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This leads into the second issue that makes the path dependency issue more problematic - the effects of 'free market' ideology and associated structures, especially investment structures. Much discussion of free market ideology and its impact is abstract. To make it more concrete here, the real world example of future electricity generating investment is pursued to illustrate the problem. The IEA estimates that worldwide investment worth more than 11 trillion will be needed between 2005 and 2030 in the electricity system to keep up with the effects of old plant retirement and new demand (IEA, 2006c, p. 40). Even if this number is on the high side (energy efficiency might well reduce it somewhat) there is no doubt that much investment is needed.
Mendelsohn et al. (2007) examined correlations between incomes in rural districts in the United States and in Brazil, with parameters of present climate and physical parameters of agricultural productivity. They argued that climate affects agricultural productivity which, in turn, affects per capita income (even when this is defined as both farm and non-farm incomes for a district) and that climatic changes that reduce productivity may have direct consequences in rural poverty. Mendelsohn et al. (2007) therefore argue that climate change impacts in rural economies may make migration and relocation a necessary but undesirable adaptation. Finan and Nelson (2001), however, suggest that government policies in Brazil, such as rural retirement policies, have actually augmented household adaptive capacity and attracted young migrants back from cities. Thus migration can be influenced by government intervention. In the case of island states, Barnett (2005) argues that adaptation should...
Switching to an entirely new power generation approach is expected to add significantly to the lead-time. Front End Engineering Design (FEED) work may require 1 or 2 years to complete for such a new product design, a product, (or process) that is expected to be a substantial departure from power generation designs commercially available now. By 2009 a number of FEED studies to evaluate various carbon capture technologies were underway in the US. The punch line here is that deploying a new and untested technology to replace one that works reasonably well will take many years to bring to service, and many more before the installed base of power generation and energy production begins to take an appearance markedly different from what it does today. In 2008, the retirement rate of existing power generation in the United States was less than 1 . Meanwhile the total capacity growth rate is projected to be over 1.5 , requiring on the order of 15-20 GW of new generation annually. Under this...
If allowances were to be auctioned, however, the revenues could be redistributed to households in a variety of ways to reduce the distributional impacts. Options include increasing income tax thresholds or reducing rates of tax on low incomes raising welfare payments such as unemployment, disability and child benefit providing subsidies for energy efficiency improvements in low-income households and expanding subsidy schemes such as the UK system of 'winter fuel payments', whereby pensioners are provided with lump sum payments to help with higher fuel costs over the winter period (Clinch et al., 2006). It should be noted, however, that the EU ETS is already having a regressive impact on low-income households, since it increases electricity prices for all consumers. But, again, in the absence of allowance auctioning, there is no revenue available for compensation.
Norway seems well prepared to survive the global economic slowdown that began in earnest in the course of 2008. Over the preceding few decades it has acquired the reputation of being one of the best-managed economies in the world, having carefully used its oil revenues to finance its non-oil budget deficit and invested the rest overseas into a 'Global Pension Fund', better known as its 'Oil Fund'. This acts as a form of insurance to guard against harsh economic times, restricting how much the government can spend at home by ensuring that 'over time, the non-oil budget deficit does not exceed the expected real rate of return of the fund, estimated at four per cent'. This allows Norway's leaders to sound upbeat over the prospect of encountering any short-term difficulties. 'We have held back and been restrictive in our use of oil revenues in strong times', as Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg told one newspaper, 'but we can start to spend more now that we see a downturn coming.'1
Overhead cost represents fringe benefits (mainly medical, dental, and life insurance), Social Security and Medicare taxes (U.S. only other nations may have different but similar social benefit programs), and retirement obligations. Depending on the locality and composition of employees, the cost of overhead could be as high as 70 of costs for labor, supervisory and clerical employees, and maintenance and repairs. Local taxes are difficult to pinpoint and should be decided on case-by-case basis 1-2 of fixed capital is suggested as a rough, initial estimation. In the United States, insurance costs can account for 0.4-1 of fixed capital. General expenses include administrative expenses and other corporate expenses they can be estimated as 15 of the labor cost.
Symmes was born in New Jersey (United States of America), received an ordinary education, and enlisted in the US Army in 1802. He distinguished himself as a captain in the War of 1812. Following his retirement from the army, he became a military provisioner. During this time he read books on geology and developed his theory, publishing the circular quoted above as well as seven more circulars over the following year. By observing hollow and concentric structures in plant stems, bones, and other natural materials, Symmes reasoned by analogy that the earth must also be composed of concentric spheres. He believed that the centrifugal force due to the earth's rotation would create a void along the axis of rotation, resulting in holes at the poles through which one could reach the inner spheres. He also believed that his theory could explain a variety of natural phenomena such as animal migrations and ocean currents. His ideas were roundly rejected by scholars, but Symmes persisted,...
Hans Oeschger was a professor emeritus of physics at the University of Bern, Switzerland, when he planned the Vatican Conference on Geosphere-Biosphere Interactions and Climate. Following his retirement in 1992 his health had its ups and downs, but his concern for the global climate and environment did not prevent him from pursuing this important theme. He did not spare himself, and many of his international colleagues were concerned about his health, when they noted his many travels and engagements as an emeritus. Born on April 2, 1927, in Ottenbach, Switzerland, and a doctor of science from the University of Bern in 1955, he became associated with the University of Bern until his retirement as a professor emeritus in 1992.
Each kiln in ISIS-cement is characterized by its location, design (i.e., wet, dry, preheater, or precalciner), clinker capacity (short tons per year), vintage, and retirement information when available 15 . In addition, each kiln is characterized by its variable cost (VC) components. 184.108.40.206 Capacity Retirement and Growth Cement plants have relatively long lifetimes of up to 50 years 45 . Various factors including, but not limited to, raw material availability in quarry, technology changes, productivity, efficiency, longevity, reliability, maintenance, and long-term costs can affect the lifetime of a cement kiln. In ISIS-cement, projected kiln retirements of certain existing kilns are based on information from PCA, supplemented with information from individual cement companies on their plans for shutdowns, new construction, and kiln consolidation. Further, as mentioned earlier, ISIS-cement includes algorithms for endogenous capacity growth and retirement of kilns. To determine capital...
The Alaska Native Language Center (ANLC) was established in 1972 by the state of Alaska to study native Alaskan languages, develop literacy materials, assist in the translation of important documents, provide for the development and dissemination of Alaska Native literature, and train Alaska Native language speakers to work as teachers and aides in bilingual classrooms (AS 14.40.117). The Language Center has since become the preeminent institution for the study of the 20 Athapaskan, Eskimo, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Tsimshian, and Haida languages in Alaska. Michael Krauss was instrumental in the founding of ANLC, and acted as its director from its inception in 1972 until his retirement in 2000, when the current director, Lawrence Kaplan, took over. Prominent linguists have worked in association with ANLC over the past 29 years. Many Alaska Natives have contributed greatly by authoring texts and narratives, and through various teaching roles.
A fourth set of strategies follows from this limit of CSR. It revolves less around improving the information base upon which investors make their decisions. This entails making the operations of companies transparent and accountable to external audiences, specifically investors. Investors, mostly large institutional investors like insurance companies, pension funds and mutual funds, have now started to exert pressure on other companies to disclose their emissions and act to limit or reduce them. For the most part, however, the investors are not motivated by the desire to be a 'good corporate citizen', but rather by the old-fashioned bottom line. While it would be too much to claim this is yet having significant effects on emissions, it nevertheless has significant potential to shape future investment in industries which cause climate change or might successfully mitigate it. Part of the answer is in the crisis in corporate governance sparked by the scandals that enveloped Enron and...
The OECD seeks to provide member states and developing countries greater access to financial services. The OECD promotes best practices in the international financial arena, facilitates greater access to financing through investment policy reforms, analyzes the effect of domestic tax structures on domestic markets and labor, and seeks to provide better insurance and pension options for aging populations.
The CDP is a project whereby investors (led by the insurers, but joined by banks and pension funds) attempt to shape the activities of other companies by getting them to disclose their carbon intensity and their strategies to limit emissions. The CDP now has 57 trillion of assets behind it.28
The climate system is highly complex as are the human institutions that are affected by and that must respond to
Lack of certainty about the details of future climate change is not, however, a justification for inaction. People routinely take actions despite imperfect or incomplete knowledge about the future in situations such as buying home insurance, saving for retirement, or planning business strategies. Likewise, people use probability data from weather forecasts to decide if they should take an umbrella to work, move a scheduled outdoor event indoors, or cancel a ball game. Indeed, it could be argued that uncertainty about future climate risks is a compelling reason for taking proactive steps to reduce the likelihood of adverse consequences.
Private for-profit sources range from mobilising households to invest in restoration to investments from large international corporations. Household investments will have an effect only if the projects offer short-term benefits with an acceptable level of risk. These benefits can be an increased income for households or indirect payments in, for example, alternative livelihoods, roads, schools, and so on. On the other hand, a more grant-type of financing from large private companies like dam, oil, plantation, and mining companies can be mobilised to pay for forest restoration as compensation for environmental disruption they may cause. This motivation may also come from business ethics and thus be part of a company's public relations campaign. An example is where environmental NGOs are invited by a plantation company to restore part of their land according to standards compatible with forest landscape restoration. Lastly, engaging conventional capital markets by channelling capital...
Decisions regarding savings and investment are made by private individuals. A typical person lives for 70 years, investing part of the income she earns during her working years to provide for her retirement in old age. Savings are invested in capital goods at the prevailing interest rate, which reflects the incremental contribution that increased wealth makes to future economic activity. The model's assumptions about consumer preferences are chosen to match expected rates of economic growth.
In 1969, three years before Ewing's retirement, the Lamont Observatory was renamed the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, in honor of a major bequest made by Thomas Doherty. This change, and Ewing's retirement, brought about a change at Lamont-Doherty, which soon found itself in the forefront of concern about the environment. The U.S. space program accelerated concerns about the environment (with the Apollo VIII photographs of the earth from space, for example). There was a growing connection between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard research center and the Lamont-Doherty Observatory, both located at Columbia.
Absent compelling evidence to the contrary, most assumed that the census information was correct, that the population of the greater New Orleans area was significantly lower. This led to assumptions that the reduced patient volumes were permanent, causing hospitals to scramble to consolidate services and reduce operating costs. Hospital acquisitions became quite commonplace - Ochsner acquiring Memorial Hospital, Meadowcrest Hospital, Kenner Regional Hospital, and entering into operational agreements with several other hospitals (Summa Hospital in Baton Rouge, St. Anne's Hospital in Raceland, and St. Charles Parish Hospital). Children's Hospital acquired Touro Medical Center. Salaries were reduced and benefits were cut. Ochsner Hospital's new policies included charging vacation time during hurricane evacuations, decreasing subsidies for workers' health insurance, eliminating the pension plan, and conducting a full audit of eligibility for health insurance of workers' dependents...
Of even greater note is the anticipated retirement in 2008 of Alvin, which carries two scientists and a pilot as deep as 3 mi. (4.8 km.) for 6- to 10-hour dives. The submersible vehicle, which has made more than 4,000 dives since 1964, can reach almost two-thirds of the ocean's floor, moving at speeds up to 1.5 m.p.h. Alvin has remained a state-of-the-art vehicle because it has been disassembled, inspected, and reassembled every 3 to 5 years. Every part of Alvin has been replaced at least once in the vehicle's lifetime, but additional refurbishing will unlikely enable the sub to do more than it does now. Alvin's replacement vehicle will be funded by the National Science Foundation and will reach greater depths than Alvin, reaching almost the complete ocean floor. WHOI has indicated that operating both submergence vehicles is cost-prohibitive. Alvin leaves behind a rich history that has included locating a lost hydrogen bomb in the Mediterranean Sea, photographing the Titanic, and...
In 2008 we saw considerable oil price volatility. There is considerable potential to tax oil companies at a higher rate. Many politicians argued for this so-called 'windfall tax'. Money raised - in this way and through other changes in taxation, new priorities for pension funds and innovatory types of bonds - would go towards a long overdue massive de-carbonization of our energy system. Decentralization, renewables, energy efficiency, conservation and demand management will all play a part.
The old chemist had worked at the factory for many years before his retirement. He explained to the inquisitive young man that during the war years, thermometers had been very hard to acquire. Potatoes had been used to tell when the batch had reached the proper temperature for adding the next ingredient. When this information was conveyed to management, the use of potatoes was halted at the factory and thermometers were substituted.
Von Goerne We should have fixed taxes for specific purposes. If taxes on petroleum products are not uniform, then people would drive across the border to get the cheaper fuel, as happens now in some European states. Also some European taxes on gasoline go into the treasuries of retirement funds instead of renewable energy.
The Hamilton et al. (2008) survey of brokers found that only 42 percent of sales are currently being registered and was unable to confirm whether offsets sold were into the hands of a final buyer for retirement, or for on-sale. The authors concluded from the data that perhaps 30 percent of voluntary offsets purchased were for resale in a secondary market.
In 1831 Smith was awarded the first Wollaston Medal by the Geological Society of London in recognition of his research into the mineral structure of the Earth. In return, Smith presented the Society with his original table of 23 strata (1799), his colored geologic map of Bath and the surrounding area (1799), and an original rough sketch of his geologic masterpiece (1801). He received his gold medal the next year followed by a government pension. Trinity College in Dublin awarded him an honorary doctorate degree in 1835.
Joseph Billings was born in 1761 in England in Turnham Green. Of noble origin, he registered for military service in 1776. For participation in the Northeast Expedition, he was awarded the St Vladimir, third degree and an annual pension of 600 roubles. At his request, Billings was transferred to the Black Sea in 1796. In Sevastopol he was nominated by the commander of the frigate St Andrew, and then accepted the ship St Michail. On the Christmas of the Virgin, Billings engaged in hydrographic works, describing an important site of the Black Sea for the Russian fleet he then issued the atlas of this area. On May 9, 1799, he was ranked captain-commander from the captain of the first rank. Illness ( constraint of chest ) was the reason for his request for retirement. On November 28, 1799, Billings was dismissed from service with full-dress uniform and pension. The exact circumstances of his last years are unknown. It is only known that Billings was married, and that his wife Ekaterina,...
He rarely attended the meetings of the British Society for the Advancement of Science. By 1871, Croll was growing increasingly dissatisfied with geological subjects and wanted to devote most of his time to the study of philosophy. In 1880, Croll retired from the Survey, expecting a full pension because of his advanced age. He was only given credit for 13 years of employment and saw his income drop dramatically. Because of this precari During his retirement, Croll wrote two more scientific books Discussions on Climate and Cosmology (1886), and Stellar Evolution and its Relations to Geologic Time (1889). The former was largely a reply to his critics and further developed his theory of the secular change of the Earth's climate.
In 1965, when the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology and the BAE amalgamated as the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology, Collins was appointed a senior scientist. He held emeritus status after his 1967 retirement, and kept an office at the Smithsonian until 1986, continuing his active publication record until the end of his life. In 1931, Collins married Carolyn A. Walker (1906-1988), a native of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, who became the first American Exchange Librarian at the Deutsche B cherei in Leipzig, Germany, after graduating from the Framingham Teachers College in 1924. Henry Collins died on October 22, 1987 in Campbelltown, Pennsylvania, of injuries from a fall.
The G-60 strategy for development in Greenland dealt with income policy in Greenland. Law nr. 168 of May 27, 1964 differentiated between belonging to Greenland (hjemmehoerende) and not belonging to Greenland (ikke-hjemmehoerende). The primary criterion for salary and other compensation became that of the person's birthplace. According to this law, any person who at the time of being hired lived in Greenland, was born in Greenland, or had settled in Greenland before their fifth birthday was considered as belonging to Greenland and received lesser salary. The not-belonging person received a higher salary plus a number of special bonuses a Greenland allowance usually set as a percentage of the salary, free vacation travel to Denmark including the family, reduced rent, and earlier retirement.
After receiving his BSc he began research as an experimentalist under the guidance of Sir George Thomson during which he was one of the first to identify the K+ meson and its decay into three pions giving, at the time, the most accurate value of its mass. For this work Peter collected his PhD in 1951, thereafter turning to nuclear physics with H.S.W Massey at University College London. There he studied the scattering of neutrons by alpha particles, an investigation which, when he moved to Reading, led him to explain the emission of alpha particles by heavy nuclei in nuclear emulsions bombarded with 100 MeV protons. This work raised the interest of Professor R. Peierls and Sir Denys Wilkinson who, in 1958, invited Peter to Oxford, where he become Head of the Nuclear Physics Theoretical Group and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, staying there until his retirement.
A set of aggregate energy demand equations is estimated for the United Kingdom and 'consensus' price elasticities are imposed in the estimation. The relationship between the imposed lags in response and the magnitude of the price elasticities is explored and it is shown that the data do not reject quite substantial long-term responses to price changes for some energy users. The implications of different price elasticities for the analysis of abatement policies is treated in the context of a projection of the effects of the European Union's carbon energy tax on UK energy demand and CO2 emissions to the year 2005. A fall of 12 per cent is projected in emissions below the level in the business-as-usual projection in 2005, even with zero aggregate energy price elasticities for all users as a result of fuel substitution and early retirement of coal-burning plants in the electricity industry. If high aggregate price elasticities are assumed, the reduction below base is 18 per cent in 2005.