What Is Cfc And Ci Ozone Layer

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1 Ultraviolet radiation strikes a molecule of CFC gas.

CFC GASES are a family of gases with multiple applications. They are used in refrigeration systems, air-conditioning equipment, and aerosols.

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Mario Molina Ozone Layer


In 1974, it was discovered that industrial chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) affect the ozone layer. Chemists Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland demonstrated that industrial CFCs are the gases that weaken the ozone layer by destroying the ozone molecules.



Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a radiant form of energy that comes from the Sun. The various forms of radiation are classified according to the average wavelength measured in nanometers (nm), equivalent to one millionth of a millimeter. The shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy of the radiation.


9,300,000 square miles (24,200,000 sq km)


10,400,000 square miles (27,000,000 sq km)


The thinning of the ozone layer over the Antarctic is the result of a series of phenomena, including the action of chlorine radicals, which cause the destruction of ozone.


square miles

is the size of the area of attenuated ozone reached in 2000.

Chlorine atoms combine with a molecule of ozone, destroy it, and form one chloromonoxide and one oxygen atom.

The chloromonoxide combines with an atom of free oxygen and releases the chlorine atom.

g This atom, once again free, combines with another molecule


These rays easily penetrate the ozone layer. They cause skin wrinkling and aging.

The ozone layer functions as a natural filter, absorbing UV rays.


are almost all absorbed by the ozone layer. They are harmful and cause various types of skin cancer.


These are the most damaging rays, but they are totally filtered by the upper part of the ozone layer.


Skin cancer. Damage to vision. Weakening of the immune system. Severe burns. Skin aging.


Skin cancer. Damage to vision. Weakening of the immune system. Severe burns. Skin aging.

Destruction of phytoplankton. Inhibition of the photosynthesis process. Changes in growth.

Destruction of phytoplankton. Inhibition of the photosynthesis process. Changes in growth.

Change; Everything Changes

The Most Responsible


^^ The climate of the planet is constantly changing. At present, the average global temperature is approximately 59° F (15° C). Geologic and other types of evidence suggest that in the past the average could have been as low as 45° F (7° C) and as high as 81° F (27° C). Climate change is, in large part, caused by human activities, which cause an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases. These gases include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen dioxide and are released by modern industry, by agriculture, and by the burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Its atmospheric concentration is increasing: atmospheric carbon-dioxide content alone has grown by more than 20 percent since 1960. Investigators indicate that this warming can have grave implications for the stability of the climate, on which most of the life on the planet depends.



Atlantic Ocean


In Alaska and western Canada winter temperatures have increased between 5.4° and 7.2° F (3° and 4° C) in the past 50 years. It has been projected that in the next 100 years the Earth's average temperature will increase between 3.2° and 7.2° F (1.8° and 4.0° C).

Paczfic Ocean

Normal thickness of the ozone layer

Hole in the ozone

The ozone layer stops ultraviolet rays.

Normal thickness of the ozone layer

The ozone layer stops ultraviolet rays.

Artificial Ozone Layer
Rays that pass through the ozone layer

THINNING OF THE OZONE LATCR The ozone layer protects us from ultraviolet rays, but, because of the release of artificial substances, it is thinning out. This phenomenon is observed each year over Antarctica between August and October and over the North Pole between October and May. Moreover, there is evidence that greater amounts of UV rays at the Earth's surface are destroying or altering vegetable cells and decreasing the production of oxygen.



THE EFFECT OF POLAR MELTING The snow-covered sea ice reflects between 85 and 90 percent of the sunlight that strikes it, whereas sea water reflects only 10 percent. For that reason, as the ice and snow melt, many of today's coastlines will become submerged under water, which will cause yet more ice to melt.



Warm marine current

C02 is released

Warm marine current

Energy is integrated into the climatic system.

Long-wave radiation emitted by the Earth is trapped by the atmosphere.



Incident rays

ACCELERATION OF THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Ice reflects solar radiation, whereas the soil of jungles, forests, and steppes absorbs the energy and radiates it as sensible heat. This artificially increases the greenhouse effect and contributes to global warming.

Cause and Effect

^^ The burning of fossil fuels and the W^t indiscriminate cutting of deciduous forests and rainforests cause an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases. They trap heat and increase the greenhouse effect. That is how the Arctic is warming up; the density of the ice is decreased by melting, and freshwater flows into the ocean, changing its salinity.





Growth of an ice crystal in the atmosphere by direct capture of water droplets when the temperature is below 32° F (0° C).

Acid Rain

Rain resulting from the mixture of water vapor in the air with chemical substances typically released by the combustion of fossil fuels.


Aerosols are very small (liquid or solid) particles suspended in the atmosphere, with varied chemical composition. Aerosols play an essential role in the formation of clouds by acting as condensation nuclei. They are also important to the Earth's radiation balance since they help to increase the reflection and dispersion of radiation coming from the Sun.

Air Mass

Extensive volume in the atmosphere whose physical properties, in particular the temperature and humidity in a horizontal plane, show only small and gradual differences. An air mass can cover an area of a few million square miles and can have a thickness of several miles.


A measure of the percentage of radiation reflected by a surface.


Height relative to sea level.


Instrument for measuring wind velocity.


Region where the atmospheric pressure is relatively high compared with neighboring regions. Normally the air above an anticyclone descends, which prevents clouds from forming at medium and high levels of the atmosphere. Hence an anticyclonic system is associated with good weather.


The gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth.

Atmospheric Pressure

The pressure or weight exerted by the atmosphere at a specific point. Its measurement can be expressed in various units: hectopascals, millibars, inches, or millimeters of mercury (Hg). It is also called barometric pressure.


A phenomenon that is produced in the higher layers of the atmosphere at polar latitudes. An aurora occurs when there is a collision between the electrically charged particles emitted by the Sun and the magnetic field of the Earth. In the Northern Hemisphere, the phenomenon is called the aurora borealis, and in the Southern Hemisphere, it is known as the aurora australis.


A large mass of snow that flows down the side of a mountain.


An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. A decrease in pressure usually means that storms are on the way. Increasing pressure indicates good weather.

Beaufort Scale

A scale invented at the beginning of the 19th century by a British sailor, Francis Beaufort, for estimating and reporting wind velocity. It is based on the different shapes taken by water waves at different wind velocities, and its graduation goes from 0 to 12. There is also a Beaufort scale for application on land based on observations of the wind's effect on trees and other objects.

Carbon Dioxide

An odorless, colorless gas emitted in the engine exhaust of automobiles, trucks, and buses. It is also produced by the combustion of coal and other organic material. Too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contributes to global warming.


Artificial chemical substances often contained in aerosols, refrigerants, and air conditioners. These chemicals are largely responsible for the damage to the ozone layer.


Wispy cloud formations at altitudes greater than 16,400 feet (5,000 m).


The average state of the meteorological conditions of a location considered over a long period of time. The climate of a location is determined by climatological factors: latitude, longitude, altitude, topography, and continentality.


A visible mass of small particles, such as droplets of water and/or crystals of ice, suspended in the air. A cloud is formed in the atmosphere because of the condensation of water vapor onto solid particles of smoke, dust, ashes, and other elements called condensation nuclei.


The process of growth of drops of water in a cloud. Two drops collide and remain joined after the collision, constituting a bigger drop. This is one of the mechanisms that explains the growth of the size of drops in a cloud until precipitation (rain) is produced.

Cold Wave

A rapid drop in temperature to the point requiring special protective measures in agriculture, industry, commerce, or social activities.


The process by which water vapor is transformed into liquid by the effect of cooling.


The transfer of heat through a substance by molecular action or from one substance to another it is in contact with.


The tendency of the interior regions of the continents to have more extreme temperature changes than coastal zones.


The process by which a heated surface transfers energy to the material (air, water, etc.) above it. This material becomes less dense and rises. Cooler material descends to fill in the void. Air rising as a result of the heating of the ground by the Sun's rays.

Coriolis Force

A fictitious or apparent force that applies when the Earth is used as a reference frame for motion. It depends upon the latitude and the velocity of the object in motion. In the Northern Hemisphere, the air is deflected toward the right side of its path, and in the Southern Hemisphere, the air is deflected toward the left side of its path. This force is strongest at the poles and does not exist at the Equator.


A climatic low-pressure system.


A hot or cold zone where annual precipitation is less than 1 inch (25 mm).


A process that converts fertile land to desert through a reduction in precipitation.

Condensation in the form of small drops of water formed on grass and other small objects near the ground when the temperature has dropped to the dew point. This generally happens during the night.


An earthwork for containing or channeling a river or for protection against the sea.


A type of light liquid precipitation composed of small drops with diameters between 0.007 and 0.019 inch (0.2 and 0.5 mm). Usually drizzle falls from stratus-type clouds that are found at low altitudes and can be accompanied by fog, which significantly decreases visibility.


An abnormally dry climatic condition in a specific area where the lack of water is prolonged and which causes a serious hydrological imbalance.

The anomalous appearance, every few years, of unusually warm ocean conditions along the tropical west coast of South America.


Action in which the ground is worn down by moving water, glaciers, wind, or waves.



The outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere.

Flash Flood

Sudden flooding caused by the passage of a large quantity of water through a narrow space, such as a canyon or a valley.

Visible manifestation of drops of water suspended in the atmosphere at or near ground level; this reduces the horizontal visibility to less than a mile. It originates when the temperature of the air is near the dew point, and sufficient numbers of condensation nuclei are present.


A statement about future events. The weather forecast includes the use of objective models based on a number of atmospheric parameters combined with the ability and experience of the meteorologist. It is also called weather prediction.


The transition or contact zone between two masses of air with different meteorological characteristics, which almost always implies different temperatures. For example, a front occurs at the area of convergence between warm humid air and dry cold air.


Physical process by which a liquid (such as water) is transformed into its gaseous state (such as water vapor). The reverse process is called condensation.

The process of formation or intensification of a front. This happens when wind forces two adjacent masses of air of different densities and temperatures together, creating a front. It can occur when one of the masses of air, or both, move over a surface that reinforces their original properties. This is common on the east coast of North America or Asia, when a mass of air moving toward the ocean has a weak or undefined boundary. It is the opposite of frontolysis.


A covering of ice crystals on a cold object.

Global Warming

The heating of the atmosphere caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases due to human activities.

Greenhouse Effect

A phenomenon explained by the presence of certain components in the atmosphere (primarily carbon dioxide [CO2], water vapor, and ozone) that absorb a portion of the infrared radiation emitted by the surface of the Earth and simultaneously reflect radiative energy back to the surface. This process contributes to the increase in the average temperature near the surface.


A rapid and significant increase in wind velocity. The maximum velocity of the wind must reach at least 16 knots (18 miles per hour [30 km/h]), and the difference between the peaks and calm must be at least 10 knots (12 miles per hour [18 km/h]). It generally lasts less than 20 seconds.


Precipitation that originates in convective clouds, such as the cumulonimbus, in the form of masses or irregular pieces of ice. Typically hail has a diameter of 0.2 to 2 inches (5 to 50 mm) but may grow significantly larger. The smallest ice fragments—whose diameter is 0.2 inch (5 mm) or less—are called small hailstones, or graupel. Strong upward currents are required inside the clouds for hail to be produced.

Heat Wave

A period of abnormally hot and uncomfortable weather. It can last from a few days to a number of weeks.

mercury. The millibar (mb) was the technical unit used to measure pressure until recently, when the hectopascal was adopted. The pascal is the unit for pressure in the MKS system, corresponding to the pressure exerted by the unit force (1 newton) on a unit surface (1 square meter—11 square feet); 1,000 hPa = 1,000 mb = 1 bar = 14.5 pounds per square inch.

north and south and the Equator at 0° latitude.




A pressure unit equal to 100 pascals and equivalent to 1 millibar—a millibar being equivalent to 0.031 inch (0.8 mm) of ordinary

A prefix describing cloud formations at an altitude between 6,560 and 16,400 feet (2,000 and 5,000 m).


The amount of water vapor contained in the air.


The name for a tropical cyclone with sustained winds of 64 knots (74 miles per hour [119 km/h]) or more, which develops in the North Atlantic, the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific Northeast. This storm is called a typhoon in the western Pacific and a cyclone in the Indian Ocean.


An instrument used to measure humidity.

The solid state of water. It is found in the atmosphere in the form of ice crystals, snow, or hail.

Jet Streams

Air currents high in the troposphere (about 6 miles [10 km] above sea level), where the wind velocity can be up to 90 meters per second (200 miles per hour). This type of structure is seen in subtropical latitudes in both hemispheres, where the flow is toward the east, reaching its maximum intensity during the winter.


A system of imaginary parallel lines that encircle the globe north and south of the Equator. The poles are located at 90° latitude

A discharge of the atmosphere's static electricity occurring between a cloud and the ground.


The layer of the Earth's atmosphere that lies above the stratosphere.


The name of the format airport meteorological bulletins are reported in. This includes data on wind, visibility, temperature, dew point, and atmospheric pressure, among other variables.


The science and study of atmospheric phenomena. Some of the subdivisions of meteorology are agrometeorology, climatology, hydrometeorology, and physical, dynamic, and synoptic meteorology.


A very sensitive barometer that records pressure variations using a magnified scale.


Microscopic drops of water suspended in the air, or humid hygroscopic particles, which reduce visibility at ground level.


A seasonal wind that causes heavy rains in tropical and subtropical regions.


The standard value accepted for a meteorological element as calculated for a specific location over a specific number of years. The normal values refer to the distribution of data within the limits of the common occurrence. The parameters can include temperature (high, low, and divergences), pressure, precipitation (rain, snow, etc.), winds (velocity and direction), storms, cloud cover, percentage of relative humidity, and so on.

Ocean Current

The movement of water in the ocean caused by the system of planetary winds. Ocean currents transport warm or cold water over long distances around the planet.

Orographic Rain

Rain that results from the cooling of humid air as it crosses over a mountain range.

Ozone Layer

A layer of the atmosphere situated 20 to 30 miles (30 to 50 km) above the Earth's surface between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It acts as a filtering mechanism for ultraviolet radiation.

Polar Front

An almost permanent and very large front of the middle latitudes that separates the relatively cold polar air and the relatively warm subtropical air.


A liquid or solid, crystallized or amorphous particle that falls from a cloud or system of clouds and reaches the ground.


The process by which energy propagates through a specific medium (or a vacuum) via wave phenomena or motion. Electromagnetic radiation, which emits heat and light, is one form of radiation. Other forms are sound waves.


An earthquake at the bottom of the ocean, causing a violent agitation of ocean waves, which in some cases reach coastal areas and cause flooding.


Precipitation in the form of white or transparent frozen ice crystals, often in the form of complex hexagons. In general, snow falls from stratiform clouds, but it can also fall from cumulus clouds, usually in the form of snowflakes.


The layer of the atmosphere situated above the troposphere.


Low clouds that form layers. They often produce drizzle.

Synoptic Map

A map that shows weather conditions of the Earth's surface at a certain time and place.

Thermal Inversion

An inversion of the normal reduction in temperature with an increase in altitude.


An instrument for measuring temperature. The different scales used in meteorology are Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin (or absolute).


A column of air that rotates with great violence, stretching between a convective cloud and the surface of the Earth. It is the most destructive phenomenon in the atmosphere. Tornadoes can occur, under the right conditions, anywhere on Earth, but they appear most frequently in the central United States, between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains.

Tropical Cyclone

A cyclone without fronts, it develops over tropical waters and has a surface circulation organized and defined in a counterclockwise direction. A cyclone is classified, according to the intensity of its winds, as a tropical disturbance (light ground-level winds), tropical depression (maximum ground-level winds of 38 miles per hour [61 km/h]), tropical storm (maximum winds in the range of 39 to 73 miles per hour [62 to 112 km/h]), or hurricane (maximum ground-level winds exceeding 74 miles per hour [119 km/h]).


The layer of the atmosphere closest to the ground, its name means "changing sphere," and this layer is where most changes in weather take place. This is also where most of the phenomena of interest in meteorology occur.


Disorderly motion of air composed of small whirlwinds that move within air currents. Atmospheric turbulence is produced by air in a state of continuous change. It can be caused by thermal or convective currents, by differences in terrain and in the velocity of the wind, by conditions along a frontal zone, or by a change in temperature and pressure.


The state of the atmosphere at a given moment, as it relates to its effects on human activity. This process involves short-term changes in the atmosphere in contrast to the great climatic changes that imply more long-term changes. The terms used to define weather include cloudiness, humidity, precipitation, temperature, visibility, and wind.


The direction from which the wind is blowing.


absorption, 11 acid rain, 86-87 gas emissions, 86 gas mixtures, 86 ozone layer, weakening, 88-89 pH, 87

photochemical reaction, 87 plant consequences, 86 soil consequences, 87 vulnerable regions, 87 water consequences, 87 advection fog, 45

aerosonde pilotless weather aircraft, 71 Africa global warming, 91 potable water, 21

agriculture acid rain, 87 drought, 51 flooding, 48 gods and rituals, 76, 77 monsoons, 30 tornadoes, 53

air atmosphere, 10-11 circulation changes, 12-13 collision, 14-15 currents, 13 displacement, 12 weather forecast, 70 aircraft, weather, 71, 81 albedo, solar radiation, 8, 9 almanac, weather forecasting, 65 altocumulus cloud, 39 altostratus cloud, 39 anabatic wind, 26 Andes Mountains, 24-25 anemometer, 67 aneroid barometer, 66 animal acid rain, 86, 87 coral, 82, 83

ozone layer thinning, 89 weather folklore, 64, 65 Antarctica, 80, 81, 85 anticyclone, 12, 13, 51, 68 Arctic, 84-85 argon, 10 ash (volcanic), 9 ash tree, weather folklore, 65 Asia

El Niño, 33, 35 global warming, 91 monsoons, 28-29, 30-31 potable water, 21 atmosphere, 8 climate change, 90 cooling, 9 disturbances, 14 dynamics, 12-13 global warming, 83 layers, 10-11 paleoclimatology, 80-81 See also ozone layer atmospheric pressure, 66 aurora, 10, 16-17 Australia drought, 50 potable water, 21 autonomous underwater vehicle, 70

barograph, 66 barometer, 66 biosphere, B

calcareous soil, 87 carbon dioxide (CO2), 10

emissions, 82, 83, 86 increases, 84, 90 See also greenhouse gas CFC gas (chlorofluorocarbon gas), 88 chaparral, 25 Chinook wind, 26 cirrocumulus cloud, 39 cirrostratus cloud, 38 cirrus cloud, 38, 39 city, heat islands, 27 climate

Koppen classification, 79 temperature and rain, 78 types, 78-79 climate change, 74-75, 90-91 causes and effects, 91 human activity, 81, 82, 90 climate zone, 78-79 desert, 78 forest and lakes, 79 polar mountainous climate, 79 rainforest, 78 tundra and taiga, 79 climatic system, 6-7, 8-9 cloud, 38-39

electrical storms, 46-47 formation, 12, 14, 20, 38-39 hurricanes, 56 interior, 39 lightning inside, 46 rain formation, 40-41 types, 11, 38, 39 weather folklore, 65 cloud street, 39 coastal breeze, 26, 27 cold climatic zone, 79 cold front, 14, 68 collision (air), 14-15 condensation, 7, 14, 20, 24 nuclei, 40 precipitation, 8 continentality effect, 27 convection, 7, 38 convergence, 13, 38 cooling (atmosphere), 9

coral, 82, 83 Coriolis effect, 12, 14, 22 cosmic ray, 11 cryosphere, 8, 9 crystal, water formation, 42 snow, 42-43 types, 42, 43 cumulonimbus cloud, 38, 52 cumulus cloud, 14, 38 current air flow, 13 cyclonic, 50 formation, 22-23 geostrophic balance, 22 gulf stream, 85 jet stream, 12, 13, 14 Labrador, 85 lake, 23

ocean: See ocean current subpolar arctic circulating system, 23 wind influence, 22 cyclone, 5, 12, 13, 28, 36, 57 cyclonic current, 50 cyclonic zone, 12-13

data recorder (weather prediction), 67 deep ocean current, 22-23 deforestation, 82, 91 depression, 13, 58, 68 desert, 50, 78

desertification, 5, 50, 82, 83 dew, 42, 44, 65 dew point, 24, 43

dike, 48, 58 divergence, 13 donkey, weather folklore, 64 droplet, formation, 20 drought, 50-51 global warming, 82

water runoff, 21 dry-bulb thermometer, 67 dry climatic zone, 78 Dust Bowl, droughts, 50

Earth climate change, 90-91 climatic zones, 78-79 equilibrium, 8-9 global warming, 82-85 ocean currents, 22-23 paleoclimatology, 80-81 rotation, 12 satellite image, 6-7 temperature, 82, 90-91 ecosystem destruction, 82 foundations, 8 Ekman spiral, ocean currents, 22 El Niño, 32-33

conditions during, 32 drought, 32-33 effects, 19, 34-35 flooding, 34-35 electrical storm, 46-47

tornadoes, 52 embankment, 48 environment, components, 6 Equator, atmospheric dynamics, 12 erosion, 21 Europe global warming, 91 potable water, 21 evaporation, 7, 8, 20 evaporimeter, 66 exosphere, 10, 16

Ferrel cell, 12-13 field capacity, soil, 50 flood control, 48 flood plain, 48 flooding, 48-49 causes, 48 dikes, 48, 58 El Niño, 34-35 embankment, 48 global warming, 82, 85 Hurricane Katrina, 58 land, 48-49 monsoons, 30-31 zones, 85 fog, 44-45 formation, 44 radiation, 45 types, 45 visibility, 44 folklore, weather: See weather folklore forecast: See weather forecast fossil fuel global warming, 91 greenhouse effect, 82 freshwater, 21, 74 front, 38 cold, 14, 68 occluded, 15, 68 size, 15 stationary, 15 warm, 14, 15, 68 weather map symbol, 14, 68 frontal fog, 45 frost, 43

Fujita-Pearson scale, 53, 54

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How To Prevent Skin Cancer

How To Prevent Skin Cancer

Complete Guide to Preventing Skin Cancer. We all know enough to fear the name, just as we do the words tumor and malignant. But apart from that, most of us know very little at all about cancer, especially skin cancer in itself. If I were to ask you to tell me about skin cancer right now, what would you say? Apart from the fact that its a cancer on the skin, that is.

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  • sirkka
    Can cusmic rain weaken ozone layer?
    2 years ago
  • marcus
    Is chloromonoxide caused by humans?
    9 months ago

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