1. Rind, D. & Lacis, A. The role of the stratosphere in climate change. Surveys in geophysics, 14: 133-165 (1993).

2. World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 1994. Nairobi, United Nations Environment Programme, 1994 (WMO Report No. 37).

3. Houghton, J.T. et al., ed. Climate change 1995. The science of climate change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

4. Shindell, D.T. et al. Increased polar stratospheric ozone losses and delayed eventual recovery owing to increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations. Nature, 392(6676): 589-592 (1998).

5. Report of a WHO/EURO Workshop on the Early Human Health Effects of Climate Change, 21-23 May 1998. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1998 (document EUR/ICP/EHRO 02 05 02).

6. Reilly, J. et al. Agriculture in a changing climate: impacts and adaptations. In: Watson, R.T. et al., ed. Climate change 1995. Impacts, adaptations, and mitigation of climate change: scientific and technical analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 427-511.

7. McMichael, A.J. Human population health. In: Watson, R.T. et al., ed. Climate change 1995. Impacts, adaptations, and mitigation of climate change: scientific and technical analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 561-584.

8. Beniston, M. & Tol, R.S.J. Europe. In: Watson, R.T. et al., ed. The regional impacts of climate change: an assessment of vulnerability. A Special Report of Working Group II. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

9. McMichael, A.J. et al., ed. Climate change and human health: an assessment prepared by a Task Group on behalf of the World Health Organization, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1996 (document WHO/EHG/96.7).

10. National Health and Medical Research Council. Health implications of long term climatic change. Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991.

11. Canadian Global Change Program. Implications of global change and human health: final report of the Health Issues Panel to the Canadian Global Change Program. Ottawa, Royal Society of Canada, 1995 (CGCP Technical Report Series).

12. Ando, M. Health. In: Nishioka, S. et al., ed. The potential effects of climate change in Japan. Tsukuba, Center for Global Environmental Research/National Institute for Environmental Studies, 1993, pp.87-93.

13. Ando, M. et al. Health. In: Nishioka, S. & Harasawa, H., ed. Global warming: thepotential impact in Japan. Tokyo, Springer Verlag, 1998, pp.203-214.

14. The potential effects of global climate change on the United States. Washington, DC, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, US Environmental Protection Agency, 1989 (EPA 230-05-89057).

15. Kuusisto, E. et al., ed. Ilmastonmuutos ja Suomi [Climate change and Finland]. Helsinki, Helsinki University Press, 1996.

16. McWilliams, B.E. Climate change - studies on the implications for Ireland. Dublin, Stationery Office, 1993.

17. Baan, P.J.A. et al. Systeemverkenning gevolgen van klimaat-verandering [Studies on climate change]. Delft, Waterloopkundig Laboratorium, 1993.

18. United Kingdom Climate Change Impacts Review Group. United Kingdom Climate Change Impacts Review Group: review of the potential effects of climate change in the United Kingdom. London, H.M. Stationery Office, 1996.

19. Kallaste, T. & Kuldna, P., ed. Climate change in Estonia. Tallinn, Stockholm Environment Institute - Tallinn Centre, 1998.

20. Tarand, A. & Kallaste, T., ed. Country case study on climate change impacts and adaptation assessments in the Republic of Estonia. Tallinn, Stockholm Environment Institute - Tallinn Centre and United Nations Environment Programme, 1998.

21. Stock, M. & Toth, F. Mögliche Auswirkungen von Klimaänderungen auf das Land Brandenburg - Pilotstudie. Potsdam, Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), 1996.

22. Moldan, B. & Sobisek, B. Final report of the Czech Republic's climate change country study. Prague, National Climate Program of the Czech Republic, 1995.

23. Izrael, Y.A. Russian Federation climate change country study. Final report. Volume 4. Mitigation analysis. US Country Studies Program. Moscow, Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, 1997.

24. Climate change vulnerability and adaptation assessment in Kazakhstan. Almaty, Kazakh Scientific and Research Institute for Environment and Climate Monitoring, 1996.

25. Lapin, M. et al. Final report of vulnerability assessment and adaptation assessment of Slovakia. Bratislava, Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic/Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, 1997.

26. Cuculeanu, V coordinator. Country study on climate change in Romania. Element 2: vulnerability assessment and adaptation options. Bucharest, National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, 1997.

27. Martens, W.J.M., ed. Vulnerability of human population health to climate change: state-of-knowledge and future research directions. Bilthoven, Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change, 1996 (Report No. 410200004).

28. Kazmarova, H. & Kveton, V Zprava za sektor zdravotnictvi [Report for the health sector]. Prague, Czech Confederation of Scientific Technical Associations and Czech Association of Pest Control Operators, 1995.

29. Parry, M.L., ed. Assessment of potential effects and adaptations for climate change in Europe: the Europe ACACIA Project. Norwich, Jackson Environment Institute, UEA, 2000.

30. Patz, J. & Ellis, H. Integrated assessment of the public health effects of climate change for the United States. STAR Program Review: Regional Integrated Assessments. Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency, 1999 (EPA/600/R-99/079).

31. National assessment. Human health sector. Outline/description of assessment project ( outline.html). Washington, DC, US Global Change Research Program, November 1998 (accessed 19 March 2000).

32. Patz, J.A. et al. The potential health impacts of climate variability and change for the United States. Executive summary of the report of the health sector of the US national assessment. Environmental health perspectives, 108: 367-376 (2000).

33. Houghton, J.T. et al. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change 1994: radiative forcing of climate change and an evaluation of the IPCCIS92 emission scenarios. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994.

34. Hurrell, J.W. & van Loon, H. Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climatic change, 36: 301326 (1997).

35. Mann, M.E. et al. Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature, 392(6678): 779-787 (1998).

36. Onate, J.J. & Pou, A. Temperature variations in Spain since 1901: preliminary analysis. International journal of climatology, 16: 805815 (1996).

37. Schoenwiese, C.-D. et al. Klimatrend-Atlas Europa 1891-1990. Frankfurt, ZUF-Verlag, 1993.

38. European Climate Support Network. Climate of Europe: recent variations, present state and future prospects. First European climate assessment. de Bilt, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 1995.

39. Auer, I. & Boehm, R. Combined temperature-precipitation variations in Austria during the instrumental period. Theoretical and applied climatology, 49: 161-174 (1994).

40. Beniston, M. & Rebetez, M. Regional behaviour in minimum temperatures in Switzerland for the period 1979-1993. Theoretical and applied climatology, 53: 231-243 (1995).

41. Karl, T.R. et al. A new perspective on recent global warming: asymmetric trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 74: 1007-1023 (1993).

42. Karl, T.R. & Knight, R.W. Secular trends of precipitation amount, frequency and intensity in the United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79: 231-241 (1998).

43. Hulme, M. & Jenkins, G.J. Climate change scenarios for the UK: scientific report. Norwich, Climatic Research Unit, 1998 (UKCIP Technical Report No. 1).

44. Myneni, R.B. et al. Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature, 386(6626): 698-702 (1997).

45. Chapman, W.L. & Walsh, J.E. Recent variations of sea ice and air temperatures in high latitudes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 74: 33-47 (1993).

46. Grabherr, G. Climate effects on mountain plants. Nature, 369(6480): 448 (1994).

47. Mitchell, J.F.B. & Johns, T.C. On the modification of global warming by sulphate aerosols. Journal of climate, 10: 245-267 (1997).

48. Harrison, P.A. et al. Climate change and agriculture in Europe: assessment of impacts and adaptations. Oxford, Environmental Change Unit, University of Oxford, 1995 (ECU Research Report No. 9).

49. Frasetto, R., ed. Impact of sea level rise on cities and regions. Proceedings of the First International Meeting "Cities on Water", Venice, December 1989. Venice, Marsilio Editori, 1991.

50. Nicholls, R.J. & Mimura, N. Regional issues raised by sea-level rise and their policy implications. Climate research, 11(1): 5-18 (1998).

51. Oppenheimer, M. Global warming and the stability of the West Antarctic ice sheet. Nature, 393(6683): 325-332 (1998).

52. Molina, M.J. & Rowland, F.S. Stratospheric sink for chloro-fluoromethanes, chlorine atom catalysed destruction of ozone. Nature, 249(5460): 810-812 (1974).

53. Environmental effects of ozone depletion: 1994 assessment. Nairobi, United Nations Environment Programme, 1994.

54. Longstreth, J. et al. Health risks. In: Environmental effects of ozone depletion: 1998 assessment. Nairobi, United Nations Environment Programme, 1998, pp. 28-50.

55. Environment and health research for Europe ( london99/research02e.htm). Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 12 April 1999 (accessed 19 March 2000).

56. McMichael, A.J. & Martens, W.J.M. The health impacts of global climate change: grappling with scenarios, predictive models and multiple uncertainties. Ecosystem health, 1(1): 23-33 (1995).

57. McMichael, A.J. & Kovats, R.S. Strategies for assessing health impacts of global environmental change. In: Crabbe, P. et al., ed. Implementing ecological integrity: restoring regional and global environmental and human health. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, pp. 217-231.

58. Hulme, M. The 1996 CCIRG scenario of changing climate and sea level for the UK. Norwich, Climatic Research Unit, 1996 (Technical Note No. 7).

59. Katsouyanni, K. & Touloumi, G. Health effects of heat waves and recent trends in temperature changes: an example of Athens. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1998 (document EUR/ ICP/EHRO 02 05 02/11).

60. Jendritzky, G. et al. Die Mortalitätsstudie des Deutschen Wetterdienstes. Annalen der Meteorologie, 33: 46-51 (1997).

61. Katsouyanni, K. et al. Evidence for interaction between air pollution and high temperatures in the causation of excess mortality. Archives of environmental health, 48(4): 235-242 (1993).

62. Kunst, A.E. et al. Outdoor air temperature and mortality in the Netherlands: a time-series analysis. American journal of epidemiology, 137(3): 331-341 (1993).

63. Kalkstein, L.S. & Tan, G. Human health. In: Strzepek, K.M. & Smith, J.B., ed. As climate changes: international impacts and implications. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 124-145.

64. Faunt, J.D. et al. The effete in the heat: heat-related hospital presentations during a ten day heat wave. Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine, 25(2): 117-121 (1995).

65. European Technology Assessment Network. The ageing of population and technology: challenges and opportunities. Brussels, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development, European Commission, 1998 (EUR 18218).

66. McMichael, A.J. & Kovats, R.S. Assessment of the impact on mortality in England and Wales of the heat wave and associated air pollution episode of1976. Report to the Department of Health. London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1998.

67. Sartor, F. et al. Temperature, ambient ozone levels, and mortality during summer 1994, in Belgium. Environmental research, 70(2): 105-113 (1995).

68. Rooney, C. et al. Excess mortality in England and Wales, and in Greater London, during the 1995 heatwave. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 52(8): 482-486 (1998).

69. Katsouyanni, K. et al. The 1987 Athens heatwave. Lancet, 2(8610): 573 (1988).

70. Kalkstein, L.S. & Greene, J.S. An evaluation of climate/mortality relationships in large U.S. cities and the possible impacts of a climate change. Environmental health perspectives, 105(1): 84-93

71. Khaw, K.T. Temperature and cardiovascular mortality. Lancet, 345(8946): 337-338 (1995).

72. Laake, K. & Sverre, J.M. Winter excess mortality: a comparison between Norway and England plus Wales. Age and ageing, 25(5): 343-348 (1996).

73. Kilbourne, E.M. Heatwaves. In: Noji, E., ed. The public health consequences of disasters. New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 245-269.

74. Lerchl, A. Changes in the seasonality of mortality in Germany from 1946 to 1995: the role of temperature. International journal of biometeorology, 42(2): 84-88 (1998).

75. Curwen, M. Excess winter mortality: a British phenomenon? Health trends, 22(4): 169-175 (1990).

76. McKee, C.M. Deaths in winter: can Britain learn from Europe? European journal of epidemiology, 5: 178-182 (1989).

77. McKee, M. et al. Seasonal variation in mortality in Moscow. Journal of public health medicine, 20(3): 268-274 (1998).

78. Donaldson, G.C. et al. Winter mortality and cold stress in Yekaterinberg, Russia: interview survey. BMJ, 316(7130): 514-518

79. Langford, I.H. & Bentham, G. The potential effects of climate change on winter mortality in England and Wales. International journal of biometeorology, 38: 141-147 (1995).

80. Martens, W.J.M. Climate change, thermal stress and mortality changes. Social science and medicine, 46(3): 331-344 (1998).

81. Martens, W.J.M. Health and climate change: modelling the impacts of global warming and ozone depletion. London, EarthScan, 1998.

82. Eurowinter Group. Cold exposure and winter mortality from ischae-mic heart diseases, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and all causes in warm and cold regions of Europe. Lancet, 349(9062): 1341-1346 (1997).

83. Bertollini, R. et al. Environment and health 1: overview and main European issues. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1996 (WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 68).

84. Touloumi, G. et al. Short-term effects of ambient oxidant exposure on mortality: a combined analysis within the APHEA project. American journal ofepidemiology, 146(2): 177-185 (1997).

85. Emberlin, J. The effects of patterns in climate and pollen abundance on allergy. Allergy, 49(suppl. 18): 15-20 (1994).

86. Beggs, P. & Curson, P. An integrated environmental asthma model. Archives of environmental health, 50: 87-93 (2000).

87. Anderson, H.R. Asthma and the environment. In: Understanding asthma. Leicester, Institute of Environment and Health, 1995, pp. 13-21.

88. Downing, T.E. et al., ed. Climate change and extreme events: altered risk, socio-economic impacts and policy responses. Oxford, Environmental Change Unit, University of Oxford, 1996.

89. European Environment Agency. Europe's environment. The second assessment. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, 1998.

90. Menne, B. et al. Floods and public health consequences, prevention and control measures. In: Sustainable flood prevention. Proceedings of a UN/ECE seminar. Geneva, United Nations, 2000.

91. Topics: annual review of natural catastrophes in 1997. Munich, Munich Re, 1998.

92. Ward, R.C. Floods: a geographical perspective. London, Mac-millan, 1978.

93. Alexander, D. Natural disasters. London, University College London Press, 1993.

94. Gruntfest, E. & Huber, C.J. Toward a comprehensive national assessment of flash flooding in the United States. Episodes, 14(1): 26-35 (1991).

95. Noji, E.K. Natural disaster management. In: Auerbach, P.S. & Geehr, E.C., ed. Management of wilderness and environmental emergencies. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mosby-Year Book Publishers, 1995, pp. 644663.

96. Bennet, G. Bristol floods 1968. Controlled survey of effects on health of local community disaster. British medical journal, 3(720): 454-458 (1970).

97. Abrahams, M.J. et al. The Brisbane floods, January 1974: their impact on health. Medical journal of Australia, 2(25-26): 936-939 (1976).

98. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. World disaster report 1997. New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.

99. Kriz, B. Infectious disease consequences of the massive 1997 summer floods in the Czech Republic. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1998 (document EUR/ICP/EHRO 02 05 02/12).

100. Kriz, B. et al. [Monitoring of the epidemiological situation in flooded areas of the Czech Republic in 1997.] Proceedings of the Conference DDD'98, Podebrady, 11-12 May 1998. Podebrady, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, 1998.

101. Simoes, J. et al. [Some aspects of Weil's disease epidemiology based on a recent epidemic after a flood in Lisbon (1967).] Anais da Escola Nacional de Saude Publica e de Medicina Tropical, 3: 19-32 (1969).

102. Dales, R.E. et al. Respiratory health effects of home dampness and molds among Canadian children. American journal of epidemiology, 134(2): 196-203 (1991).

103. Factors in the emergence of foodborne diseases. Newsletter of the WHO Surveillance Programme for Control of Foodborne Infections and Intoxications in Europe, No. 57: 5. Berlin, FAO/WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Food Hygiene and Zoonoses of the Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV), 1999.

104. Bentham, G. & Langford, I.H. Climate change and the incidence of food poisoning in England and Wales. International journal of biometeorology, 39(2): 81-86 (1995).

105. Cairncross, S. & Feachem, R. Environmental health engineering in the tropics: an introductory text. Chichester, John Wiley and Sons, 1993, pp. 1-17.

106. Bartram, J. et al., ed. Water and human health in Europe. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, in press.

107. Mackenzie, W.R. et al. Massive outbreak of waterborne Cryptosporidium infection in Milwaukee, Wisconsin: recurrence of illness and risk of secondary transmission. Clinical and infectious diseases, 21(1): 57-62 (1995).

108. Rose, J. et al. Climate and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Submitted to Journal of the American Waterworks Association.

109. De Gentile, L. et al. La dermitite cercarienne en Europe: un problème de santé publique nouveau. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 74: 159-163 (1995).

110. Pitt, S. et al. War in Tajikistan and re-emergence of Plasmodium falciparum. Lancet, 352(9136): 1279 (1998).

111. Nikolaeva, N.V [The review of studies of vector ecology in the Russian Federation.] [Bulletin of the Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia], 47(1-4): 73-83 (1996).

112. World malaria situation in 1994. Part III. Weekly epidemiological record, 72: 285-290 (1997).

113. Adak, B. et al. Quarterly communicable disease review April to June 1998. Journal of public health medicine, 20(4): 477-483 (1998).

114. Jetten, T.H. & Takken, W. Anophelism without malaria in Europe. A review of the ecology and distribution of the genus Anopheles in Europe. Wageningen, Wageningen Agricultural University, 1994 (Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 94-5).

115. Castelli, F. et al. Short report: imported mosquito: an uninvited guest. American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 50(5): 548-549 (1994).

116. Guillet, P. et al. Origin and prevention of airport malaria in France. Tropical medicine and international health, 3(9): 700-705 (1998).

117. Holvoet, G. et al. Autochthonous falciparum malaria in Belgium. Annales de la Société belge de médecine tropicale, 63: 111-117 (1983).

118. Baldari, M. et al. Malaria in Maremma, Italy. Lancet, 351(9111): 1246-1247 (1998).

119. Daskova, N.G. & Rasnicyn, S.P. Review of data on susceptibility of mosquitoes in the USSR to imported strains of malaria parasites. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 60: 893-897 (1982).

120. De Zulueta, J. et al. Receptivity to malaria in Europe. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 52: 109-111 (1975).

121. Marchant, P. et al. Could British mosquitoes transmit falciparum malaria? Parasitology today, 14(9): 344-345 (1998).

122. Ramsdale, C.D. & Coluzzi, M. Studies on the infectivity of tropical African strains of Plasmodium falciparum to some southern European vectors of malaria. Parassitologia, 17(1-3): 39-48 (1975).

123. Desjeux, P. Information on the epidemiology and control of the leishmaniases by country or territory ( WH0_LEISH_91.30.pdf). Geneva, World Health Organization, 1991 (document WH0/LEISH/91.30) (accessed 19 March 2000).

124. Dedet, J.P. et al. Leishmanioses et infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine. Presse médicale, 24(22): 1036-1040 (1995).

125. Kuhn, K. Climatic predictors of the abundance of sandfly vectors and the incidence of leishmaniasis in Italy. Thesis. London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1997.

126. Rioux, J.A. et al. Écologie des leishmanioses dans le sud de la France. 21. Influence de la température sur le développement de Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908 chez Phlebotomus ariasi Tonnoir, 1921. Étude expérimentale. Annales de parasitologic humaine et comparée, 60(3): 221-229 (1985).

127. Cross, E.R. et al. Use of weather data and remote sensing to predict the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in southwest Asia. American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 54(5): 530-536 (1996).

128. Cross, E.R. & Hyams, K.C. The potential effect of global warming on the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia. Environmental health perspectives, 104: 724727 (1996).

129. Gothe, R. et al. Leishmaniose des Hundes in Deutschland: epidemiologische Fallanalyse und Alternative zur bisherigen kausalen Therapie. Tierärztliche Praxis, 25(1): 68-73 (1997).

130. Rigau-Perez, J.G. et al. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Lancet, 352(9132): 971-977 (1998).

131. Gratz, N.G. & Knudsen, A.B. The rise and spread of dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever and its vectors: a historical review (up to 1995). Geneva, World Health Organization, 1996 (document CTD/ FIL(DEN)/96.7).

132. Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1989, p. 48 (document WHO/VBC/89.967).

133. Knudsen, A.B. et al. Occurrence and spread in Italy of Aedes albopictus, with implications for its introduction into other parts of Europe. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 12(2, part 1): 177-183 (1996).

134. Jetten, T.H. & Focks, D.A. Potential changes in the distribution of dengue transmission under climate warming. American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 57(3): 285-297 (1997).

135. Focks, D.A. et al. A simulation model of the epidemiology of urban dengue fever: literature analysis, model development, preliminary validation, and samples of simulation results. American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 53(5): 489-506 (1995).

136. Lindgren, E. Climate and tickborne encephalitis in Sweden (http:// Conservation ecology, 2: 5-7 (1998) (accessed 19 March 2000).

137. Tälleklint, L. & Jaenson, T.G.T. Increasing geographical distribution and density of the Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in central and northern Sweden. Journal of medical entomology, 35: 521-526 (1997).

138. Lindgren, E. et al. Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick, Ixodes ricinus. Environmental health perspectives, 108(2): 119-123 (2000).

139. Berglund, J. et al. An epidemiological study of Lyme disease in southern Sweden. New England journal of medicine, 333(20): 13191327 (1995).

140. Gustafson, R. Epidemiological studies of Lyme borreliosis and tickborne encephalitis. Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases, 26(suppl. 92): 1-63 (1994).

141. Randolph, S.E. & Rogers, D.J. Fragile transmission cycles of tickborne encephalitis virus may be disrupted by predicted climate change. Proceedings. Royal Society of London B (in press).

142. Bonn, D. Hantaviruses: an emerging threat to human health? Lancet, 352(9131): 886 (1998).

143. Alexander, J.B. et al. Distribution of Oriental and German cockroaches, Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica (Dicyoptera), in the United Kingdom. Medical and veterinary entomology, 5(4): 395402 (1991).

144. Armstrong, B.K. Stratospheric ozone and health. International journal of epidemiology, 23(5): 873-885 (1994).

145. The effects of solar UV radiation on the eye: report of an informal consultation, Geneva, 30 August-3 September 1993. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1994 (document WHO/PBL/EHG/94.1).

146. Solar and ultraviolet radiation. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, 55 (1992).

147. Ultraviolet radiation. An authoritative scientific review of environmental and health effects of UV with reference to global ozone layer depletion published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the World Health Organization. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1994 (Environmental Health Criteria 160).

148. Kricker, A. A dose-response curve for sun exposure and basal cell carcinoma. International journal of cancer, 60(4): 482-488 (1995).

149. Moan, J. & Dahlback, A. The relationship between skin cancers, solar radiation and ozone depletion. British journal of cancer, 65(6): 916-921 (1992).

150. Vitasa, B.C. et AL. Association of nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis with cumulative solar ultraviolet exposure in Maryland watermen. Cancer, 65(12): 2811-2817 (199o).

151. Czarnecki, D. et AL. The changing face of skin cancer in Australia. International journal of dermatology, 30(10): 715-717 (1991).

152. Kricker, A. et al. Skin cancer and ultraviolet. Nature, 368(6472): 594 (1994).

153. Philipp, R. et al. Are malignant melanoma time trends explained by changes in histopathological criteria for classifying pigmented skin lesions? Journal of epidemiology and community health, 42: 14-16 (1987).

154. Philipp, R. et al. Malignant melanoma incidence and association with arsenic. Bristol medico-chirurgical journal, 98(368): 165-169 (1983).

155. Philipp, R. et al. The pathogenesis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. British medical journal, 288(6412): 237 (1984).

156. Armstrong, B.K. & Kricker, A. How much melanoma is caused by sun exposure? Melanoma research, 3(6): 395-401 (1993).

157. Armstrong, B.K. & Kricker, A. Cutaneous melanoma. Cancer surveys, 19-20: 219-240 (1994).

158. Slaper, H. et al. Estimates of ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence to examine the Vienna Convention achievements. Nature, 384(6606): 256-258 (1996).

159. Garssen, J. et al. Estimation of the effect of increasing UVB exposure on the human immune system and related resistance to infectious diseases and tumours. Journal ofphotochemistry and photo-biology B, biology, 42: 167-179 (1998).

160. Goettsch, W. et al. Risk assessment for the harmful effects of UVB radiation on the immunological resistance to infectious diseases. Environmental health perspectives, 106(2): 71-77 (1998).

161. McMichael, A.J. & Hall, A.J. Does immunosuppressive ultraviolet radiation explain the latitude gradient for multiple sclerosis? Epidemiology, 8(6): 642-645 (1997).

162. Cookson, W.O.C.M. & Moffat, M.F. Asthma: an epidemic in the absence of infection. Science, 275(5296): 41-42 (1997).

163. Selgrade, M.K. et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced immune modulation: potential consequences for infectious, allergic, and autoimmune disease. Environmental health perspectives, 105(3): 332-334 (1997).

164. Parmesan, C. Climate and species' range. Nature, 382(6594): 765766 (1996).

165. Epstein, PR. et al. Biological and physical signs of climate change: focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(3): 409-417 (1998).

166. Mouchet, J. et al. Evolution of malaria for the past 40 years: impact of climate change and human factors. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 14: 121-130 (1998).

167. Tulu, A. Determinants of malaria transmission in the highlands of Ethiopia: the impact of global warming on morbidity and mortality ascribed to malaria. Thesis. London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1996.

168. National communications from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention. First compilation and synthesis of second national communications from Annex I Parties ( docs/1997/sbi/19.pdf). Bonn, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 30 September 1997 (FCCC/SBI/1997/19) (accessed 1 February 2000).

169. National communications from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention. First compilation and synthesis of second national communications from Annex I Parties. Addendum ( resource/docs/1997/sbi/19a1.pdf). Bonn, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 9 October 1997 (FCCC/SBI/1997/ 19/Add.1) (accessed 1 February 2000).

170. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( l07a01.htm). Bonn, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1997 (FCCC/CP/1997/L.7/Add.1) (accessed 1 February 2000).

171. Zwick, A. Climate change: research and policy. Recent results of global climate change research and assessment of carbon sequestration under the Joint Implementation scheme. Sevilla, Joint Research Centre, 1998 (CCR-Update No. 11, EUR 18088).

172. Parry, M.L. et al. Adapting to the inevitable. Nature, 395(6704): 741 (1998).

173. Davis, D.L. et al. Short-term improvements in public health from global-climate policies on fossil-fuel combustion: an interim report. Lancet, 350(9088): 1341-1349 (1997).

174. Ahmed, K.A. Overview of the current WRI project on human health and climate change. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1998 (document EUR/ICP/EHRO 02 05 02/1(a)).

175. World Resources Institute, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. World resources 1998-99. New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.

176. Haines, A. & McMichael, A.J. Global climate change and health: implications for research, monitoring, and policy. BMJ, 315(7112): 870-874 (1997).

177. Haines, A. et al. Global health watch: monitoring impacts of environmental change. Lancet, 342(8885): 1464-1469 (1993).

178. World Health Organization, Medical Research Council and United Nations Environment Programme. First InterAgency Workshop on Monitoring the Health Impacts of Climate Change. London, Medical Research Council, 1998.

179. Report of a WHO/EURO International Workshop on the Early Human Health Effects of Climate Change, 17-19 October 1998. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1998 (document).

180. Global Climate Observing System. Plan for the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). Version 1.0. Geneva, World Meteorological Association, 1995 (GCS-14, WMO/TD-No. 681).

181. A strategic plan for the assessment and prediction of the health of the ocean: a module of the Global Ocean Observing System. Paris, UNESCO, 1996 (I0C/INF-1044).

182. Global Terrestrial Observing System. GCOS/GTOS plan for terrestrial climate-related observations. Version 2.0. Geneva, GCOS Joint Planning Office, World Meteorological Association, 1997 (GTOS-11, GCOS-32, WMO-TD-No. 796, UNEP/DEIA/Tr97-7).

183. Last, J.M. Redefining the unacceptable. Lancet, 346(8991-8992): 1642-1643 (1995).

Annex 1

Policy document prepared for the Third Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health, London, 6-18 June 1999

Was this article helpful?

+1 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment