Figure 11.3 Typical vertical (A) and horizontal (B) mixers for anaerobic and anoxic zones.

Biological Nitrogen Removal Processes. Nitrogen removal processes incorporate aerobic zones for nitrification, anoxic zones for denitrification, and mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) to transfer the nitrate-N generated in the aerobic zone back to the initial anoxic zone. Many configurations are possible, resulting in a wide variety of performance capabilities and operational characteristics.

Figure 11.4 illustrates the modified Ludzak-Ettinger (MLE) process,'14 which is discussed in detail in Section 7.5. The denitrification rate in the anoxic zone is

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