agriculture's contribution to global N2O loading in coming two decades (1986— 2006) would increase by 90% mainly due to N fertilizer application (Iserman 1994).

8.5 Factors Affecting N2O Emission from Crop Fields

A number of factors that affect N2O emission from soils are inherent soil factors, like N content, organic matter, moisture, pH, aeration, temperature (Freney et al. 1979; Sahrawat and Keeney 1986; Pathak 1999), soil compaction (Ball et al. 1999), nitrifying or denitrifying bacteria (Webster and Hopkins 1996; Yue et al. 2005), earthworm activity (Bertora et al. 2007), texture (Weitz et al. 2001), metals (Holtan-Hartwig et al. 2002) and crop management factors like presence of floodwater (Majumdar et al. 2001; DeDatta 1995), application of N and N-inhibitors (Majumdar et al. 2000, 2002), presence of crops (Xu et al. 2002), tillage operations (Liu et al. 2007), soil fumigation (Spokas and Wang 2003), pesticide application (Singh et al. 1999), mulching (Flessa et al. 2002), liming (Mosier et al. 1998b) and natural forcing like freezing and thawing (Morkved et al. 2006). Bouwman (1996) had observed that it was impossible to determine precisely the relative contribution of crops, amount and type of N fertilizer, management practices and weather conditions to N2O emissions. Eichner (1990) suggested that N2O emission is primarily a function of N source, while Mosier et al. (1996) emphasized that cropping systems and soil management practices had a greater impact than N source. It is understood that a complex interplay of all these driving factors will actually determine N2O emissions from crop fields. While factors, like soil moisture, aeration, N content, application of fertilizer and nitrification inhibitors, organic matter content, pH, temperature and microbes, influence the production of N2O gas, the emission is

Management Practices __l_

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