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Lu et al. (1997)

aType of chemical fertilizer: AS, ammonium sulphate; U, urea.

bType of organic amendment: MR, mushroom residue; MV, milk vetch residue; PM, pig manure.

aType of chemical fertilizer: AS, ammonium sulphate; U, urea.

bType of organic amendment: MR, mushroom residue; MV, milk vetch residue; PM, pig manure.

2002. These provinces are distributed in the 5 crop-zone regions in mainland China (Fig. 9.1). For each field study, we documented the seasonal N2O emission, the type and amount of organic amendment and fertilizer nitrogen application, the water management regime, the drainage duration, the field location and cropping season. If seasonal N2O amounts were not originally presented, they were calculated from average fluxes of N2O over the entire rice growing season.

Major types of chemical N fertilizer in agriculture in China, such as urea, compound fertilizer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium bicarbonate, were included in this study (Tables 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3). For the fertilized fields, seasonal chemical N fertilizer was, on average, applied at the rate of 247 kg N ha-1, ranging from 100 to 450 kg N ha-1 (Tables 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3). Besides, chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, organic manure or crop residue amendment was used as basal fertilizer in some studies. Organic amendments comprised farmyard manure and crop residue, such as winter wheat, milk vetch, rice straw, mushroom and rapeseed cake. Due

Table 9.3 Direct N>0 emissions from paddy fields under the water regime of flooding-midseason-reflooding-moist intermittent irrigation but without water logging (F-D-F-M) during rice growing season

Chemical fertilizer

Organic amendment

Table 9.3 Direct N>0 emissions from paddy fields under the water regime of flooding-midseason-reflooding-moist intermittent irrigation but without water logging (F-D-F-M) during rice growing season

Chemical fertilizer

Organic amendment

Location

Year

TypeE

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