Life Without Norm Entrepreneurs

When norm entrepreneurs are absent from the system, two types of macro patterns emerge in the simulations. Depending upon the noise levels in the system, the simulation exhibits a strict dichotomy between stability and volatility in the system. Figures 4.2 and 4.3 are typical runs without norm entrepreneurs. As the noise in the system increases the simulation switches from stable to volatile. Each figure reports the average predictions (group outcome) made in each round by the agent population...

Hie Ozone Depletion Negotiations and Universal Participation

Universal participation was a normative position internalized before the climate change negotiations began. Positive reinforcement of the universal participation rule after the London Amendment negotiations led to its use in the next global environmental problem to arise there was a stable, low complexity social context as all states understood that the appropriate rule to follow was the universal participation norm. The experience of the ozone depletion negotiations and the rule model...

Overview The Ozone Depletion Negotiations Of 19861990

Most analyses of the ozone negotiations have been critically concerned with cooperation and effectiveness.1 These studies examine the interests, power, and behavior of the major actors (both sovereignty free and sovereignty bound),2 assess the impact of scientific knowledge, and investigate the structure of the negotiations themselves searching for the factor(s) that led to successful cooperation and or effectiveness. In contrast, the main thrust of this book explains the conditions for...

Adaptation and the Norm Life Cycle

Chapter 1 asserts a norms-based and complex systems explanation for the dynamic nature of global responses in ozone depletion and climate change the transition to universal participation in the ozone depletion issue, the lock-in around universal participation in the initial climate change negotiations, and the contestation over universal participation in the 1990s. Addressing the puzzle of participation and providing an accounting of the governance of ozone depletion and climate change requires...

Earth Summit Rio June 1992

The United States along with most of the UN states came together in Rio in 1992 for the historic United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED). A centerpiece of this conference was to be the signing of the FCCC. The United States managed to dictate the terms of the agreement as a condition for observing it, and thus the document sets no specific goals or timetables for reducing carbon dioxide.185 However, neither the binding targets nor the South-North debate ended when...

Universal Participation and the Framework Convention on Climate Change

Climate change rose quickly on the international agenda in the late 1980s on the heels of the ozone depletion negotiations. Though both problems stem from atmospheric pollution, the complexity of the climate change problem eclipses that of ozone depletion by orders of magnitude. The causes of climate change (or global warming) are ubiquitous in all societies (industrial or otherwise), and virtually all biological, agricultural, and industrial activities contribute to the problem. Similarly, the...