The studies described in this chapter indicate that the adaptive nature of permafrost bacteria at near-freezing temperatures is regulated by cellular physiological processes through the regulation of certain cellular proteins. Although cold adaptation is still far from being properly understood, it is possible that proteins synthesized at low temperatures may support temperature homeostasis, protect other proteins from denaturation and damage, and enable the cells to adapt to near or below-freezing temperatures.

Acknowledgements This work was supported by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute under cooperative agreement no. CAN-00-0SS-01 issued through the Office of Space Science.

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