In the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons commenced with rapid sedimentation related to the orogenic activity marked by formation of the present-day Himalayan Mountains. Thick sediments have been deposited over 3,000 miles from the major river mouths. Organic matter accumulated within the sediments throughout sedimentation, although preservation varies with depth, reflecting tectonic activity, sediments supply, climatic variations, and depositional rates in particular geological strata. A few deep wells have been drilled in relatively shallow water. Sediment thickness data (Fuloria, 1993) shows the thickening from the shield margin into the ocean basins.

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