Pandemic Survival Guide
The correlation between pandemics and drops in atmospheric CO2 concentrations was suggestive, but what was the connection How could plague and other diseases cause the drops in CO2 Part of the answer to these questions comes from historical records summarized in chapter 13. These records document abandonment of farms and farm villages on a massive scale during and after all three major pandemics. In the wake of the European plagues, abandoned farms are described as having gone to waste or ruin. Those words bring to mind doors flapping in the breeze, roofs sagging and collapsing in upon houses and barns, and wild vines creeping up and strangling rotting fences. But nature was doing much more than that. Nature was busy turning pastures and croplands back into forest, and remarkably quickly. Here, then, is a possible mechanism to pull CO2 out of the atmosphere in a few decades widespread reforestation as a result of pandemic mortality. Imagine the following scenario. During the years...
The H5N1 virus has become established in bird populations of Southeast Asia and it has probably already reached the Arctic through migratory water birds. Avian flu virus can last indefinitely at a temperature dozens of degrees below freezing, as it is found in the northern most areas that migratory birds frequent. Influenza A viruses can survive over 30 days at 0 C (over 1 month at freezing temperature). Recently Scott Rogers from Bowling Green State University in Ohio and his colleagues found the influenza A virus genes in ice and water from high-latitude lakes that are visited by large numbers of migratory birds (Rogers et al., 2006). It shows that there is potential for a human virus to survive the freezing process. Imagine if older, more vicious strains, such as the virus responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic, which killed somewhere between 20 and 40 million people in 1918-1919, were to re-emerge. So if these viruses have been huddled in the ice for thousands of years, how did...
Lafoeina maxima (Levinsen, 1893) Lafoeina tenuis M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1874 Leuckartiara abyssi (G.O. Sars, 1874) Obelia dichotoma (L., 17S8) Obeliageniculata (L., 17S8) Obelia longissima (Pallas, 1766) Orthophyxis crenata Hartlaub, 1901 Orthophyxis integra (MacGillivray, 1842) Pantachogon haeckeli Maas, 1893 Podocoryne carnea M. Sars, 1846 Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 Rhizocaulus verticillatus (L., 17S8) Sarsia brachygaster Gr nberg, 1898 Sarsia princeps (Haeckel, 1879) Sarsia tubulosa (M. Sars, 183S) Schizotricha polaris Naumov, 1960 Schizotricha variabilis (Bonnevie, 1899) In Svalbard restricted to Bj0rn0ya.
The worst epidemics have killed 30 million to 100 million people, even if one considers the bubonic plague pandemic in fourteenth-century Eurasia (and possibly Africa) as a single event (a pandemic is an especially widespread epidemic, often global in scope). The most recent epidemic on such a scale, the influenza that raged from 1918 to 1919, killed perhaps 40 million (about 2 percent of the global population). The ongoing AIDS pandemic has so far killed 25 million to 30 million, about 0.5 percent of the current world population.4 Such pandemics have been mercifully rare, but past epidemics that affected regions or single cities were not, and they routinely killed 5 to 10 percent or even more of the affected population.
Fig. 2.5 Daily total mortality rates (MR) in SW - Germany. Smoothed line, i.e. expected value (EW_tot) based on Gauss-Filter. Evident MR peak in June 2002 (short heat wave), episode in spring 2003 (related to an influenza epidemic), peaks in July and the August heat wave effect (Sch r and Jendritzky 2004) Fig. 2.5 Daily total mortality rates (MR) in SW - Germany. Smoothed line, i.e. expected value (EW_tot) based on Gauss-Filter. Evident MR peak in June 2002 (short heat wave), episode in spring 2003 (related to an influenza epidemic), peaks in July and the August heat wave effect (Sch r and Jendritzky 2004)
Even though natural shocks regularly took a significant demographic toll, it is worth emphasizing that the great majority of floods, drought, epidemics, and so on had only local or regional effects and took the lives of small numbers of people. In the distant past, because the human population was small, the numbers of victims were small. It has remained true over the past fifty years partly because of luck (nothing really bad has come up since the influenza pandemic of 1918 to 1919) and partly because public health systems, disaster management systems, and so forth have grown remarkably effective. The worst historical era for demographic losses from natural shocks came between 1300 and 1920. Although the costs from nature's shocks rose rapidly and the shocks could have devastating local effects for a decade or more none in modern history, not even the 1918-to-1919 influenza, had durable economic consequences that changed the basic fortunes of nations. One could not make that claim...
Eurycyde hispida (Kreyer, 1844) Nymphon elegans H.J. Hansen, 1887 Nymphon gracilipes Heller, 1875 Nymphon grossipes (O. Fabricius, 1780) Nymphon hirtipes Bell, 1853 Nymphon hirtum Kreyer, 1844 Nymphon leptocheles G.O. Sars, 1888 Nymphon longimanum G.O. Sars, 1888 Nymphon longitarse Kreyer, 1845 Nymphon macronyx G.O. Sars, 1877 Also Bjornoya. Nymphon megalops G.O. Sars, 1877 Nymphon microrhyncum G.O. Sars, 1888 Nymphon mixtum Kreyer, 1844-45 Nymphon serratum G.O. Sars, 1879 Also Bjornoya. Nymphon sluiteri Hoek, 1881 Nymphon spinosissimum (Norman, 1894) Nymphon spinosum f. hirtipes G.O. Sars Nymphon spinosum Goodsir, 1842 Also Bjornoya. Nymphon stroemi Kreyer, 1844 Phoxichilidium femoratum (Rathke, 1799) Pseudopallene brevicollis (G.O. Sars, 1888) Pseudopallene circularis Goodsir, 1842 Pseudopallene malleolata (G.O. Sars, 1879)
This may interpret the lack of economic phosphate deposits in the Paleogene of Egypt as well as the same interval of the surrounding areas of the Middle East and North Africa. In general, it seems that the studied Paracosta species is pandemic and tends to adapt to changes in depth and saturation of CaCO3 in the water through the ability to exhibit polymorphism during its life cycle. On the other hand, the ancestor of this species (Paracosta mokattamensis praemokattamensis Bassiouni, according to Bassiouni and Elewa 1999) is possibly an endemic species and was recorded by Bassiouni (1969a) from the Eocene of Jordan. Nevertheless, auxiliary studies of the geographical distribution of the latter species is needed to demonstrate its routes of migration.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, particularly in Southern Africa, attacking agriculture through mass deaths of prime-age adults, which diverts labour resources to caring, erodes household assets, disrupts intergenerational transmission of agricultural knowledge, and reduces the capacity of agricultural service providers
There are cities that were founded because they were just above the mosquito line. Nairobi is one. Harare is another. There are plenty of others. Now the mosquitoes with warming are climbing to the higher altitudes. There are a lot of vectors for infectious diseases that are worrisome to us that are also expanding their ranges, not only mosquitoes but all of these others as well. And we've had 30 so-called new diseases that have emerged just in the last quarter-century. And a lot of them like SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome have caused tremendous problems. The resistant forms of tuberculosis. There are others. And there's been a reemergence of some diseases that were once under control. The avian flu, of course, is quite a serious matter as you know. West Nile virus. It came to the eastern shore of Maryland in 1999. Two years later it was across the Mississippi. And two years after that it had spread across the continent. But these are very troubling signs.
The relatively poor resolution of PMRs has been overcome for one type of active microwave sensor by using the motion of the satellite to simulate an antenna much larger than can actually be flown in space. To achieve this, both the phase and the amplitude of the radar signal are recorded. The sensor in question is known as a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and has, since the launch of the first European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1) in 1991, become an invaluable tool in studies of both land and sea ice. The typical resolution of current spaceborne SARs is ca. 25 m. Table 73.3 lists recent and planned satellite SAR missions. Although SARs offer good spatial resolution, their use for certain glacio-logical applications is limited by the fact that the current suite of sensors are single frequency. Thus discrimination of surface characteristics can be hampered because a multispectral interpretation of the signal is not possible. Differentiation between sea ice
The signatures of younger and thinner ice types, however, are more complex and less easy to identify uniquely. Typically, therefore, only the two crude categories, FY and MY, can be readily identified in classification procedures. Ice-type data sets are being produced routinely from the SAR onboard RADARSAT (and hopefully its successor, RADARSAT-2) (Kwok, 1998). Because of the higher resolution of SARs (ca. 25 m), the assumption of a mixture of ice types within a pixel is not necessary.
Approaches have often proved more valuable. As mentioned earlier, microwave sensors are particularly useful in the polar regions owing to their all-weather, day night functioning. The two instruments that have been used most successfully for deriving topography are radar altimeters and synthetic aperture radars (SARs).
In the case of severe climate change, projected massive nonlinear events in the global environment give rise to massive nonlinear societal events. In this scenario, nations around the world will be overwhelmed by the scale of change and by pernicious challenges, such as pandemic disease and water and food shortages. The internal cohesion of nations will be under great stress, including in the United States, owing to a dramatic rise in migration, changes in agricultural patterns and water availability, and the pulling away of wealthier members of society from the rest of the population. Protests,
The tendency for increased spoilage is problematic down the production chain. While it is difficult to blame directly on ENSO, there is a tendency for a sharp increase in gastrointestinal problems during the warm weather, again, due in part to a lack of refrigeration in many parts of the country, and the accelerated growth of bacteria because of adverse climatic conditions. An extreme example of the apparent linkage between ENSO and human health is the Pan-American cholera pandemic that began off the coast of northern Peru and spread across the continent in 1991. Facilitated by the 1992 ENSO, cholera destroyed the Peruvian market for artisanal fish and rapidly spread throughout South America. (Epstein, 1993). Vibrio cholera, which has been isolated from phyto- and zooplankton, is directly influenced by changes in water temperature and chemistry.
The fact that SARs record the phase of the signal has allowed for the possibility of combining images taken at different times and or locations to produce interference patterns caused by differences in phase in the two images. This is known as interfero-metric SAR or InSAR and its use has resulted in some remarkable results. Repeat pass interferometry is where pairs of images are combined that have been taken at different times (and from slightly different positions along an orbit) and began to be developed for glaciological applications after the launch of ERS-1 in 1991. Single pass interferometry (as exemplified by the shuttle radar topography mission, SRTM) is where two images are recorded at the same time but from different positions. Differences in path length of a fraction of a wavelength can be measured from the phase offset between the two images allowing, for example, millimetric displacements to be observed. The interference pattern is a function of (i) the topography, (ii)...
The misery of living in a tropical climate as well as the ever-present threat of contracting malaria are the two aspects of climate change through heating that don't get much press. Yet as the tropics begin to spread north and south from the low latitudes of Earth, scourges of the tropics will be coming too. We are returning to a planet with worldwide malaria foremost, but there're more Ebola, elephantiasis, schistosomiasis, leprosy, rampant intestinal parasites, poisonous spiders and centipedes, new and vicious kinds of ants all will follow the heat once the barriers of coolness are overcome.
What will be the difference between severity level 6 and severity level 7 I wish I knew. Conceivably, not a lot - perhaps level 7 is just a bit worse than 6 but not significantly different. On the other hand, level 7 could be dramatically worse if some threshold is passed during the transition between these two levels that would not ever have been passed if the planetary deterioration had stopped at level 6. Perhaps at level 7 species extinctions begin to cascade, perhaps the global human pandemic comes, perhaps the Younger-Dryas-like reversal from rapid warming to rapid cooling is triggered, and so on. Obviously these levels are merely an illustrative abstraction, and I do not know exactly what they might mean. Yet the point is clear to delay is to play with fire (and ice). At some point things will probably become truly nasty. Maybe the nasty one is level 13, and the difference between levels 6 and 7 is unremarkable. Maybe the nasty one is level 3, and the passage beyond 6 to 7 will...
Sars, 1866 110 Bythocythere constricta G.O. Sars, 1866 10, 60 Bythocythere turgida G.O. Sars, 1866 10 Cytheropteron hamatum G.O. Sars, 1869 10, 60 Cytheropteron testudo G.O. Sars, 1870 10, 60 Finmarchinella angulata (G.O. Sars, 1866) 10 Hemicythere emarginata (G.O. Sars, 1866) 10 Hemicytherura clathrata (G.O. Sars, 1866) 10, 60 Muellerina abyssicola (G.O. Sars, 1886) 10, 60 Paradoxostoma rostratum G.O. Sars, 1865 10 Philomedes lilljeborgi G.O. Sars, 1866 60 Polycope cf. orbicularis G.O. Sars, 1866 10 Robertsonites tuberculatus (G.O. Sars, 1866) 10, 60 Sarsicytheridea bradii (Norman, 1865) 10, 60 Sarsicytheridea macrolaminata (Elofson, 1939) 10 Sarsicytheridea punctillata (Brady, 1865) 10 Semicytherura glaseri Hartmann, 1992 Semicytherura nigrescens (Baird, 1838) Semicytherura undata (G.O. Sars, 1866) Xestoleberis blumeli Hartmann, 1992 Xestoleberis depressa G.O. Sars, 1866
Acartia longiremis (Liljeborg, 1853) Bradyidus similis (G.O. Sars, 1902) Calanusfinmarchicus (Gunnerus, 1770) Calanus glacialis Jaschnov, 1955 Calanus hyperboreus (Kreyer, 1838) Dermatomyzon nigripes (Brady & Robertson, 1876) Gaidius tenuispinus (G.O. Sars, 1900) Harpacticus chelifer (O.F. M ller, 1776) Heterlaophonte stroemi (Baird, 1837) In Svalbard restricted to Bj0rn0ya. Metridia longa (Lubbock, 1854) Microcalanus pygmaeus (G.O. Sars, 1900) Microsetella atlantica Br. & Rob. Oithona plumifera Baird, 1843 Oithona similis Claus, 1866 Oncaea borealis G.O. Sars, 1918 Oncaea conifera Giesbrecht, 1891 Pareuchaeta norvegica (Boeck, 1872) Pseudocalanus elongatus (Boeck, 1865) Scolecithrix roemeri Mrazek, 1902 Spinocalanus schaudinni Mrazek, 1902
Clistosaccus paguri Lilljeborgi, 1860 Hamatoscalpellum hamatum (G.O. Sars, 1879) Lepas anatifera L., 1758 Ornatoscalpellum stroemi (M. Sars, 1859) Also Bj0rn0ya. Sylon hippolytes M. Sars, 1870 Tarasovium cornutum (G.O. Sars, 1879) Verruca stroemia (O.F. M ller, 1776) Verum striolatum (G.O. Sars, 1877) Weltnerium nymphocola (Hoek, 1883)
Boreomysis nobilis G.O. Sars, 1879 Boreomysis scyphops G.O. Sars, 1879 Dactylamblyops sarsi (Ohlin, 1901) Erythrops erythrophthalma (Goes, 1864) Also Bj0rn0ya. Erythrops glacialis G.O. Sars, 1885 Meterythrops robusta S.I. Smith, 1879 Mysis mixta Lilljeborg, 1852 Mysis oculata (O. Fabricius, 1780) Mysis relicta Lov n, 1862 Parerythrops obesa (G.O. Sars, 1864) Parerythrops spectabilis G.O. Sars, 1877 Praunus inermis (Rathke, 1843) Pseudomma truncatum S.I. Smith, 1879 Schistomysis ornata (G.O. Sars, 1864) Stilomysis grandis (Goes, 1863)
Brachydiastylis resima (Kr0yer, 1846) Campylaspis affinis G.O. Sars, 1870 Campylaspis rubicunda (Lilljeborg, 1855) Diastylis echinata Bate, 1865 Diastylis edwardsii (Kreyer, 1841) Diastylis glabra Zimmer, 1900 Diastylis goodsiri (Bell, 1855) Diastylis lepechini Zimmer, 1926 Diastylis lucifera (Kreyer, 1841) Also Bj0rn0ya. Diastylis oxyrhyncha Zimmer, 1926 Diastylis polaris G.O. Sars, 1871 Diastylis rathkei (Kreyer, 1841) Diastylis scorpioides (Lepechin, 1780) Diastylis spinulosa Heller, 1875 Eudorella emarginata (Kreyer, 1846) Eudorella gracilis G.O. Sars, 1871 Eudorella hirsuta (G.O. Sars, 1869) Eudorella spitzbergensis Zimmer, 1926 Hemilamprops cristatus (G.O. Sars, 1870) Lamprops fuscatus G.O. Sars, 1865 Leptostylis macrura G.O. Sars, 1870 Leptostylis villosa G.O. Sars, 1869 Leucon fulvus G.O. Sars, 1865 Leucon nasica (Kreyer, 1841) Leucon nasicoides Liljeborg, 1855 Leucon nathorsti Ohlin, 1901 Leucon pallidus G.O. Sars, 1865 Petalosarsia declivis (G.O. Sars, 1865) Platysympus...
Bythocaris grumanti Burukovsky, 1966 Bythocaris leucopis G.O. Sars, 1885 Bythocaris payeri (Heller, 1875) Bythocaris simplicirostris G.O. Sars, 1870 Eualus gaimardii (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) Also Bj0rn0ya. Paralithodes camtschatica (Tilesius, 1815) Pontophilus norvegicus (M. Sars, 1861) Also Bj0rn0ya. Sabinea sarsii Smith,1879 Sclerocrangon ferox (G.O. Sars, 1877) Spirontocaris phippsii (Kr0yer, 1841)
Astarte sulcata (da Costa, 1778) Axinopsida orbiculata (G.O. Sars, 1878) Bathyarca glacialis (J.E. Gray, 1824) Crenella decussata (Montagu, 1808) Cuspidaria arctica (M. Sars, 1859) Cuspidaria glacialis (G.O. Sars, 1878) Cuspidaria obesa (Loven, 1846) Cuspidaria subtorta (G.O. Sars, 1878) Cyclopecten imbrifer (Loven, 1846) Dacrydium vitreum (Holb0ll in M0ller, 1842) Diplodonta torelli Jeffreys, 1876 Ennucula corticata (M0ller, 1842) Ennucula tenuis (Montagu, 1808) Also Bj0rn0ya. Hyalopecten similis (Laskey, 1811) Limatula hyperborea Jensen, 1905 Liocymafluctuosa (Gould, 1841) Lyonsia arenosa (M0ller, 1842) Lyonsia norwegica (Gmelin, 1791) Lyonsiella abyssicola G.O. Sars, 1872 Macoma balthica (L., 1758) Macoma calcarea (Gmelin, 1791) Macoma loveni Jensen, 1904 Macoma moesta (Deshayes, 1854) Macoma torelli Jensen, 1904 Montacuta elevata Stimpson, 1851 Montacuta maltzani Verkruzen, 1876 Montacuta spitzbergensis Knipowitsch, 1901 Teredo denticulata Gray 1851 Thracia devexa G.O. Sars, 1878...
Alcyonidium mamillatum Alder, 1857 Alcyonidium mytili Dalyell, 1848 Alcyonidium parasiticum (Fleming, 1828) Alcyonidium proboscidium (Kluge, 1962) Alcyonidium radicellatum Kluge, 1946 Amphiblestrum auritum (Hincks, 1877) Amphiblestrum flemingii (Busk, 1854) Amphiblestrum solidum (Packard, 1860) Arachnidium clavatum Hincks, 1877 Arachnidium hippothoides Hincks, 1862 Arctonula arctica (M. Sars, 1851) Also Bjornoya. Cystisella saccata (Busk, 1856) Defrancia lucernaria M. Sars, 1851 Dendrobeania fruticosa (Packard, 1863) Dendrobeania murrayana (Bean in Johnston, 1847)
Order Platycopida Sars 1866 Suborder Platycopina Sars 1866 Family Cytherellidae Sars 1866 Genus Cytherella Jones 1849 Cytherella alii Elewa 1997 (Fig. 7-3) Order Podocopida Muller 1894 Suborder Podocopina Sars 1866 Superfamily Bairdiacea Sars 1866 Family Bairdiidae Sars 1866 Genus Bairdia Mc'Coy 1844 Bairdia ilaroensis Reyment and Reyment 1959 (Fig. 7-6) Family Candonidae Kaufmann 1900 Subfamily Paracypridinae Sars 1923 Genus Paracypris Sars 1866 Paracypris maghaghaensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 8-2) Family Cytherideidae Sars 1925 Subfamily Cytherideinae Sars 1925 Genus Clithrocytheridea Stephenson 1936 Clithrocytheridea tarfaensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 9-7) Subfamily Cytheropterinae Hanai 1957 Genus Cytheropteron Sars 1866 Cytheropteron boukharyi Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 7-1) Family Loxoconchidae Sars 1925 Genus Loxoconcha Sars 1866 Loxoconcha mataiensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 7-2 Fig. 9-1) Family Xestoleberididae Sars 1928 Genus Xestoleberis Sars 1866...
Sars, 1851) In Svalbard restricted to Bjornoya. Aplidium pallidum (Verrill, 1871) Also Bjornoya. Botryllus aureus M. Sars, 1851 Distaplia livida (M. Sars, 1851) Eudistoma vitreum (M. Sars, 1851) Eugyrapedunculata Traustedt, 1886 Halocynthia pyriformis (Rathke, 1806) Also Bj0rn0ya. Synoicum incrustatum (M. Sars, 1851)
The SAR systems offer perhaps the best opportunity to measure soil moisture routinely over the next few years. Currently, the European Resources Satellite (ERS-1) C-band and Japan Environmental Resources Satellite (JERS-1) L-band SARs and the Canadian RADARSAT (also C-band) are operational. Although it is believed that an L-band system would be optimum for soil moisture, the preliminary results from the ERS-1 C-band radar demonstrate its capability as a soil moisture instrument. One main drawback to the existing SAR systems is that there are no existing algorithms for the routine determination of soil moisture from single-frequency, single-polarization radars. A second limitation comes from their long period between repeat passes for the most part it is 35 to 46 days, although the RADARSAT has 3-day capability for much of the globe in a SCANSAR (wide swath, 500 km) mode.
Pedersen, captain of the expedition's ship S0kongen, which left Copenhagen on June 17, 1921. Despite delays from mechanical breakdowns, the loss of supplies in the wreck of another ship, and the influenza pandemic, the expedition sailed from Godthab (present-day Nuuk) on September 7, 1921, crossed Davis Strait, reached Labrador on September 11, passed through Hudson Strait and Foxe Channel, and on September 19 established a camp on tiny Danish Island (65 54' N 85 50' W) near Vansittart Island, south of the Melville Peninsula.
Abyssoninoe hibernica (McIntosh, 1903) Acanthicolepis asperrima (M. Sars, 1861) Aglaophamus malmgreni Theel, 1879 Amage auricula Malmgren, 1866 Amagopsis klugei Pergament & Hlebovic, 1964 Ampharete acutifrons (Grube, 1860) Ampharete falcata Eliason, 1955 Ampharetefinmarchica (M. Sars, 1864) Ampharete goesi Malmgren, 1866 Ampharete lindstroemi Malmgren, 1867 Ampharete vega (Wiren, 1883) Amphicteis gunneri (M. Sars, 1835) Amphicteis sundevalli Malmgren, 1865 Bispira crassicornis (M. Sars, 1851) Also Bj0rn0ya. Bylgides elegans (Th el, 1879) Bylgides promamme (Malmgren, 1867) Bylgides sarsi (Kinberg in Malmgren, 1865) Also Bj0rn0ya. Also Bj0rn0ya. Chaetozone abranchiata (Hansen, 1878) Chaetozone setosa Malmgren, 1867 Chirimia biceps (M. Sars, 1861) Euchone analis (Kreyer, 1865) Euchone elegans Verrill, 1873 Euchone papillosa (M. Sars, 1851) Euchone rubrocincta (M. Sars, 1861) Euclymene affinis (M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1872) Euclymene droebachiensis (M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1872) Eumida...
Continuing high spatial resolution data from the Landsat and SPOT satellites, passive microwave data from the special sensor microwave imager (SSM I) and continuing meteorological satellite coverage from the NOAA, GOES, GMS, and Meteosat series all mean that the remotely sensed techniques can continue to be employed and expanded upon. New sensors, particularly in the microwave region, promise great potential for hydrologie applications. There are several satellites, such as ERS-1 2 launched by the European Space Agency, the J-ERS-1 launched by the Japanese, and RADARSAT launched by the Canadians that will provide useful data for hydrologists. All carry single-polarization, single-frequency SARs. An additional satellite being planned that will have considerable hydrologie interest is the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) (Simpson et al., 1988).
The SAR for typical municipal effluents seldom exceeds a value of 5 to 8, so it should not be a problem with most soils in any climate. Soils with up to 15 clay can tolerate a SAR of 10 or less, while soils with little clay or with nonswelling clays can accept SARs up to about 20. Industrial wastewaters can have a high SAR, and periodic soil treatment with gypsum or some other inexpensive source of calcium may be necessary to reduce clay swelling. Soil salinity is managed by adding an excess of water above that required for crop growth to leach the salts from the soil profile. A rule of thumb for total water required to prevent salt buildup in arid climates is to apply the crop needs plus about 10 (Pettygrove and Asano, 1985). A report by the USEPA (1984) provides further details.
Diseases affect homeostasis, which is the feedback that maintains a living organism's body function within limits essential for the body to continue functioning properly, despite external and internal stresses that would move the system away from balance. Diseases that exist in a population for a long time, where they are maintained at a low level, are called endemic. An epidemic occurs when there is a marked increase in the incidence of disease within a region. When an epidemic spreads around the world it becomes a pandemic. For example, the 1918 pandemic is believed to have been related to 30 million deaths. Climate change is expected to increase the spread of disease, especially biologically-transmitted pathogens.
Sars, 1848 Arcturus baffini (Sabine, 1824) Astacilla longicornis (Sowerby, 1806) Bopyroides hippolytes (Kreyer, 1838) Also Bj0rn0ya. Caecognathia elongata (Kreyer, 1847) Caecognathia hirsuta (G.O. Sars, 1877) Caecognathia robusta (G.O. Sars, 1879) Also Bj0rn0ya. Dajus mysidis Kreyer, 1849 Eurycope cornuta (G.O. Sars, 1864) Haploniscus bicuspis (G.O. Sars, 1877) Hemiarthrus abdominalis (Kr0yer, 1840) Idotea granulosa Rathke, 1843 Idotea neglecta G.O. Sars, 1897 In Svalbard restricted to Bjornoya. Ilyarachna bergendali Ohlin, 1901 Ilyarachna hirticeps G.O. Sars, 1870 Ilyarachna longicornis (G.O. Sars, 1863) Janira maculosa Leach, 1814 Janiralata tricornis (Kreyer, 1846) Katianira bilobata Gurjanova, 1930 Katianira cornigera Gurjanova, 1930 Munna coeca Gurjanova, 1930 Munna fabricii Kreyer, 1847 Munna minuta Hansen, 1910 Munna roemeri Gurjanova, 1930 Munna spitzbergensis Gurjanova, 1930 Munnopsis typica M. Sars, 1861 Munnopsurus giganteus (G.O. Sars, 1877)...
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