I could not have completed this research and volume without the benefit of the expertise and aid of numerous people. I would be remiss if I did not thank Mary Durfee for diverting me from environmental engineering and sending me into the world of IR. At The George Washington University, Marty Finnemore, Jim Rosenau, and Susan Sell provided incredible support and guidance throughout the research process. Their advice and encouragement have been a continual source of motivation and direction. Marty deserves special credit for reading innumerable drafts, for her inexhaustible patience with a young scholar, and for her always invaluable advice. I owe my interest in complexity theory to Jim Rosenau who has been an inspiration in uncountable ways. Susan worked with me on this project from its first (very humble) beginnings and has been an incredible source of support throughout.

I am grateful to my colleagues (faculty and students) at The George Washington University, Indiana University, and the University of Delaware for creating stimulating academic atmospheres. A number of people deserve special thanks for their insights and suggestions on earlier manifestations of this book in drafts and conference papers: Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, Ian Lustick, Audie Klotz, John Riley, Jack Moran, Kelly Kollman, Terry Casey, Jackie McClaren, Maurits Van der Veen, Tyrone Simpson, Steve Wolcott, and David Johnson. Joe Tonon has been a sounding board, resource, and friend throughout this project. Alice Ba took on the onerous task of reviewing multiple drafts of most of this volume and her insights and suggestions have been invaluable. The commentary of the anonymous reviewers at SUNY was detailed and incredibly important in helping craft my arguments and the presentation of this book, and I thoroughly appreciate the work of Michael Rinella and Kelli Williams in sheparding me through the publication process. Finally, I want to thank Lisa Daniels, Karen McClelland, Ammar Wasfi, and especially Atsuko Yokoburi for research assistance and Davy Banks for his work on the index. All are blameless in any ambiguity or mistakes that remain.

My interest in complexity theory and agent-based modeling would have come to naught if it wasn't for the advice and aid of Rob Axtell. In addition, this research was enhanced by participating in the Santa Fe Institute's Complex Systems Summer School. For help in improving my computer modeling skills, I would like to acknowledge my modeling group colleagues at the Workshop on Political Theory and Policy Analysis and the Center for the Study of Institutions, Population and Environmental Change at Indiana University, Hugh Kelley, Dawn Parker, Tom Evans, and especially Elinor Ostrom for her constant encouragement.

Financially, I would like to acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program and the Biocomplexity Initiative grant at CIPEC (Grant # SES0083511). A General University Research grant from the University of Delaware allowed me to hone the computer model and significantly improve this volume.

Parts of the argument developed further in this book appeared first in "Constructing a Complex World: The Frontiers of International Relations Theory and Foreign-Policy Making." Asian Journal of Political Science 11 (2) (December 2003): 37-57, and in "Entrepreneurs and the Emergence and Evolution of Social Norms." in 3rd Workshop on Agent-Based Simulation, edited by Christoph Urban, Ghent, Belgium: SCS-Europe. I would like to thank Marshall Cavendish International and SCS-Europe respectively for permission to include the material.

Finally, I could not have completed this project without the support of my parents, and most importantly the constant support and intellectual partnership of Lena Mortensen, my best friend and wife.



Agent-Based Modeling


Common but Differentiated Responsibilities


Co-ordinating Committee on the Ozone Layer


Clean Development Mechanism




U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Emissions Trading


Framework Convention on Climate Change


Global Environmental Facility


Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


Joint Implementation


Kyoto Protocol


Montreal Protocol


Nongovernmental Organization


Natural Resources Defense Council


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development


Office of Budget and Management


Second World Climate Conference


United Nations Environment Program


World Meteorological Organization

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