The verbal model hypothesizes that a norm entrepreneur suggested a change in appropriate understandings of participation requirements during the ozone depletion negotiations. A norm entrepreneur advocated for universal participation. Further, the verbal model claims that some states add this suggestion to their rule model—they change their understanding of what a global response to ozone depletion requires. This adding may occur through varied processes—persuasion, socialization, or coercion. In states, the adding is a domestic political process. The model also claims that such a change in the agents arises through adaptation. States that currently understand ozone depletion to require North-only participation negatively evaluate their internal rule models. Weakened rules are subject to change. As the agents change their internal models, they will change their behavior—participating if they are not already participating (most of the South before 1987) or calling for universal participation if already participating. In chapter 5, I demonstrate that the former (the initiation of Southern participation) occurred first.

In general, if the framework holds, agents (states) will add a rule calling for universal participation to their internal rule models at the behest of a norm entrepreneur during the ozone depletion negotiations— facilitating the transition between a North-only participation requirement and a universal participation requirement.

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