Source: Minamikawa and Sakai (2007b). CF - continuous flooding, EH - Eh control.

T = R+S = (E + Q) + S = [(A + B + C + D) + (H +1 + J + K + L + M + N + O + P)] + S. In the parentheses, CO2 equivalent considering the GWP (gCO2 m-2 y-1). tEstimated value from the previous studies.

GWP of CO2 and CH4, quantitative significance of Eh control naturally increased and largely contributed to reduced GHG emission.

Consequently, the combination of Eh control and straw application is the ideal one among four treatments to decrease the GWP and sustain soil carbon storage. However, there is a need to take help of other practices, such as continuous organic matter application for distinguished effects on the soil carbon sequestration.

14.5 Conclusions

Is it possible to mitigate the total GHG emission from irrigated paddy fields by water management? The answer for the subject of this chapter may be 'partly yes' at the present research level. As for the direct GHG emission, the water management using an objective indicators, such as AWD and Eh control, have significant effects on the decrease in CH4 emission. The concept of Eh control can be also applied to the mitigation of N2O emission. As for the dissolved GHG emission, further studies are needed, especially on the problems that where GHGs are produced and how many GHGs are emitted. With the answer to these problems, the total mitigation of CH4 and N2O emission can be achieved by Eh control.

It is evident that decrease in the direct CH4 emission has partly contribution to the total GHG mitigation in paddy fields. However, no one knows how much contribution it has. One of the goals for the GHG study in agro-ecosystems will be the integrated evaluation of the total GHG emission considering the GWP and soil carbon sequestration based on the concept of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

At the present, there is no best water management available considering all the concerns. It will be worked out by the integrated evaluation, such as LCA and cost analysis, in the future. On the different backgrounds, several methods of water management based on an objective indicator have been developed. The ideal water management depends on the various situations. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare adequate solutions for probable scenarios of the future world.

Acknowledgments We are grateful to Dr. To Phuc Tuong (IRRI, Philippines), Dr. Yasukazu Hosen (Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Japan, and also IRRI, Philippines), and Dr. Seiichi Nishimura (National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Japan) for their offers of reliable data and valuable suggestions and comments.


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