107.7 ± 5.2 c

175.6 ± 24.3 c

Adapted from Qaderi et al. (2006).

Adapted from Qaderi et al. (2006).

study, we could suggest that crop growth models, which only consider elevated CO2 and high temperature, simply cannot answer the very complicated changes that may occur in global climate which would affect crops in the future (Qaderi et al. 2006).

Climate change is also likely to increase insect infestations and disease outbreaks and to alter the composition of soil nutrients (Lemmen and Warren 2004; Lawlor 2005). Many other abiotic and biotic environmental factors (Fig. 1.1), including ultraviolet-B radiation, ozone concentration, relative humidity and pollutants as well as the composition and activity of soil microorganisms and numerous others, will influence crop responses to elevated CO2 and temperature (Bazzaz and Sombroek 1996). Thus, some of these factors must be included in the crop growth models.

Most studies have focused on the morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects of crop responses to global climate change (Bazzaz and Sombroek 1996). However, in recent years, there have been increasing interests in studying the molecular aspects of crop responses to climate change (Hoogenboom et al. 2004; White et al. 2004; Taylor et al. 2006).

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