Contents

1 Introduction 1

Keith A. Smith

2 Microbial Terrestrial Pathways to Nitrous Oxide 4

Elizabeth M. Baggs and Laurent Philippot

3 Marine Pathways to Nitrous Oxide 36

Hermann W. Bange, Alina Freing, Annette Kock, and Carolin R. Löscher

4 The Global Nitrous Oxide Budget: A Reassessment 63

Keith A. Smith, Paul J. Crutzen, Arvin R. Mosier and Wilfried Winiwarter

5 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Nitrogen Cycle in Arable Agriculture: Estimation and Mitigation 85

A. F. (Lex) Bouwman, Elke Stehfest and Chris van Kessel

6 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Nitrogen Cycle in Livestock Agriculture: Estimation and Mitigation 107

Cecile A. M. de Klein, Richard J. Eckard and Tony J. van der Weerden

7 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Land-Use and Land-Management Change

Franz Conen and Albrecht Neftel

8 Indirect Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Nitrogen Deposition and Leaching Of Agricultural Nitrogen

Reinhard Well and Klaus Butterbach-Bahl

9 Abiotic Nitrous Oxide Sources: Chemical Industry and Mobile and Stationary Combustion Systems

Peter Wiesen

10 Conclusions and Future Outlook

Keith A. Smith

Contributors

Acronyms and abbreviations Index

218 222 224

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