Cold Inducible Proteins CIPS

The detection and identification of CIPs present during growth at 16°C, 4°C, and -4°C (salinity remained constant at 5%) by two-dimensional electrophoresis has been reported in Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 (Bakermans et al. 2007). Changes in the growth temperature regime differentially induce the synthesis of a large set of specialized proteins needed to maintain growth and reproduction at different temperatures. Twenty-eight of the CIPs were identified in P. cryohalolentis K5.

Table 12.1 List of permafrost strains studied by proteomics approaches

Strain

Origin (age)

Location, collection date

Environmental conditions

References

E. sibiricum

Alluvium loam

Khomus-Yuryakh

8 m, -10°C,

Chong et al.

7-3 (VKM

and sandy

river; 68°19'N,

pH 7

(2000)

B 2374)

loam (30,000

154°58'E;

years)

August 1989

E. sibiricum

Lake-alluvium

Bol'shaya

43.6 m, -10°C,

Qiu et al.

255-15

loam and

Chykochya river;

pH 7.3

(2006)

(DSM

sandy loam

69°10'N, 158°

17290)

(3 million

4'E; July 1994

years)

P. arcticus

Alluvium sandy

Malay Kon'kovaya

12.5 m; -10°C,

Zheng et al.

273-4

loam (30,000

river; 69°N,

pH 6.9

(2007)

(DSM

years)

158°30 ' E;

17307)

August 1997

P. cryohalolentis

Brine water

Lake Yakutskoe;

24 m, -11°C,

Bakermans

K5 (DSM

lens within

69°50'N,

pH 7.4,

et al. (2007)

17306)

alluvial icy

159°30 ' E;

salinity

complex

August 1999

150 g°l-1

(43,000 years)

Sample description was adopted from Gilichinsky et al. (2005) and Vishnivetskaya et al. (2000, 2006)

Sample description was adopted from Gilichinsky et al. (2005) and Vishnivetskaya et al. (2000, 2006)

Among them, 15 proteins synthesized at 16°C were overexpressed at low temperatures, eight CIPs were detected during growth at both 4°C and -4°C, and five CIPs were specifically detected during growth at -4°C. These negative temperature-inducible proteins included: The B subunit of F1/F0 ATP synthase, AtpF The outer membrane efflux system protein, TolC The elongation factor Ts, EF-Ts

A hypothetical protein with a bacterial Ig-like domain, Pcryo_1988, and The outer membrane receptor for ferric citrate transport, FecA. The drastic increase in relative abundance of these proteins at -4°C, relative to 4°C and 16°C, suggest specific stress on energy production, protein synthesis, and transport during growth at subzero temperatures. The efflux transporter TolC (as AcrAB-TolC) has a broad substrate range, and transports antibiotics, detergents, etc. suggesting an increased need to export potentially harmful molecules at -4°C.

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