Strategy and Universal Participation

In chapter 2, I argued that universal negotiations are not rational from the standpoint of effectiveness or efficiency, and it appeared doubtful that they were a strategic choice of the United States, designed to slow or stall the negotiations by adding extra negotiators and issues. The latter of these two possibilities is the stickiest issue. As the climate change issue rose in prominence in the late 1980s, it became clear that the United States did not favor aggressive action to address...

Implications For The Governance Of Ozone Depletion And Climate Change

However, even given its simplicity, it produces complex patterns and demonstrates that stylized norm entrepreneurs can play a role in forging intersubjective agreement and that they contribute to norm evolution as well as emergence. It shows in a general, formal way that norm entrepreneurs can alter the dynamics of a system of interacting agents sometimes catalyzing the emergence and evolution of norms. While not an empirical test of the NLC, the modeling exercises and...

The Evolution of the Normative Context The Breakdown of North Only Participation on the Road to Montreal

The normative context that the United States acted within was relatively stable in 1986-87, though the seeds for the major transition to universal participation were sown. The negotiations that would yield the Montreal Protocol in 1987 transpired with a clear, intersubjective understanding that ozone depletion was a problem that required Northern participation in negotiations and solutions. Southern nations made up less than one-third of the participants at all three of the pre-Montreal...

The Foundations Of The Global Governance Of Climate Change Ihe Initial Normative Context Universal Participation

Before 1988 it would be curious to discuss climate change as existing within a normative political context. To this point, climate change was primarily a scientific issue and scientists were the main protagonists in climate change conferences. As the issue began to attract political attention the normative context stressing universal participation became clear. The seeds of this understanding were evident at conferences in 1988 and in the IPCC process. By 1989, universal participation was well...

INC V Part 1New York February 1992

The monotonous story of the U.S. negotiating behavior and the climate change convention negotiations themselves finally took a different turn at the INC V sessions. Though the United States entered the negotiations with the exact same position advocating flexible mechanisms with no binding targets the United States did pledge 75 million in development assistance during the February INC V session.174 Though this gesture was not grand it signaled some flexibility in the U.S. positions, while it...

Entrepreneurship

The verbal model hypothesizes that a norm entrepreneur suggested a change in appropriate understandings of participation requirements during the ozone depletion negotiations. A norm entrepreneur advocated for universal participation. Further, the verbal model claims that some states add this suggestion to their rule model they change their understanding of what a global response to ozone depletion requires. This adding may occur through varied processes persuasion, socialization, or coercion....

Modeling the Norm Life Cycle

The verbal model developed in the previous chapter is a potential explanation for the transitions in participation requirements in the ozone depletion and climate change cases. It presents a series of conjectures about how a universal participation norm could emerge and evolve in these issues. In this chapter, I assess those conjectures formally through agent-based modeling (ABM) techniques. I pursue formal analysis for two reasons. First, it is crucial to assess the plausibility of the claims...

Compatibility and Synergy

Beyond mere compatibility, integrating the NLC and a CAS perspective provides a full account of norm emergence and evolution. The NLC provides a macroanalytic structure for explaining norm dynamics, and the insights of complexity theory provide a microagentic process to bring the NLC to life. In specifying the connection between actors and norms, complex adaptation facilitates an updating of the NLC and mutual constitution. Moving from agents to structures, CAS provides a model of agent action....

Life Without Norm Entrepreneurs

When norm entrepreneurs are absent from the system, two types of macro patterns emerge in the simulations. Depending upon the noise levels in the system, the simulation exhibits a strict dichotomy between stability and volatility in the system. Figures 4.2 and 4.3 are typical runs without norm entrepreneurs. As the noise in the system increases the simulation switches from stable to volatile. Each figure reports the average predictions (group outcome) made in each round by the agent population...

Hie Ozone Depletion Negotiations and Universal Participation

Universal participation was a normative position internalized before the climate change negotiations began. Positive reinforcement of the universal participation rule after the London Amendment negotiations led to its use in the next global environmental problem to arise there was a stable, low complexity social context as all states understood that the appropriate rule to follow was the universal participation norm. The experience of the ozone depletion negotiations and the rule model...

Overview The Ozone Depletion Negotiations Of 19861990

Most analyses of the ozone negotiations have been critically concerned with cooperation and effectiveness.1 These studies examine the interests, power, and behavior of the major actors (both sovereignty free and sovereignty bound),2 assess the impact of scientific knowledge, and investigate the structure of the negotiations themselves searching for the factor(s) that led to successful cooperation and or effectiveness. In contrast, the main thrust of this book explains the conditions for...

Adaptation and the Norm Life Cycle

Chapter 1 asserts a norms-based and complex systems explanation for the dynamic nature of global responses in ozone depletion and climate change the transition to universal participation in the ozone depletion issue, the lock-in around universal participation in the initial climate change negotiations, and the contestation over universal participation in the 1990s. Addressing the puzzle of participation and providing an accounting of the governance of ozone depletion and climate change requires...

Earth Summit Rio June 1992

The United States along with most of the UN states came together in Rio in 1992 for the historic United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED). A centerpiece of this conference was to be the signing of the FCCC. The United States managed to dictate the terms of the agreement as a condition for observing it, and thus the document sets no specific goals or timetables for reducing carbon dioxide.185 However, neither the binding targets nor the South-North debate ended when...

Universal Participation and the Framework Convention on Climate Change

Climate change rose quickly on the international agenda in the late 1980s on the heels of the ozone depletion negotiations. Though both problems stem from atmospheric pollution, the complexity of the climate change problem eclipses that of ozone depletion by orders of magnitude. The causes of climate change (or global warming) are ubiquitous in all societies (industrial or otherwise), and virtually all biological, agricultural, and industrial activities contribute to the problem. Similarly, the...