he compiled statistics of air temperature and ice thickness throughout the winters, collected animal skeletons and skins, and identified errors on...

Classification

Moraine Diagram

Figure 6.8 The location of aerial photographs and images cited in the text. Figure 6.8 The location of aerial photographs and images cited in the text. Wood is not present in the tills of landsystem B. We believe the absence of wood is an indication that continuous permafrost and tundra conditions existed when ice advanced to its maximum position in the area of landsystem B (Fig. 6.15). Both outside and inside the outermost margin of the ice in landsystem B there are indications of former permafrost. Patterned ground can be observed on aerial photographs (Fig. 6.15), particularly on outwash surfaces created during the last glacial maximum (Black, 1976b Pewe, 1983 Ham, 1994 Johnson et al., 1995 Colgan, 1996 Clayton and Attig, 1997 Clayton et al, 2001). Figure 6.17 A) Oblique aerial photograph of low-relief hummocks in Iowa. (Courtesy of Tim Kemmis). B) DEM of area in southern Minnesota where aligned hummock tracks are superimposed on till plain of basal till. The hummocks are composed...

Calving glaciers

Kirkbride and Warren (1997) used repeated photographs and field surveys to reveal the mechanism of ice-cliff evolution at Maud Glacier, a temperate glacier calving in a lake in New Zealand. Their study showed that calving is cyclic (1) waterline melting and collapse of the roof of a sub-horizontal notch at the cliff foot (2) calving of ice flakes from the cliff face leading to a growing overhang from the waterline upward and cracks opening from the glacier surface (3) calving of slabs as a result of the developing overhang, returning the cliff to an initial profile (4) seldom subaqueous calving from the ice foot.

Percentage frequency

Mean distribution of Streten vortex types as a function of latitude, based on satellite photographs over 5 winters 1973-77. Frequencies in each 5-degree latitude band are presented as the percentage of the total for that type over all latitudes. Values in brackets give the total numbers of cyclones for the five years studied (from Carleton, 1979).

Lunar Impact Craters

The Earth's Moon is the closest celestial object, and it is covered by many impact craters, large and small. The lack of water, crustal recycling through plate tectonics, and weathering as on Earth has preserved craters that are billions of years old, providing scientists with a natural laboratory to observe and model impact craters of different sizes and styles. Thousands on thousands of photographs have revealed the great diversity in styles of lunar craters and have yielded insight into the cratering mechanisms responsible for cratering events on Earth. The large num

Historical documents

From the seventeenth century onwards, several persons visiting the glaciers left paintings, drawings and photographs providing material for reconstruction of glacier positions and later fluctuations. In the Swiss Alps, for example, the Lower Grindelwald Glacier has 323 illustrations to document its former extent, and together with written evidence, this forms the basis for a detailed reconstruction of the glacier back to ad 1590.

Aerial Photography

Aerial photographs are photographs taken from a distance, from an airplane for example. Cameras on airplanes are the simplest and oldest form of aerial sensors used to monitor features of land surface. The spectral resolution of cameras is usually very coarse, which makes aerial photography more useful when finer spatial data Successive photographs along a flight strip include overlapping of up to 60 and create stereoscopic areas. This overlapping area can be used to form stereo pairs, and hence three-dimensional images. Structures such as forest tree species and their age and health or agricultural crops and agroforestry systems can be revealed from aerial photography with some training. The materials required for using this technique include aerial photographs, a georeferenced map and plastic film. For some area, availability of aerial photographs is limited and the cost is high If not available, it requires a relatively long time to obtain the photographs

The texts

The ACIA overview document is a 145-page summary of the scientific report. It is framed as part of the scientific content of the ACIA but aimed at a different audience policy makers and the broader public. It is specifically designed for these audiences, richly illustrated with graphic representations of issues and processes as well as a large number of photographs. It is written in language of popular science and references are made to chapters in the scientific report and are in summary form rather than the more traditional reference style used for the scientific report. The report is thus a different genre, even if the purpose is to convey the same base of knowledge as the scientific report. The author of the overview report is a professional science writer but its final content is also the result of collaborations with a graphics artist, the lead authors of the scientific report, and the Assessment Integration Team.

Europe

In one particular study in Norway, a group of research scientists from Swansea University, in the United Kingdom, launched the field study project Sea Level Rise from Ice in Svalbard (SLICES), designed to measure and calculate past and future sea-level rise. The team used aerial photographs of the glaciers in Norway and built highly detailed 3-D digital elevation computer models of the Svalbard glaciers.

Peter J Bryant

Scientists can do only a small fraction of the monitoring that is necessary to document changes in the populations and distributions of wild animals and plants, so the collection of such data often depends on organized efforts by members of the public with appropriate expertise. Regular butterfly, bird, and mammal counts as well as more comprehensive species inventories such as BioBlitz have been increasing in popularity and in reliability. The use of this kind of biodiversity data has been greatly facilitated by the ready availability of digital cameras and the huge opportunities for image sharing made possible by Internet access. Online communities of amateur naturalists are forming, and individuals are helping each other to find and to correctly identify wild species without collecting or destroying them. They are thereby contributing increasingly to our knowledge of the natural world and especially to changes brought about by human domination of the planet, including not only...

Identifying Species

A major factor in increased awareness and interest in arthropods has been the ready availability of digital cameras and especially the huge increase in opportunity for image sharing made possible by digital photography and Internet access. Web sites have facilitated image and knowledge sharing, and greatly stimulated efforts by amateur photographers to contribute to knowledge about biodiversity. Increased efforts to compile data on species distribution and migration are also adding to the popularity and utility of the combination of digital photography and web-based communication. New web-based interactive geo-informatics programs, such as Google Earth, provide exciting opportunities for cooperative data collection by scientists, and they also make it possible to involve the public in biodiversity data collection. This has the dual benefit of stimulating the public to understand the environment, and of producing important data that would be impossible to obtain by a typical scientific...

Get Paid to Take Digital Photos

Get Paid to Take Digital Photos

Reasonable care has been taken to ensure that the information presented in this book isĀ  accurate. However, the reader should understand that the information provided does not constitute legal, medical or professional advice of any kind.

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