Contents

Part I Geological, Chemical and Physical Properties of Permafrost

1 Arctic Permafrost Soils 3

Charles Tarnocai

2 Antarctic Permafrost Soils 17

Iain B. Campbell and Graeme G.C. Claridge

3 Mountain Permafrost 33

Stephan Gruber and Wilfried Haeberli

Part II Biodiversity in Permafrost

4 Very Old DNA 47

Martin B. Hebsgaard and Eske Willerslev

5 Bacterial and Archaeal Diversity in Permafrost 59

Blaire Steven, Thomas D. Niederberger and Lyle G. Whyte

6 Viable Cyanobacteria and Green Algae from the

Permafrost Darkness 73

Tatiana A. Vishnivetskaya

7 Fungi in Permafrost 85

Svetlana Ozerskaya, Galina Kochkina, Natalia Ivanushkina and David A. Gilichinsky

8 Ancient Protozoa Isolated from Permafrost 97

Anastassia V. Shatilovich, Lubov A. Shmakova, Alexander P. Mylnikov and David A. Gilichinsky viii Contents

Part III Biological Activity in Permafrost

9 Microbial Activity in Frozen Soils 119

Nicolai S. Panikov

10 Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) 149

C. Ryan Penton

11 Genomic Insights into Cold Adaptation of

Permafrost Bacteria 159

Corien Bakermans, Peter W. Bergholz, Hector Ayala-del-Rio, and James Tiedje

12 Proteomic Insights: Cryoadaptation of

Permafrost Bacteria 169

Yinghua Qiu, Tatiana A. Vishnivetskaya and David M. Lubman

Part IV Impact of Global Warming On Permafrost Properties

13 Global Warming and Thermokarst 185

Julian B. Murton

14 Global Warming and Mountain Permafrost 205

Wilfried Haeberli and Stephan Gruber

15 Global Warming and Carbon Dynamics in

Permafrost Soils: Methane Production and Oxidation 219

Dirk Wagner and Susanne Liebner

16 Global Warming and Dissolved Organic Carbon

Release from Permafrost Soils 237

Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Masayuki Kawahigashi and Irina V. Tokareva

17 Climate Change and Foundations of Buildings in Permafrost Regions 251

Yuri Shur and Douglas J. Goering

Part V Contaminants in Frozen Ground

18 Migration of Petroleum in Permafrost-Affected Regions

David L. Barnes and Evgeny Chuvilin

19 Remediation of Frozen Ground Contaminated with

Petroleum Hydrocarbons: Feasibility and Limits 279

Dennis M. Filler, Dale R. Van Stempvoort and Mary B. Leigh

20 Application of Reactive Barriers Operated in Frozen Ground 303

Damian B. Gore

Part VI Permafrost on Earth - a Model for Extraterrestrial Habitats

21 Terrestrial Permafrost Models and Analogues of Martian Habitats and Inhabitants 323

Nikita E. Demidov and David A. Gilichinsky

Index 343

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