INC Nairobi September 1991

The summer of 1991 saw pressure grow on the United States to alter its climate change position from Congress, the NGO community, and from Europe. However, the United States, buoyed by industry lobbying, held firm as it prepared for the INC III meetings in September. The United States resisted criticism at the July G7 economic summit, holding out as the "sole opponent" to binding carbon dioxide emission reductions. An EU official remarked that "the United States doubted the scientific data on carbon dioxide emissions and was unsure whether it was 'such a serious problem.'"159 Many Europeans feared that the climate change convention would fail because of U.S. "recalcitrance,"160 and Japan, deeming U.S. leadership crucial, urged the United States to take action.161 The pressure came from the South as well, with India and China backing the "Beijing Declaration" that called for a green fund as well as technology transfer.162 The United States continued to withstand the pressure to change position, and thus as 116 states convened in Nairobi, there appeared little chance for a breakthrough. The international community was committed to notion that the United States was crucial in a climate convention, and the United States was adamant about the lack of urgency to address greenhouse gas emissions. The United States, under criticism from the South and NGO community for lack of action, replied that "these groups failed to understand the political, economic, and energy challenges associated with stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States."163 As Jean Ripert observed, "the United States had shown little flexibility during the talks."164 Again, the two themes that emerged in the talks were targets for emissions and financial and technical assis-tance.165 And just as at INC II, the principle of assistance was not debated, though the mechanisms for it were contentious.166 Though development assistance was a high priority on the agenda, and though all delegates agreed about its necessity, "the scale of commitments on finance and transfer of technology, which would bring the developing countries on board, is not yet in evidence."167

0 0

Post a comment