Insects and Pests

Incidence of pest and diseases is most severe in tropical regions due to favorable climate weather conditions, multiple cropping and availability of alternate pests throughout the year. Therefore, in the south Asia, pests and diseases deleteriously affecting the crop yields are prevalent. Climatetors are the causative agents in determining the population fluctuations of pests. They influence plant disease establishment, progression and severity. In fact, a clear understanding of population...

Info

AFrom Mikaloff Fletcher et al. (2004) and entries for sinks are the fractionation. bEstimates from global inverse modeling (top-down method). global atmospheric concentration of CH4 has increased from a pre-industrial value of about 700 ppb to 1,745 ppb in 1998, and to 1,774 ppb in 2005 (IPCC 2007). Once emitted, CH4 remains in the atmosphere for approximately 8 years before removal (Dentener et al. 2003). The major CH4 sinks are oxidation by OH in the troposphere, biological CH4 oxidation in...

Cgh

* C, chamber CEC, controlled-environment chamber GC, growth chamber FACE, free-air CO2 enrichment GH, greenhouse OTC, open-top chamber SPAR, soil-plant-atmosphere-research unit. * C, chamber CEC, controlled-environment chamber GC, growth chamber FACE, free-air CO2 enrichment GH, greenhouse OTC, open-top chamber SPAR, soil-plant-atmosphere-research unit. developed (Kirschbaum 1994 Mitchell et al. 1995). Long (1991) postulated that elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration at higher temperatures...

Adaptation Strategies for Crop Production Systems under Changing Climate

Adaptation is an adjustment made within the crop production systems, in order to live successfully with changing climate (Matthews and Wassmann 2003). The probable adaptive responses need not to be new and they can include farm level practices, such as change of planting dates, altered water conservation practices, change to early maturing varieties to mitigate shortened growing season, change to drought tolerant crop varieties, and change to high yielding crop varieties to take advantage of...

Contributors

Adhya Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack - 753006, Orissa, India, adhyas yahoo.com P.C. Alvaia Divisao de Geof sica Espacial, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, DGE-INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1.758, CEP 12227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brazil, plinio dge.inpe.br Richard Betts Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Fitzroy Road, Exeter, Devon EX1 3PB, UK B. Breznik Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana,...

Crop Responses to Enhanced UVB Radiation

GabersCik The Earth's climate has always been changing. Recent observations indicate that the changes are occurring faster and greater than those in the past. Consequently, the main scientific concern is with the ability of organisms to cope with these changes, especially terrestrial plants and crops that are sessile. Stratospheric ozone depletion, resulting in increased intensity of UV-B radiation at the Earth's surface, has been one of the most evident...

Environmental Parameters Influencing the Methane Emissions in the Pantanal Floodplain Brazil

Methane (CH4) is a trace gas with an important role in both troposphere due to the reactions with the hydroxyl radical and the formation of organic radicals, and the stratosphere, because of its participation in the chlorine and water vapor chemistry. Methane is also an important greenhouse gas, with a relative contribution of about 20 for the global greenhouse effect (Wuebbles and Hayhoe 2002). Many works have evidenced that an increase of the methane concentration began around 1800 with the...

Evaluation of Eh Control

In the last sub-section, the effects of Eh control on CH4 emission and rice yield were reviewed from the results of three experiments. Although there remain some uncertainties of the result for other soil types than Andosol, soil Eh can be kept between the pre-determined range by Eh control disregard to other factors. Therefore, at the experimental level, Eh control is practical and can always decrease CH4 emission with keeping rice yield more than the conventional level. The N2O emission with...

Response of Rice Oryza sativa L to Increasing Temperature and Atmospheric CO2

Rice (O. sativa and O. glaberrima) is one of the world most important cereal food crops, particularly in Asia and increasingly so in Africa and Latin America. Rice provides a substantial portion of the dietary requirements of nearly 1.6 billion people, with another 400 million relying on rice for quarter to half of their diet (Swaminathan 1984). Rice is cultivated as far north as Manchuria in China (39c 53'N) and far south as New South Wales in Australia (28c 81'S) (Khush 2005), either as an...

Attenuating Methane Emission from Paddy Fields

Singh, Larisha Tyagi and Sadhna Tiwari Rising trend of earth's surface temperature is today a global threat to mankind. This trend is directly linked to an increasing atmospheric abundance of various greenhouse gases, like CO2, CH4, N2O etc. emanating from man-made activities (IPCC 2007). Among these gases, CH4 is the most abundant carbon species present in the atmosphere (mixing ratio 1.8 ppm). Being a highly radiatively active gas, it is a major component of the natural gas after CO2,...

Physiological Responses of Higher Plants to UVB Radiation

Velitchkova Seven percent of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun is in the range of 200-400 nm. As it passes through the atmosphere, the total flux transmitted is greatly reduced, and the composition of the UV radiation is modified. Short-wave UV-C radiation (200-280 nm) is completely absorbed by atmospheric gases. UV-B radiation is often defined as 280-320 nm. However, the legal definition provided by the International Commission on Illumination sets...

Indian Agriculture and Climate Change

Agriculture sector alone represents 23 per cent of India's Gross National Product (GNP), plays a crucial role in the country's development and shall continue to occupy an important place in the national economy. It sustains the livelihood of nearly 70 of the population. It seems obvious that any significant change in climate on a global scale will impact local agriculture, and therefore affect the world's food supply. Considerable studies have been carried out to investigate how farming might...

Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Crops

Concerns about the enrichment of atmospheric CO2 and its association with global warming that will likely have potential impacts on crop production, have drawn attention of plant scientists to study the combined effects of elevated CO2 and high temperature on plants, especially crops (Idso et al. 1987 Rawson 1992 Morison and Lawlor 1999). As mentioned earlier, crops respond positively to elevated CO2 and negatively to high temperature, but what about the interactive effects of these two...

Projected Climate Change Scenarios over Indian Subcontinent

Climate change is no longer a distant scientific prognosis, but is becoming a reality. Using the UKMO GCM model, Bhaskaran et al. (1995) predicted a total precipitation increase of approximately 20 and an increase in winter or rabi crop season temperature by 1-4 C with increased CO2 concentration. The specific humidity increases by 19 , indicating that the increased monsoon rainfalls were largely due to increased water content of the atmosphere. Greater number of heavy rainfall days during the...

Agricultural Sciences Use of Mathematical Models

The science of agriculture depends on research activities for (i) the acquisition of knowledge (ii) the ordering of knowledge and the development of understanding on that knowledge, and (iii) the application of the knowledge and or understanding to the solution of practical problems (Rimmington and Charles-Edwards 1987). The mathematical models can be used in different ways within each one of these three activities. Basically a simplified description of a system, a mathematical model can help...

O

Per unit land area, for example, large inputs of organic amendments or conversion to grassland or woodland. However, there are other impacts of different options which also need to be considered, such as biodiversity and soil erosion benefits. The options presented in Table 5.1 are not all mutually exclusive - options for the management of both productive and surplus cropland can be combined to maximise the C mitigation potential (Smith et al. 2000). Robertson (2004) emphasises the needs for a...

Nitrification Inhibitors

Nitrification inhibitors (NI) prevent the conversion of NH+-N into NO--N (Bron-son et al. 1991), thereby reducing emissions of N2O via nitrification directly (Majumdar et al. 2000 Kumar et al. 2000) and then conserve by reducing the availability of NO- for denitrification (Aulakh et al. 1984 Bronson et al. 1992). Nitrification inhibitors are also increasingly recommended for rice agriculture to minimize fertilizer N losses (Prasad and Power 1995) by limiting the formation of nitrate from...

Effect of Water Regime on N2O Emissions

Different water regimes caused a sensitive change in N2O emission in rice paddies. Under continuous flooding, N2O emissions were generally pronounced only when fields were drained before rice harvesting (Chen et al. 1995 Lu et al. 1997). In contrast to continuous flooding, mid-season drainage triggered substantial N2O emission from rice paddies under the F-D-F water regime (Xiong et al. 2002 Jiang et al. 2003 Zou et al. 2005a). Based on the results of this study, we predict that seasonal N2O...

Ozone Induced Changes in Plant Secondary Metabolism

In their ecosystem, plants have to cope with a plethora of potentially unfavourable conditions. Stress factors affecting plant's fitness not only derive from natural sources, such as adverse temperature fluctuations (heating, chilling and freezing), high irradiance (photoinhibition, photooxidation), osmotic imbalance (salinity and drought), hypoxia anoxia (flooding), mineral (macro- and micronutrient) deficiency, wounding, phytophagy and pathogen attack, but also from anthropogenic activities....

Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Cropland Soils Climate Opportunities and Threats

Pete Falloon, Pete Smith, Richard Betts, Chris D. Jones, Jo Smith, Deborah Hemming and Andy Challinor Globally, soils contain approximately 1500 Pg (1 Pg 1Gt 1015g) of organic carbon (C) (Batjes 1996), roughly three times the amount of carbon in vegetation and twice the amount in the atmosphere (IPCC 2001). The annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from atmosphere to land (global Net Primary Productivity NPP ) and land to atmosphere (respiration and fire) are of the order of 60 Pg C yr-1 (IPCC...

Plant Diseases

Impacts of climate change on specific host-pathogen systems are variable (Coakley et al. 1999 Chakraborty et al. 2000). In addition, O3 effects on plants lead to altered disease susceptibility, but the effect is inconsistent. In wheat, leaf rust disease was strongly inhibited by O3, but largely unaffected by elevated CO2, both in the presence and absence of O3 stress (Von Tiedemann and Firsching 2000). O3 damage to leaves was strongly affected by CO2 concentration and infection. On infected...

Mitigation Options of Green House Gases Emission

The possible strategies for mitigating methane emission from rice cultivation can be made by altering water management, particularly promoting mid-season aeration by short-term drainage. Improving organic matter management by promoting aerobic degradation through composting or incorporating into soil during off-season drained period, is another promising technique. Organic amendments to flooded soils increase methane production and emission. However, application of fermented manure, like biogas...

T

Fig. 8.2 Radiative forcing of all the long-lived greenhouse gases relative to 1750 Fig. 8.2 Radiative forcing of all the long-lived greenhouse gases relative to 1750 gases. Of the five long-lived greenhouse gases that contribute 97 to radiative climate forcing, CO2 and N2O are the only ones that continue to increase at a regular rate. The contribution to radiative forcing by methane and CFCs has been nearly constant or declining, respectively, in recent years. While the radiative forcing of the...

Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Crops

Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 have been examined on a number of crops (Kimball 1983 Cure and Acock 1986 Kimball et al. 2002a) in which the responses were related to other environmental factors (Fig. 1.1), including light, temperature, water, salinity and nutrients (Bowes 1993), especially nitrate and phosphate (McKee and Woodward 1994). Plant physiological and biochemical responses (Bowes 1993) to elevated CO2, known as the CO2-fertilization effect (Dhakhwa et al. 1997), have been studied...

Alkaloid classes

Pyrrolidine1, Tropane, Pyrrozidine, Polyamines2 Pyperidine, Quinolizidine, Indolizidine Isoquinoline Tetrahydroisoquinoline, Benzyltetrahydroiso-quinoline1, Catecholamines2 Indole1, Carbolines, Quinoline2, Pyrrolindole, Indolamines3 2. Putrescine, Spermine, Spermidine Pyperidine, Quinolizidine, Indolizidine 1. Morphine, Curarines, Papaverine Fig. 11.6 Main classes of alkaloid precursors and derivatives (the example number refers to the corresponding alkaloid class) of over 1000 isoprene units...

Pnutgro

Aggarwal and Kalra (1994), evaluated the WTGROWS crop simulation model to estimate the effect of climate change on productivity of wheat in India, and simulated normally sown crops at three levels of production (potential, irrigated and rainfed) with the assumption of CO2 level at 425 ppm and temperature rise options of 0, 1 and 2 C. At the 425 ppm CO2 concentration and no rise in temperature, grain yield at all levels of production increased significantly at all places. One degree celsius rise...

UVB Radiation and Selenium

Plants treated with selenium exhibit increased tolerance to enhanced UV-B radiation. This suggested that an anti-oxidative role of selenium that prevented plants from oxidative damage (Ekelund and Danilov 2001). Germ et al. (2005) studied the impact of ambient and filtered solar UV-B radiation and selenium (Se) treatment on photochemical efficiency, respiratory potential, measured by electron transport system (ETS) activity, and yield in pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.). Exclusion of UV-B from the...

Impacts of Ground Level Ozone on Crop Production in a Changing Climate

Fourth Grade Grammar Worksheets

Mills and L. De Temmerman Ozone (O3) is a naturally occurring chemical present in both the stratosphere (the 'ozone layer', 10-40km above the earth) and in the troposphere (0-10km above the earth). While stratospheric O3 protects the Earth's surface from solar UV radiation, tropospheric O3 is the third most important greenhouse gas (after CO2 and CH4) (Denman et al. 2007 Solomon et al. 2007). It contributes to greenhouse radiative forcing, causing a change in the...

Hid

Selenium spray, than in those that received either treatment alone. The positive role of Se has been demonstrated for Euglena gracilis (Ekelund and Danilov 2001) and for lettuce (Pennanen et al. 2002) the accelerating effect of Se on the growth of UV-B treated plants could be the result of the protection of chloroplast enzymes. Interactive effect of enhanced UV-B radiation in combination with Se treatment studied by Breznik (2007) has been depicted in Fig. 12.2. Stratospheric ozone depletion,...

References

Ahmed FE, Hall AE, Madore MA 1993 Interactive effects of high temperature and elevated carbon dioxide concentration on cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. . Plant Cell Environ 16 835-842 Ainsworth EA, Long SP 2005 What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment FACE A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytol 165 351-372 Amthor JS 2001 Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yield review of...