ammonia-N concentrations that lie in zone AH will result in a two-species biofilm in which both nitrification and carbon oxidation occur. However, the larger the bulk liquid COD associated with a given ammonia-N concentration, the greater the contributions of the heterotrophs to the biofilm. These effects of competition for space and oxygen have a strong effect on the design of biofilm processes for carbon oxidation and nitrification as we will see in Chapters 19, 20 and 21.
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