Hc

Furthermore, triterpenes (C3o) are synthesized from two molecules of farnesyl-PP (C15), by a reductive head to head condensation. Squalene triterpene is the precursor for sterols, important membrane constituents, via squalene synthase (Abe et al. 1993). Analogously, head to head condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl-PP (C20) leads to tetratepenes (C40), such as carotenoids (carotene, lycopene) and xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin). Besides, isoprenoids are involved in protein prenylation, that is the synthesis of variously lengthened iso-prenoid chains, anchoring proteins in membranes, such as G proteins, ubiquinone, plastoquinone and cytochrome-«. Finally, natural rubber is a polyterpen, composed

Precursors

Pyrrolidine1, Tropane, Pyrrozidine, Polyamines2

Anthranilic acid

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