Miracle Farm Blueprint

Organic Farming Manual

Get Instant Access


Fig. 8.2 Radiative forcing of all the long-lived greenhouse gases relative to 1750



Fig. 8.2 Radiative forcing of all the long-lived greenhouse gases relative to 1750

gases. Of the five long-lived greenhouse gases that contribute 97% to radiative climate forcing, CO2 and N2O are the only ones that continue to increase at a regular rate. The contribution to radiative forcing by methane and CFCs has been nearly constant or declining, respectively, in recent years. While the radiative forcing of the long-lived, well-mixed greenhouse gases increased by about 22% from 1990 to 2006 (~0.50 watts m-2), CO2 has accounted for about 80% of this increase (~0.40 watts m-2). Had the ozone-depleting gases not been regulated by the Montreal Protocol, it is estimated that climate forcing would have been as much as 0.2 watt m-2 higher (Velders et al. 2007), or about one-half of the increase in radiative forcing due to CO2 alone since 1990. According to IPCC estimates, nitrous oxide has caused an atmospheric radiative forcing of 0.15 Wm-2 or 6% of the enhanced radiative forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases from pre-industrial to present times. To total radiative foring of 2.43 Wm-2, other contributions are 1.46, 0.48 and 0.34 Wm-2 by CO2, CH4 and halocarbons, respectively (IPCC 2001).

Radiative forcing by N2O emitted from crop fields would vary widely from experiment to experiment due to wide variability in the emissions itself. Even though N2O is much more potent than CH4, another major greenhouse gas contributed by crop fields, seasonal emission per unit area of the former is lesser under rice, for example, and so is its radiative forcing, calculated as kg-CO2 equivalent (Ghosh et al. 2003; Malla et al. 2005; Bhatia et al. 2005). When radiative forcing is calculated from the data of Ghosh et al. (2003), CH4 had much higher global warming potential than N2O on all time scales on seasonal basis but when calculated from Cai et al. (1999), N2O had higher radiative forcing on hourly emission basis than CH4 on 100 and 500-year time scales, both under rice. But, the combined seasonal radiative forcing of CH4 and N2O is quite significant and considering the large area under crop cultivation worldwide, the contribution of crop cultivation to global warming may be appreciable. Yan et al. (2003) have found that total GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions in the rice-growing season, under the condition of increasing organic matter application (such as that of 4.5 thm-2), with drainage only 60% of that of permanent flooding. Thus, it can be concluded that intermittent drainage may be an effective strategy for the minimization of total radiative forcing from emissions of N2O and CH4 from rice fields. On the other hand, N2O emissions from crops grown under aerobic soil condition are often more than CH4 emissions, latter even showing negative emissions sometimes (Bronson and Mosier 1993). In many occasions, N2O emissions have been found to be more from wheat fields than rice, two of the most important crops worldwide, implying that CO2-equivalent emissions and radiative forcing of N2O could be higher from wheat cultivation under a given set of climate and soil conditions (Bhatia et al. 2005). Since global crop production needs to be increased to feed world's burgeoning population and it implies that high nitrogen input to crop cultivation remains unabated and hence positive radiative forcing of atmosphere will continue unabated. Efforts are to be made to optimize CH4 and N2O emission trade-off from crop fields, so that their combined radiative forcing remains at a minimum.

8.12 Strategies for N2O Mitigation from Crop Fields

The underlying principle of N2O mitigation from agriculture is increasing fertilizer N use efficiency. Several practices have been followed for the last three-four decades to increase N use efficiency in field crops even before the days of N2O monitoring, since N use efficiency has always been of prime importance in crop production (Katyal et al. 1985; DeDatta 1995). According to IPCC (1995), by better matching of N supply to crop demand and more closely integrating animal waste and crop-residue management with crop production, N2O emission could be reduced by about 0.38MtN2O-N from agriculture, while by using improved techniques, like controlled release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors, timing and water management, additional 0.30MtN2O-N can be reduced (Table 8.7). Regional or country wise mitigation strategies have also been mooted by several research groups e.g. Follett et al. (2005) for USA and Gregorich et al. (2005) for Canada.

Several strategies have been also formulated to mitigate N2O emissions from rice cultivation (Beauchamp 1997; Mosier et al. 1996). Majumdar (2003) has proposed several N2O mitigation strategies for irrigated rice. Exclusive rice agronomic practices, like water management, suitable fertilizer placements (Schnier 1995) and common practices, like coated urea (Majumdar et al. 2000), nitrification inhibitors (Kumar et al. 2000; Ghosh et al. 2003; Mosier et al. 1994), have been tried to increase N-use efficiency in rice, many of which were able to increase N-use efficiency and simultaneously mitigate N2O emissions.

Table 8.7 A list of practices to improve use efficiency of synthetic fertilizer and manure N in agriculture and expected reduction of N2O emissions assuming global application of mitigation practices (Mt N yr'1) (IPCC 1995)_

Estimated decrease in Practices followed N2O emissions

Match N supply with crop demand 0.24a

Use soil/plant testing to determine fertilizer N needs Minimize fallow periods to limit mineral N accumulation Optimize split application schemes

Match N application to reduced production goals in regions of crop over-production

Tighten N flow cycles 0.14b

Integrate animal and crop production systems in terms of manure reuse in plant production Maintain plant residue N on the production site

Use advanced fertilization techniques 0.15c

Controlled release fertilizers

Place fertilizers below the soil surface

Foliar application of fertilizers

Use nitrification inhibitors

Match fertilizer type to seasonal precipitation

Optimize tillage, irrigation and drainage 0.15d

Total 0.68

a Assumed that fertilizer N use efficiency can be increased to save 20% of N applied in North America, Europe and FSU (CAST 1992; Doerge et al. 1991; Iserman 1994; Peoples et al. 1995). bTightening N cycles may decrease the need for 20% of the N that is used currently in North America, Europe and FSU, thus saving 20% of fertilizer and reducing N2O from manure by the same amount where applicable (Buresh et al. 1993; Iserman 1994).

cControlled release fertilizers (Minami 1994), nitrification inhibitors (Bronson et al. 1992; Keerthisinghe et al. 1993; McTaggart et al. 1994; Minami 1994) and matching fertilizer type with seasonal precipitation can decrease N2O emissions in the range of 40-90%. We assume that 10% of all fertilizer-derived N2O production can be decreased by 50%.

dThere is little published data to confirm this assumption (Granli and Bockman 1994). A conservative assumption of a 5% decrease, that can be achieved globally, is used.

8.13 Concluding Remarks and Future Research Needs

We are in the fourth decade of nitrous oxide monitoring from crop fields and this period has witnessed an evolution of N2O monitoring methods and detectors, tapping of possibly all pathways of N2O loss from crop fields, development of N2O mitigation strategies, development of N2O simulation models and streamlining of methodologies and calculations for regional and global N2O budgets. There are several doubts and uncertainties still, but no doubt, monitoring, quantification and prediction are better than ever before. This is a welcome development keeping in view the gloomy future under the shadows of enhanced global warming predicted by IPCC (http://www.ipcc.ch). After appreciating the importance and magnitude of N2O emissions from crop fields, primary emphasis has been laid on N2O mitigation management and practices that ensure no yield reduction, negligible environmental damage and no burden on financial resources. A reduction in application of N

fertilizers and organic manures would surely reduce N2O emissions from crops, but would also reduce crop production unless either acreage or yield potential of crop is increased. Though nitrification inhibitors and slow release N-fertilizers can mitigate N2O emission, they are not popularly used in farmers' fields due to lack of publicity, non-availability, high price etc. Farmers need to be enlightened about the benefits of nitrification inhibitors and slow release N-fertilizers in N-use efficiency and crop yield through proper extension activities and policy changes in favour of their use could lead to a larger scale application.

Simultaneous monitoring of all the greenhouse gases (e.g. N2O, CH4 and CO2) emitted from crop fields and their control to keep the total CO2 equivalent emissions at minimum should be the target. Since several of the control strategies of these gases are conflicting i.e. they minimize one but favour another, it puts an onus on the researchers to formulate special control measures to keep the overall CO2 equivalent emissions at minimum. Further, mitigation practices should be targeted for the entire cropping system, by adjustments, like no fallowing, various other post-harvest land management practices, no excessive fertilization and more use of nitrification and urease inhibitors and slow release/controlled availability N-fertilizers for better N use efficiency and crop yield. The strategies should be effective, easily applicable, technically feasible, remunerative, less time taking and at the same time easily understood and accepted by farmers. Labor requirement, effects on crop yield and soil fertility and short and long term environmental sustainability are other important considerations. More research impetus and funding on the greenhouse gas mitigation have to be generated. Even IPCC (IPCC 1996b) has recognized that only a little national and international funding is available for extensive research in this area, which is needed to make realistic regional and global N2O budgets.


Abao EB Jr, Bronson KF, Wassmann R, Singh U (2000) Simultaneous records of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in rice-based cropping systems under rainfed conditions. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 58:131-139

Akiyama H, Tsuruta H (2003) Nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide fluxes from soils after manure and urea application. J Environ Qual 32:423-431 Ambus P, Jensen JM, Priem A, Pilegaard K, Kjoller A (2001) Assessment of CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Danish beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest and an adjacent N-fertilised barley (Hordeum vulgare) field: effects of sewage sludge amendments. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:15-21 Arcara PG, Gamba C, Bidini D, Marchetti R (1999) The effect of urea and pig slurry fertilization on denitrification, direct nitrous oxide emission, volatile fatty acids, water-soluble carbon and anthrone-reactive carbon in maize-cropped soil from the Po plain (Modena, Italy). Biol Fertil Soils 29:270-276

Arnold PW (1954) Losses of nitrous oxide from soil. J Soil Sci 5:116-128 Aulakh MS, Khera TS, Doran JW, Bronson KF (2001) Denitrification, N2O and CO2 fluxes in rice-wheat cropping system as affected by crop residues, fertilizer N and legume green manure. Biol Fertil Soils 34:375-389 Bai H, Zhang Y, Han J, Li C (2003) Nitrous oxide emission and urease activity in wheat. Bull

Environ Contam Toxicol 71:1282-1288 Baird C (1995) Environmental Chemistry. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA

Ball BC, Scott A, Parker JP (1999) Field N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes in relation to tillage, compaction and soil quality in Scotland. Soil Till Res 53:29-39 Beauchamp EG (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils. Can J Soil Sci 77:113-123 Bertora C, van Vliet PCJ, Hummelink EWJ, van Groenigen JW (2007) Do earthworms increase

N2O emissions in ploughed grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 39:632-640 Bhatia A, Pathak H, Aggarwal PK (2004) Inventory of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils of India and their global warming potential. Curr Sci 87:317-324 Bhatia A, Pathak H, Jain N, Singh PK, Singh AK (2005) Global warming potential of manure amended soils under rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plains. Atmos Environ 39:69766984

Boeckx P, Moortel EV, Van Cleemput O (2001) Spatial and sectorial disaggregation of N2O emissions from agriculture in Belgium. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:197-208 Bolle HJ, Seiler W, Bolin B (1986) Other greenhouse gases and aerosols. Assessing their role in atmospheric radiative transfer. In: Bolin B, Doos BR, Jager J, Warrick RA (eds), The Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change and Ecosystems, SCOPE vol. 29. Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 157-203

Bouwman AF (1996) Direct emissions of nitrous oxide from agricultural soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 46:53-70

Brasseur GP, Orlando JJ, Tyndall GS (1999) Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change. Oxford

University Press, New York Bremner JM, Brietenbeck GA, Blackmer AM (1981) Effect of anhydrous ammonia fertilization on emissions of nitrous oxide from soil. J Environ Qual 10:77-80 Bronson KF, Mosier AR, Bishnoi SR (1992) Nitrous oxide emissions in irrigated corn as affected by nitrification inhibitors. Soil Sc Soc Am J 56:161-165 Bronson KF, Mosier AR (1993) Nitrous oxide emissions and methane consumption in wheat and corn-cropped systems in Nothern Colorado. In: Agricultural Ecosystem Effects on trace Gases and Global Climate Change (ASA Special Publication no. 55). American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, USA, pp 133144

Bronson KF, Neue HU, Singh U, Abao EB Jr (1997a) Automated chamber measurements of methane and nitrous oxide flux in a flooded rice soil: I. Residue, nitrogen and water management. Soil Sc Soc Am J 61:981-987 Bronson KF, Singh U, Neue HU, Abao EB Jr (1997b) Automated chamber measurement of methane and nitrous oxide flux in a flooded rice soil: II Fallow period emission. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:988-993

Brown L, Brown SA, Jarvis SC, Syed B, Goulding KWT, Phillips VR, Sneath RW, Pain BF (2001) An inventory of nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture in the UK using the IPCC methodology: emission estimate, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Atmos Environ 35:1439-1449 Buresh RJ, Chua TT, Castillo EG, Liboon SP, Garrity DP (1993) Fallow and Sesbania effects on soil nitrogen dynamics in lowland rice-based cropping systems. Agron J 85:316-321 Burton DL, Bergstrom DW, Covert JA, Wagner-Riddle, C., Beauchamp, EG (1997) Three methods to estimate N2O fluxes as impacted by agricultural management. Can J Soil Sci 77:125-134 Cai Z, Xing G, Shen GY, Xu H, Yan XY, Tsuruta H, Yagi K, Minami K (1999) Measurements of

CH4 and N2O from rice paddies in Fengqiu, China. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 45:1-13 Cai ZC, Xing GX, Yan XY, Xu H, Tsuruta H, Yagi K, Minami K (1997) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddy fields as affected by nitrogen fertilizers and water management. Plant Soil 196:7-14

CAST (1992) Preparing US agriculture for global climate change. Task Force Report. No. 119.

Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, LA, USA, p 96 Cates RL Jr., Keeney DR (1987) Nitrous oxide production throughout the year from fertilized and manured maize fields. J Environ Qual 16:443-447 Chao CC (1997) Nitrous oxide emission from paddy field, upland, wetland, forest and slopeland in Central and Southern Taiwan and their effects factors. In: Lu SC, Liu CM, Yang SS (eds),

Research on Atmospheric Environments of Taiwan Area. Taiwan, Global Change Research Centre and Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, pp 173-194 Chapuis-Lardy L, Wrage N, Metay A, Chotte J, Berno UX (2007) Soils, a sink for N2O? A review.

Global Change Biol 13:1-17 Chaudhary MA, Akramkhanov A, Saggar S (2001) Nitrous oxide emission in soils croppped with maize under long term tillage and under permanent pasture in New Zealand. Soil Till Res 62:61-71

Chen GX, Huang B, Xu B, Zhang Y, Huang GH, Yu KW, Hou AX, Du R, Han SJ, VanCleemput O (2000) Nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems in China. Chemosphere-Global Change Sci 2:373-378

Chen GX, Huang GH, Huang B, Yu KW, Wu J, Xu H (1997) Nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil-plant systems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 49:41-45 Chen GX, Huang GH, Huang P, Wu J, Yu KW, Xu H, Xie XH (1995) CH4 and N2O emission from a rice field and effect of Azolla and fertilization on them. Chinese J Appl Ecol 6:378-382 Chen X, Cabrera ML, Zhang L, Wu J, Shi Y, Yu WT, Shen SM (2002) Nitrous oxide emission from upland crops and crop-soil systems in northeastern China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 62:241-247 Cicerone RJ (1989) Analysis of sources and sinks of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). J Geophys Res 94:18265-18271

Cole V, Cerri C, Minami K, Mosier AR, Rosenburg N, Sauerback D (1996) Agricultural options for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. In: Watson R, Zinyowera M, Moss R (eds), Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. IPCC Working Group II, Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp 745-771 Crutzen PJ (1970) Influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content. J Roy Meteor Soc London 96:320-325

Crutzen PJ, Ehhalt DH (1977). Effect of nitrogen fertilizers and combustion on stratospheric ozone layer. Ambio 6:112-117

Davidson EA (1991) Fluxes of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from terrestrial ecosystems. In: Rogers JE, Whitman WB (eds), Microbial Production and Consumption of Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrogen Oxides and Halomethanes. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA, pp 219-235

DeDatta SK (1995) Nitrogen transformations in wetland rice ecosystems. Fert Res 42:193-203 DeDatta SK, Magnaye CP, Moomaw JC (1968) Efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen (15N labeled) for flooded rice. Trans. 9th International soil science congress, Adelaide, Australia, pp 67-76 Del Grosso SJ, Mosier AR, Parton, WJ and Ojima DS (2005) DAYCENT model analysis of past and contemporary soil N2O and net greenhouse gas flux for major crops in the USA. Soil Till Res 83:9-24

Del Grosso SJ, Parton WJ, Mosier AR, Hartman MD, Keough CA, Peterson GA, Ojima, DS and Schimel DS (2001) Simulated effects of land use, soil texture and precipitation on N gas emissions using DAYCENT. In: Follet RF, Hatfield JL (eds), Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems and Management. Elsevier Science The Netherlands, pp 413-431 Delariche CC, Bissell S, Virginia R (1978) Soil and other sources of nitrous oxide. In: Nielsen DR, MacDonald JG (eds), Nitrogen-in-the-Environment: Nitrogen Behaviour in the Field Soil. Academic Press Inc., London, UK. Ltd., pp 459-476 Denmead OT, Freney JR, Simpson JR (1979) Nitrous oxide emission during denitrification in a flooded field. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:716-718 Ding W, Cai Y, Cai Z, Yagi K, Zheng X (2007) Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively cultivated maize-wheat rotation soil in the North China Plain. Sci Total Environ 373:501-511 Doerge TA, Roth RL, Gardner BR (1991) Nitrogen fertilizer management in Arizona. College of

Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA Duxbury JM, Harper LA, Mosier AR (1993) Contributions of agroecosystems to global climate change. In: Rolston DE, Duxbury JM, Harper LH, Mosier AR (eds), Agricultural Ecosystem Effects on Trace Gases and Global Climate Change, ASA Special Publication 55. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, USA, p 118

Duxbury JM, Mcconnaughey PK (1986) Effect of fertilizer source on denitrification and nitrous oxide emissions in a maize-field. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:644-648 Eichner MJ (1990) Nitrous oxide emission from fertilized soils: summary of available data. J Environ Qual 19:272-280

EPA (1995) State Workbook: Methodology for estimating greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation. Washington, DC, USA, pp D9-1-D9-5

Fillery IRP, Simpson JR, DeDatta SK (1984) Influence of field environment and fertilizer management on ammonia loss from flooded rice. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:914-920 Fillery IRP, Simpson JR, DeDatta SK (1986) Contribution of ammonia volatilization to total nitrogen loss after applications of urea to wetland rice fields. Fert Res 9:79-98 Flessa H, Potthoff M, Loftfield N (2002) Greenhouse estimates of CO2 and N2O emissions following surface application of grass mulch: importance of indigenous microflora of mulch. Soil Biol Biochem 34:875-879 Follett RF, Shafer SR, Jawson MD, Franzluebbers AJ (2005) Research and implementation needs to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture in the USA. Soil Till Res 83:159-166 Freney JR, Denmead OT, Simpson JR (1979) Nitrous oxide emission from soil at low moisture contents. Soil Biol Biochem 11:167-173 Freney JR, Denmead OT, Watanabe I, Craswell ET (1981) Ammonia and nitrous oxide losses from following applications of ammonium sulfate to flooded rice. Aust J Agric Res 32:37-45 Ghosh S, Majumdar D, Jain MC (2003) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated upland rice of North India. Chemosphere-Global Change Sci 51:181-195 Granli T, Bockman OC (1994) Nitrous oxide from agriculture. Nor J Agric Sci 128 Gregorich EG, Rochette P, VandenBygaart AJ, Angers DA (2005) Greenhouse gas contributions of agricultural soils and potential mitigation practices in Eastern Canada. Soil Till Res 83:53-72 Hahn J, Junge C (1977) Atmospheric nitrous oxide: a critical review. Z Naturforsch 32:190-214 Hofmann DJ, Butler JH, Conway TJ, Dlugokencky EJ, Elkins JW, Masarie K, Montzka SA, Schnell RC, Tans P (2006b) Tracking climate forcing: the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, EOS, Trans Amer Geophys Union 87:509-511 Hofmann DJ, Butler JH, Dlugokencky EJ, Elkins JW, Masarie K, Montzka SA, Tans P (2006a) The role of carbon dioxide in climate forcing from 1979-2004: Introduction of the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, Tellus B 58B:614-619 Holtan-Hartwig L, Bechmann M, Risnes H0yas T, Linjordet R, Reier Bakken L (2002) Heavy metals tolerance of soil denitrifying communities: N2O dynamics. Soil Biol Biochem 34:11811190

Hou AX, Chen GX, Wang ZP, VanCleemput O, Patrick WH Jr. (2000) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a rice field in relation to soil redox and microbiological processes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:2180-2186

Houghton JT, Meira Filho LG, Bruce J, Lee H, Callander BA, Haites E, Harris N, Maskell K 1994. Climate Change (1994) Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an evaluation of the IPCC IS 92 Emission Scenarios, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK IPCC (1990) Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, IPCC Working Group I In: Houghton JT, Jenkins GJ, Ephraums JJ (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p 365

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (1996a) Climate change 1995: IPCC second assessment report. Vol. 1. The science of climate change. Houghton JT, Filho LGM, Callander BA, Harris N, Kaltenberg A, Maskell K (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge IPCC (1996b) Climate Change 1995: Impacts, adaptations and mitigation climate change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of working group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Watson RT, Zinyowera MC and Moss RH (eds), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: A Scientific Basis: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

Iserman K (1994) Agriculture's share in the emission of trace gases affecting the climate and some cause oriented proposal for reducing this share. Environ Poll 83:95-111 Jacinthe PA, Dick WA (1997) Soil management and nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated fields in southern Ohio. Soil Till Res 41:221-235 Katyal JC, Singh B, Sharma VK, Craswell ET (1985) Efficiency of some modified urea fertilizers for wetland rice grown on a permeable soil. Fert Res 8:137-146 Keerthisinghe DG, Freney JR, Mosier AR (1993) Effect of wax-coated calcium carbide and nitrapyrin on nitrogen loss and methane emission from dry-seeded flooded rice. Biol Fertil Soils 16:71-75

Krishna Prasad V, Stinner B, Stinner D, Cardina J, Moore R, Gupta PK, Tsuruta H, Tanabe K, Badarinath KVS and Hoy C (2003) Trends in food production and nitrous oxide emissions from the agriculture sector in India: environmental implications. Reg Environ Change 3:128-127 Kroeze C, Mosier A, Bouwman L (1999) Closing the N2O budget: a retrospective analysis 15001994, Global Biogeochem Cycles 13:1-8 Kumar U, Jain MC, Pathak H, Kumar S, Majumdar D (2000) Nitrous oxide emissions from different fertilizers and its mitigation by nitrification inhibitors in irrigated rice. Biol Fertil Soils 32:474-478

Lai CM (1998) Nitrous oxide emissions from upland, forest soil and landfill in the Northern Taiwan area and their affecting factors. In: Lu SC, Liu CM, Yang SS (eds), Research on Atmospheric Environments of Taiwan Area (III) Taiwan: Global Change Research Centre and Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, pp 105-117 Lai CM (2000) Mitigation strategies of nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils (II). In: Yang SS (ed) Flux and Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases (II). Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Agricultural Exhibition Hall, National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan, pp 110-126 Leuenberger M, Siegenthaler U (1992) Ice age atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide from an

Antarctic ice core. Nature 360:449-451 Li C, Frolking S, Frolking TA (1992) A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events. I. Model structure and sensitivity. J Geophys Res 97:9777-9796 Li C, Frolking S, Harris R (1994) Modeling carbon biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. Global

Biogeochem Cycles 8:237-254 Li C, Mosier A, Wassmann R, Cai Z, Zheng X, Huang Y, Tsuruta H, Boonjawat J, Lantin R (2004) Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from rice-based production systems: sensitivity and upscaling, Global Biogeochem Cycles 18:GB1043, doi:10.1029/2003GB002045 Li C, Zhuang Y, Cao M, Crill P, Dai Z, Frolking S, Moore III B, Salas W, Song W, Wang X (2001) Comparing a process-based agro-ecosystem model to the IPCC methodology for developing a national inventory of N2O emissions from arable lands in China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:159-175

Li Z, Kelliher FM (2005) Determining nitrous oxide emissions from subsurface measurements in grazed pasture: a field trial of alternative technology. Aust J Soil Res 43:677-687 Lindau CW and DeLaune RD (1991) Dinitrogen and nitrous oxide emission and entrapment in Spartina alterniflora saltmarsh soils following addition of N-15 labelled ammonium and nitrate. Estuar Coastal Shelf Sci 32:161-172 Lindau CW, DeLaune RD, Patrick WH Jr., Bollich PK (1990a) Fertilizer effects on dinitrogen, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions from lowland rice. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:1789-1794 Lindau CW, Patrick WH Jr., Delaune RD, Reddy KR (1990b) Rate of accumulation and emissions of N2, N2O and CH4 from a flooded rice soil. Plant Soil 129:269-276 Lindau CW, Wickersham P, Delaune RD, Collins JW, Bollick PK, Scott LM, Lambremont, EN (1998) Methane and nitrous oxide evolution and 15N and 226Ra uptake as affected by application of gypsum and phosphogypsum to Louisiana rice. Agric Ecosyst Environ 68:165-173 Linke WF (1965) Solubilities, inorganic and metal-organic compounds (Vol. II, 4th ed), American

Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA Linzmeier W, Gutser R, Schmidhalter U (2001) Nitrous oxide emission from soil and from a nitrogen-15-labelled fertilizer with the new nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP). Biol Fertil Soils 34:103-108

Liu XJ, Mosier AR, Halvorson AD, Reule CA, Zhang FS (2007) Dinitrogen and N2O emissions in arable soils: effect of tillage, N source and soil moisture. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2362-2370 Longoria-Ramirez R, Carbajal-Benitez G, Mar-Morales BE, Ruiz-Suarez LG (2003) Nitrous oxide flux in maize and wheat cropped soils in the central region of Mexico during "El Nino" year 1998. Atmosfera 16:231-244 Lopez-Fernandez S, Diez JA, Hernaiz P, Arce A, Garcia-Torres L, Vallejo A (2007) Effects of fertiliser type and the presence or absence of plants on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 78:279-289 Lu WS, Zhang JG, Liao ZW (1997) CH4 and N2O fluxes from late rice fields in Guangzhou region and their affecting factors. Chinese J Appl Ecol 8:275-278 MacKenzie AF, Fan MX, Cadrin F (1997) Nitrous oxide emission as affected by tillage, corn soybeanalfaalfa rotations and nitro fertilization. Can J Soil Sci 77:145-152 Mahmood T, Ali R, Malik KA, Shamsi SRA (1998) Nitrous oxide emissions from an irrigated sandy-clay loam cropped to maize and wheat. Biol Fertil Soils 27:189-196 Majumdar D (2003) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated rice: proposed mitigation strategies. Curr Sci 84:1317-1326 Majumdar D (2005) Past, present and future of nitrous oxide emissions from rice Fields: a treatise. In: Livengston JV (ed) Trends in Air Pollution Research. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., USA, pp 53-114

Majumdar D, Dutta A, Kumar S, Pathak H, Jain, MC (2001) Karanjin - An effective mitigator of

N2O emission from an alluvial soil. Biol Fertil Soils 33:438-442 Majumdar D, Kumar S, Pathak H, Jain MC, Kumar U (2000) Reducing nitrous oxide emission from rice field with nitrification inhibitors. Agric Ecosyst Environ 81:163-169 Majumdar D, Pathak H, Kumar S, Jain MC (2002) Nitrous oxide emission from a wheat field as influenced by different nitrification inhibitors. Agric Ecosyst Environ 91:283-293 Maljanen A, Liikanen A, Silvola J, Martikainen PJ (2003) Measuring N2O emissions from organic soils by closed chamber or soil/snow N2O gradient methods. European J Soil Sci 54:625-631 Malla G, Bhatia A, Pathak H, Prasad S, Jain N, Singh J (2005) Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors. Chemosphere 58:141-147 McElroy MB, Woofsy SC (1985) Nitrous oxide sources and sinks. In: World Meteorological Organization, Atmospheric Ozone 1985, Vol. 1. NASA, Washington, DC, USA McElroy MB, Woofsy SC (1986) Tropical forests: interactions with the atmosphere. In: Prance GT

(ed) Tropical Rain Forests and the World Atmosphere. Boulder, Colorado, USA, pp 33-60 McTaggart I, Clayton H, Smith K (1994) Nitrous oxide flux from fertilized grassland: strategies for reducing emissions. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 421-426 McTaggart IP, Clayton H, Parker J, Swan L, Smith KA (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from grassland and spring barley, following N fertiliser application with and without nitrification inhibitors Biol Fertil Soils 25:261-268 Meijide A, Diez JA, Sanchez-Martin L, Lopez-Fernandez S, Vallejo A (2007) Nitrogen oxide emissions from an irrigated maize crop amended with treated pig slurries and composts in a Mediterranean climate. Agric Ecosyst Environ 121:383-394 Minami K (1994) Effect of nitrification inhibitors and slow release fertilizer on nitrous oxide from fertilized soils. In: Minami K, Mosier A, Sass R (eds), CH4 and N2O Global Emissions and Controls from Rice Fields and Other Agricultural and Industrial Sources. NIAES Series 2, Yokendo Publishers, Tokyo, Japan, pp 187-196 Minami K, Fukushi S (1984) Methods for measuring N2O flux from water surface and N2O dissolved in water from agricultural land. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 30:495-502 Mogge B, Kaiser EA, Munch JC (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions and denitrification N-losses from agricultural soils in the Bornhoved Lake region: influence of organic fertilizers and land-use. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1245-1252

Moraghan JT, Buresh R (1977) Correction for dissolved nitrous oxide in nitrogen studies. Soil Sc

Soc Am J 41:1201-1202 Morkved PT, Dorsch P, Henriksenc TM, Bakken LR (2006) N2O emissions and product ratios of nitrification and denitrification as affected by freezing and thawing. Soil Biol Biochem 38:3411-3420

Mosier A, Kroeze C, Nevison C, Oenema O, Seitzinger S, van Cleemput O (1998a) Closing the global N2O budget: nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 52:225-248 Mosier AR, Bronson KF, Freney JR and Keertisinghe G (1994) Use of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from urea fertilized soils. In: CH4 and N2O: Global Emissions and Controls from Rice Fields and Other Agricultural and Industrial Sources. NIAES, China, pp 197-207

Mosier AR, Delgado JA, Keller M (1998b) Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in an acid oxisol in western Puerto Rico: effects of tillage, liming and fertilization. Soil Biol Biochem 30:20872098

Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Freney JR, Heinemeyer O, Minami K (1996) Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields: assessment, measurement and mitigation. Plant Soil 181:95-108 Mosier AR, Hutchinson GL (1981) Nitrous oxide emissions from crop fields. J Environ Qual 10:169-173

Mosier AR, Hutchinson GL, Sabey BR, Baxter J (1982) Nitrous oxide emissions from barley plots treated with ammonium nitrate and sewage sludge. J Environ Qual 11(1):78-81 Nakicenovic N, Alcamo J, Davis G, Vries BD, Fenhann J, Gaffin S, Gregory K, GrĂ¼bler A, Jung TY, Kram T, Rovere ELL, Michaelis L, Mori S, Morita T, Pepper W, Pitcher H, Price L, Riahi K, Roehrl RA, Rogner HH, Sankovski A, Schlesinger M, Shukla P, Smith S, Swart R, Rooijen SV, Victor N, Dadi Z (2000). IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p 599 Nevison C (2000) Review of the IPCC methodology for estimating nitrous oxide emissions associated with agricultural leaching and runoff. Chemosphere-Global Change Sci 2:493-500 Olivier JGJ, Bouwman AF, van der Hoek KW, Berdowski JJM (1998) Global air emission inventories for anthropogenic sources of NOx, NH3 and N2O in 1990. Environ Pollut 102:135-148 Pathak H (1999) Emissions of nitrous oxide from soil. Curr Sci 77:101-111 Pathak H, Bhatia A, Prasad S, Singh S, Kumar S, Jain MC, Kumar U (2002) Emission of nitrous oxide from rice-wheat systems of Indo-Gangetic plains of India. Environ Monitor Assess 77:163-178

Pathak H, Bhatia A, Prasad S, Singh S, Kumar S, Jain MC, Singh P (2003) Effect of DCD, FYM and moisture regime on nitrous oxide emission from an alluvial soil in rice-wheat cropping system. J Ind Soc Soil Sci 51:139-145 Peoples MB, Mosier AR, Freney JR (1995) Minimizing gaseous loss of nitrogen. In: Bacon PE

(ed), Nitrogen Fertilization and Environment. Mercel Dekker Inc. New York, pp 565-602 Perala P, Kapuinen P, Esala M, Tyynela S, Regina K (2006) Influence of slurry and mineral fertiliser application techniques on N2O and CH4 fluxes from a barley field in southern Finland. Agric Ecosyst Environ 117:71-78 Ponnamperuma FN (1972) The chemistry of submerged soils. Adv Agron 24:29-96 Prather M, Ehhalt D, Dentener F, Derwent R, Dlugokencky E, Holland E, Isaksen I, Katima J, Kirchhoff V, Matson P, Midgley P, Wang M (2001) Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA, pp 239-287 Prather MJ (1998) Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: coupled perturbations to N2O, NOx and

O3. Science 279:1339-1341 Prinn RD, Cunnold R, Rasmussesn R, Simmonds P, Aleya F, Crawford A, Fraser P, Rosen R (1990) Atmospheric emissions and trends of nitrous oxide deduced from 10 years of ALE-GAGE data. J Geophys Res 95:18369-18385

Ramaswamy V, Boucher O, Haigh J, Hauglustaine D, Haywood J, Myhre G, Nakajima T, Shi GY, Solomon S (2001) Radiative forcing of climate change. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom and New York, USA, pp 349-416 Reddy KR, Patrick WH Jr (1986) Denitrification losses in flooded rice fields. In: DeDatta SK, Patrick WH Jr (eds), Nitrogen Economy in Flooded Rice Soils. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 99-116 Robertson GP, Paul EA, Harwood RR (2000) Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289:1922-1925 Rochette P, Angers DA, Chantigny MH, Bertrand N, Cote D (2004a) Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions following fall and spring applications of pig slurry to an agricultural soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:1410-1420 Rochette P, Simard RR, Ziadi N, Nolin MC, Cambouris AN (2004b) Atmosphere composition and N2O emissions in soils of contrasting textures fertilized with anhydrous ammonia. Can J Soil Sci 84:339-352

Rover M, Heinemeyer O, Kaiser EA (1998) Microbial induced nitrous oxide emissions from an arable soil during winter. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1859-1865 Ruser R, Flessa H, Schilling R, Beese F, Munch JC (2001) Effect of crop-specific field management and N fertilization on N2O emissions from a fine-loamy soil. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 59:177191

Sahrawat KL, Keeney DR (1986) Nitrous oxide emission from soils. Adv Soil Sci 4:103-148 Savant NK, DeDatta SK (1982) Nitrogen transformations in wetland rice soils. Adv Agron 35:299307

Schnier HF (1995) Significance of timing and method of N fertilizer application for N-use efficiency in flooded tropical rice. Fert Res 42:129-138 Sharpe RR, Harper LA (2002) Nitrous Oxide and Ammonia Fluxes in a Soybean Field Irrigated with Swine Effluent. J Environ Qual 31:524-532 Shea CP (1988) World Watch Paper, 87, World Watch Institute, Washington, DC Singh N, Majumdar D, Kumaraswamy S, Shakil NA, Kumar S, Jain MC, Ramakrishnan B and Sethunathan N (1999) Effect of Carbofuran and Hexachlorocyclohexane on N2O Production in Alluvial soils. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol 62:584-590 Smith CJ, Bradon M, Patrick Jr. WH (1982) Nitrous oxide emission following urea fertilization of wet land rice. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 28:161-171 Smith KA, McTaggart IP, Dobbie KE, Conen F (1998) Emissions of N2O from Scottish agricultural soils, as a function of fertilizer N. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 52:123-130 Sokona Y (1995) Greenhouse gas emission inventory for Senegal. Environ Monitor Assess 38: 291-299

Spokas K, Wang D (2003) Stimulation of nitrous oxide production resulted from soil fumigation with chloropicrin. Atmos Environ 37:3501-3507 Suratno W, Murdiyarso D, Suratmo FG, Anas I, Saeni MS, Rambe A (1998) Nitrous oxide flux from irrigated rice fields in West Java. Environ Pollut 102:159-166 Syvasalo E, Regina K, Pihlatie M, Esala M (2004) Emissions of nitrous oxide from boreal agricultural clay and loamy sand soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 69:155-165 Teira-Esmatges MR, Van cleemput O, Porta-Casanellas J (1998) Fluxes of nitrous oxide and mold-

ecular nitrogen from irrigated soils of Catalonia (Spain). J Environ Qual 26:687-697 van Groenigen JW, Kasper GJ, Velthof GL, van den Pol-van Dasselaar A, Kuikman PJ (2004) Nitrous oxide emissions from silage maize fields under different mineral. Nitrogen fertilizer and slurry applications. Plant Soil 263:101-111 van Moortel E, Boeckx P, Van Cleemput O (2000) Inventory of nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture in Belgium-calculations according to the revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines. Biol Fertil Soils 30:500-509

Velders GJM, Andersen SO, Daniel JS, Fahey DW, McFarland M (2007) The importance of the

Montreal Protocol in protecting climate. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:4814-4819 Verma A, Tyagi L, Yadav S, Singh SN (2006) Temporal changes in N2O efflux from cropped and fallow agricultural fields. Agri Ecosyst Environ 116:209-215 Vermoesen A, Van Cleemput O, Hofman G (1996) Long-term measurements of N2O emissions.

Energy Convers Mgmt 37:1279-1284 Vlek PLG, Byrnes BH (1986) The efficiency and loss of fertilizer N in lowland rice. In: DeDatta SK, Patrick WH Jr (eds), Nitrogen Economy of Flooded Rice Soils. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 131-147 Wagner Riddle C, Thurtell GW (1998) Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields during winter and spring thaw as affected by management practices. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 52: 151-163

Watanabe T, Chairoj P, Tsuruta H, Masarngsan W, Wongwiwatchai C, Wonprasaid S, Holitkul W, Minami K (2000) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized upland fields in Thailand. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 57:55-65

Webster EA, Hopkins DW (1996) Nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrous oxide emitted from soil and produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. Biol Fertil Soils 22:326-330 Weier KL (1999) N2O and CH4 emission and CH4 consumption in a sugarcane soil after variation in nitrogen and water application. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1931-1941 Weiske A, Benckiser G, Ottow, JCG (2001) Effect of the new nitrification inhibitor DMPP in comparison to DCD on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) oxidation during 3 years of repeated applications in field experiments. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:57-64 Weitz AM, Linder E, Frolking S, Crill PM, Keller M (2001) N2O emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1077-1093

Wilhelm E, Battino R, Wilcock RJ (1977) Low-pressure solubility of gases in liquid water. Chem Rev 77:219-262

Xing GX, Cao YC, Shi SL, Sun GQ, Du LJ, Zhu JG (2002a) Denitrification in underground saturated soil in a rice paddy region. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1593-1598 Xing GX, Shi SL, Shen GY, Du LJ, XiongZQ (2002b) Nitrous oxide emissions from paddy soil in three rice-based cropping systems in China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 64:135-143 Xing GX, Zhu ZL (1997) Preliminary studies on N2O emission fluxes from upland soils and paddy soils in China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 49:17-22 Xiong ZQ, Xing GX, Tsuruta H, Shen GY, Shi SL, Du LJ (2002a). Measurement of nitrous oxide emissions from two rice based cropping systems in China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 64:125-133 Xiong ZQ, Xing GX, Tsuruta H, Shen GY, Shi SL, Du LJ (2002b) Field study on nitrous oxide emissions from upland cropping systems in China. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 48:539-546 Xiong ZQ, Xing GX, Zhu ZL (2006) Water dissolved nitrous oxide from paddy agroecosystem in

China. Geoderma 136:524-532 Xu H, Xing GX, Cai ZC, Tsuruta H (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from three rice paddy fields in China. Nutrient Cycl Agroecosys 49:23-28 Xu X, Boeckx P, Wang Y, Huang Y, Zheng X, Hu F, Van Cleemput O (2002) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions during rice growth and through rice plants: effect of dicyandiamide and hydroquinone. Biol Fertil Soils 36:53-58 Xu H, Xing GX, Zhuang HH, Jin JS (1995) N2O fluxes from paddy field in Tai Lake region and its influencing factors. Acta Pedologica Sinica 32:144-150 Xu YC, Shen QR, Li ML, Dittert K, Sattelmacher B (2004) Effect of soil water status and mulching on N2O and CH4 emission from lowland rice field in China. Biol Fertil Soils 39:215-217 Yamulki S, Goulding K. WT, Webster CP, Harrison RM (1995) Studies on no and N20 fluxes from a wheat field. Atmos Environ 29:1627-1635 Yan JJ, Yao H, Gang ZL, Jiang JY, Huang Y, Zong LG (2003) Influence of water controlling and straw application on CH4 and N2O emissions from rice field. Ch Environ Sci 23:552-556

Yan X, Hosen Y, Yagi K (2001) Nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from maize field plots as affected by N fertilizer type and application method. Biol Fertil Soils 34:297-303 Yang SS, Liu CM, Lai CM, Liu YL (2003) Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emission from paddy fields and uplands during 1990-2000 in Taiwan. Chemosphere 52:1295-1305 Yue J, Shi Y, Liang W, Wu J, Wang C, Huang G (2005) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice field and related microorganism in black soil, northeastern China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 73:293-301

Yung YL, Wang WC, Lacis AA (1976) Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide. Geo-

phys Res Lett 3:619-621 Zheng XH, Wang MX, Wang YS, Shen RX, Jin JS (1997) N2O emission from rice-wheat ecosystem in Southeast China. Chinese J Appl Ecol 8:495-499 Zhu JG, Liu G, Han Y, Zhang YL, Xing GX (2003) Nitrate distribution and denitrification in the saturated zone of paddy field under rice/wheat rotation. Chemosphere 50:725-732

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment