A schematic diagram of a single CSTR is shown in Figure 5.1. A bioreactor with volume V receives a flow at rate F containing only soluble, noninhibitory, biodegradable organic substrate at concentration Sso (in COD units) and sufficient inorganic nutrients to make the organic substrate the growth limiting material. The influent flow and concentrations are constant, as are pH, temperature, and other environmental conditions. Within the bioreactor the heterotrophic biomass uses the substrate as its food source, thereby growing to concentration X,4,, while reducing the substrate concentration to Ss. Biomass decay accompanies the growth so that
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