The Governance Process Unfolds Negotiating The Fccc

The international community began negotiations toward a framework convention in early 1991, with a goal of producing an agreement in time for the Earth Summit to be held in June 1992. The normative context for these negotiations mirrored the results of the ozone depletion negotia-tions—the universal participation norm dominated and states understood (for the most part) that a global response entailed North-first action, and Northern support for Southern participation. The U.S. rule model for climate change called for universal participation while the United States simultaneously emphasized the uncertainty in climate science and the economic costs of action to justify a lack of commitment to binding emission reductions. It was with this rule model, and in this context that the United States hosted INC I in February 1991. It was at INC I when the international community and the United States began to reap the benefits and disadvantages of universal participation.

These negotiations moved at both breakneck speed (they were completed in a mere eighteen months) and at a snail's pace (the negotiations were deadlocked for the majority of this time). The major issues involved conflict on two fronts: North-North and South-North. The North-North conflict was over the issue of emission reductions. Simply put, the EU and other Northern states were ready and willing to accept binding emission targets and the United States was not. South-North issues and debates were also at the top of the agenda from the beginning (as was foreshadowed in the 1988-1990 period). The South successfully linked the INC

negotiations to the issue of development and pushed for specific commitments for new and additional funds as well as new institutions for financial and technological transfers (modeled after the Multilateral Fund).

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

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