Modeling The

Norm entrepreneurs, political entrepreneurs, and moral entrepreneurs have all been called upon in explanations of the emergence of cooperation, norms, conventions, coalitions, and agreements. However, it is not enough to assert the efficacy of norm entrepreneurs or to merely correlate the existence of a norm entrepreneur with the emergence of norms, conventions, or cooperation.17 Most entrepreneurship studies endeavor to show how norm entrepreneurs transmit their ideas and persuade actors to accept those ideas.18 Constructivists have focused in on organizational platforms and processes of socialization and persuasion in accounting for the influence of entrepreneurs. Others look at access, social/political capital, power, and financial resources. These studies are mainly interested in explaining how an entrepreneur is able to alter other agents' behaviors (or motivations or interests or beliefs). These studies tend to assume that if they can show how an entrepreneur can convince agents to accept a new idea, then they have explained the emergence of the cooperation, coalition, norm, etc. and shown the effect of entrepreneurs.

The model developed in this chapter problematizes what most studies take for granted: How persuasive entrepreneurs can alter the dynamics of interacting, interdependent agents toward intersubjective agreement and sketch out the conditions under which this can take place. I ignore the question of how the entrepreneur is able to convince individual agents to take her suggestion (it happens automatically) and instead focus on the unexamined assumption that a persuasive entrepreneur can influence the outcomes that arise from the interactions of heterogeneous, interdependent agents.

I seek to understand under what conditions a norm entrepreneur can catalyze norm emergence and to establish a baseline notion of the dynamics of influence of norm entrepreneurs. Will entrepreneurs always influence an outcome? Is their influence epiphenomenal? Is it possible that they have no influence at all? I put the NLC into a computer model in order to "see" if the norm entrepreneurs and norm dynamics outlined are sufficient to generate norm emergence and evolution. The model results demonstrate that under certain conditions, norm entrepreneurs can in fact catalyze norm emergence and norm change—conditions that subsequently inform the case study analysis of ozone depletion and climate change.



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