A simple CSTR without biomass recycle or biolilm would require a volume of 70 L to achieve the same effluent substrate concentration. As in Example, the benefit of the biofilm is apparent.

Parameter Estimation. Before the pseudoanalytical approach can be used, values must be available for the parameters in the model. Since the Monod kinetic parameters represent the kinetics of the biomass in the absence of mass transfer limitations, theoretically, one could use kinetic parameters determined with suspended growth cultures. However, the growth of biomass in a biofilm alters its physiological state." Consequently, the parameters should be determined for biomass

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