Prospectives

Miracle Farm Blueprint

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The global exchange rates of trace gases between the soils and the atmosphere are complicated, since the production and destruction processes involved are heteroge-nous. Even the same soils may be a source at one time and sink at another time of the year (Conrad 1996; Khalil and Rasmussen 2000).

Increased depositions of atmospheric NOx and NH3 may influence the exchange of the three main greenhouse gases - CO2, N2O, CH4-between biosphere and atmosphere. The net effect of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on the net GHG budget is the resultant of complex interactions and ecosystem feedbacks, and is highly dependent on the local environmental conditions (van der Gon and Bleeker 2005; De Vries et al. 2007).

An additional mitigation of ~0.2 Pg C yr-1 could be achieved by 2030 by improved energy efficiency in agriculture through reduced fossil fuel use (Smith et al. 2007). There are 4.3 million harvester-threshers and 27.6 million tractors used for agricultural production in 2003 (FAOSTAT 2006). However, this is usually counted in the relevant user sector rather than in agriculture and so is not considered further here. Agricultural crops and residues are increasingly seen as sources of feedstock for energy industry to reduce fossil fuel, use (Paustian et al. 1998; Edmonds 2004; Cerri et al. 2004). These products can be burned directly, but can also be processed further to generate liquid fuels such as ethanol or diesel fuel. So, GHG emissions from agriculture could also be reduced in this way. The net benefit to atmospheric CO2, however, depends on energy used in growing and processing the bio-energy feedstock (Spatari et al. 2005). The competition for other land uses and the environmental impacts need to be considered when planning is made to use energy crops.

6.3 Conclusions

Crop fields are a dynamic component of the global carbon and nitrogen cycle. Rice field plays an important role in both CH4 and N2O emissions. N2O emissions will play an increasing role since the N fertilizer is the requisite for food production to meet the growing population. Agricultural fields show a significant potential for mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining the crop yields.

Acknowledgments We are in debt to the Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy (No. DE-FG02-04ER63913 and DE-FG02-08ER64515) for financial support.

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