Easy Homemade Organic Fertilizers You Can Make Today

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary


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Categorization in Phosphate Fertilizer Production

The fertilizer industry comprises nitrogen-based, phosphate-based, and potassium-based fertilizer manufacturing, as well as combinations of these nutrients in mixed and blend fertilizer formulations. Only the phosphate-based fertilizer industry is discussed here and, therefore, the categorization mainly involves two broad divisions (a) the phosphate fertilizer industry (A) and (b) the mixed and blend fertilizer industry (G) in which one of the components is a phosphate compound. The following categorization system of the various separate processes and their production streams and descriptions is taken from the federal guidelines 8 pertaining to state and local industrial pretreatment programs. It will be used in the discussion that ensues to identify process flows and characterize the resulting raw waste. Figure 7 shows a flow diagram for the production streams of the entire phosphate and nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing industry.

Mixed and Blend Fertilizer G

The raw materials used to produce mixed fertilizers include inorganic acids, solutions, double nutrient fertilizers, and all types of straight fertilizers. The choice of raw materials depends on the specific nitrogen, phosphate, potassium (N-P-K) formulation to be produced and on the cost of the different materials from which they can be made. The mixed fertilizer process involves the controlled addition of both dry and liquid raw materials to a granulator, which is normally a rotary drum, but pug mills are also used. Raw materials, plus some recycled product material, are mixed to form an essentially homogeneous granular product. Wet granules from the granulator are discharged into a rotary drier, where the excess water is evaporated and dried granules from the drier are then sized on vibrating screens. Over- and undersized granules are separated for use as recycle material in the granulator. Commercial-product-size granules are cooled and then conveyed to storage...

Table 10 Effluent Limitations mgL for Subpart A Phosphate Fertilizer

Produce NPK grades in varying proportions 22 . According to Subpart O, mixed fertilizer means a mixture of wet and or dry straight fertilizer materials, mixed fertilizer materials, fillers, and additives prepared through chemical reaction to a given formulation, whereas blend fertilizer means a mixture of dry, straight, and mixed fertilizer materials. The effluent limitations guidelines for BPT, BCT, and BAT, and the standards of performance for new sources, allow no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. Finally, the pretreatment standards establishing the quantity of pollutants that may be discharged to publicly owned treatment works (POTW) by a new source are given in Table 11.

Increasing fertilizer use

Currently, fertilizer-N use efficiency by agricultural crops is estimated to be approximately 50 per cent (Smil, 1999 Howarth et al, 2002 Ladha et al, 2005). In other words, on average half of the amount of the fertilizer-N applied cannot be recovered in the crop or in the soil and has to be considered to have been lost from the cropping system. Denitrification (N2O and N2), volatilization (NH3) and leaching (NO3) are the major pathways of N losses (Schlesinger, 1997 Mosier et al, 2001), causing a cascade of environmental and human health problems (Galloway et al, 2003). Therefore there is the potential for major improvements in N use efficiency through adopting fertilizer, soil water and crop management practices that focus on maximizing crop N uptake, with minimum N fertilizer losses and the optimum use of indigenous soil N (Ladha et al, 2005). Through optimizing N use efficiency, a total reduction in N2O emissions will be achieved as well as a further reduction in N2O emissions per...

Optimizing fertilizer application with respect to nitrous oxide emission

Global N2o Emission

Emissions of N2O from agricultural systems will not decrease to zero when no N fertilizer is applied, but will remain at some background level, as in any non-agricultural system. For example, when 383 non-manured, non-N-fertilized cropping systems were evaluated for N2O emissions, the average background emission was estimated at 0.55kg N2O ha-1 (Helgason et al, 2005). Natural N deposition and biological fixation, and N mineralization from soil organic Table 5.2 Global estimates of manure-N excretion in animal houses and storage systems and excretion during grazing, spreading of stored manure in cropland and grassland, and N fertilizer use in cropland and grassland for the year 2000 Table 5.2 Global estimates of manure-N excretion in animal houses and storage systems and excretion during grazing, spreading of stored manure in cropland and grassland, and N fertilizer use in cropland and grassland for the year 2000 N fertilizer use Agricultural systems serve for the production of food,...

Phosphate Fertilizer A

H2so4 Rady Flow Chart

The phosphate fertilizer industry is defined as eight separate processes phosphate rock grinding, wet process phosphoric acid, phosphoric acid concentration, phosphoric acid clarification, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, and sulfuric acid. Practically all phosphate manufacturers combine the various effluents into a large recycle water system. It is only when the quantity of recycle water increases beyond the capacity to contain it that effluent treatment is necessary. Wet Process Phosphoric Acid. A production process flow diagram is shown in Figure 8. Insoluble phosphate rock is changed to water-soluble phosphoric acid by solubilizing the phosphate rock with an acid, generally sulfuric or nitric. The phosphoric acid produced from the nitric acid process is blended with other ingredients to produce a fertilizer, whereas the phosphoric acid produced from the sulfuric acid process must be concentrated before further use. Minor quantities of fluorine,...

Use as Fertilizer Soil Conditioner

OMWW contains a high organic load, substantial amounts of plant nutrients (3.5-11 g l of K2O, 0.06-2 g l of P2O5, and 0.15-0.5 g l of MgO) and is a low cost source of water, all of which favor its use as a soil fertilizer or organic amendment to the poor soils that abound so much in the countries where it originates (Cegarra J. et al., 1966a,b Catalano L. and Felice M. de, 1989 Nunes J.M. et al., 2001). Direct application of OMWW to soil has been considered as an inexpensive method of disposal and recovery of their mineral and organic components (Di Giovacchino L. et al., 1990, 1996, 2001, 2002) see Chapter 8 ''Biological processes'', section ''Irrigation of agricultural land Land spreading''. The amurca of the ancients was recommended as a fertilizer for olive trees (Cato, XCIII), vines, and fruit trees (Columella, XI, 2 ''Geoponika''29, II, 10), although these latter sources suggested that amurca used for this purpose must be free from salt. However, the use of OMWW as a fertilizer...

Phosphate Fertilizer Industry in Eastern Europe

Waste Material Fertiliser Industry

Koziorowski and Kucharski 18 presented a survey of fertilizer industry experience in Eastern European countries and compared it with the United States and Western European equivalents. For instance, they stated that HF and silicofluoric acid are evolved during the process of In Czechoslovakian phosphate fertilizer plants, the superphosphate production waste-waters are further treated by neutralization on crushed limestone beds contained in special tanks that are followed by settling tanks for clarification of the wastewater. The beds have from three to five layers (with a minimum bed height of 0.35-1.60 m), treat a range of acidity of wastes from 438 to 890 meq L, and are designed for a hydraulic load ranging from 0.13 to 0.52 cm3 cm2 s (1.9-7.7 gpm ft2) at operating temperatures of 20-28 C. This experience agrees with results reported from Polish plants, the limestone used contains 56 CaO, and it was found in practice that coarse particles of 3-5 mm give better results because less...

Phosphoric Acid and NPK Fertilizer Plant

According to the literature 3,17,33 , the heterogeneous nature of fertilizer production plants precludes the possibility of presenting a typical case study of such a facility. Nevertheless, the wastewater flows, the characteristics, and the treatment systems for a phosphoric acid and N-P-K fertilizer plant were parts of a large fertilizer manufacturing facility. The full facility additionally included an ammonia plant, a urea plant, a sulfuric acid plant, and a nitric acid plant. The typical effluent flows were 183 m3 hour (806 gpm) from the phosphoric plant and 4.4 m3 hour (20 gpm) from the water treatment plant associated with it, whereas in the N-P-K plant they were 420 m3 hour (1850 gpm) from the barometric condenser and 108 m3 hour (476 gpm) from other effluent sources.

Ammonium Phosphate Fertilizer and Phosphoric Acid Plant

The fertilizer industry is plagued with a tremendous problem concerning waste disposal and dust because of the very nature of production that involves large volumes of dusty material. Jones and Olmsted 16 described the waste disposal problems and pollution control efforts at such a plant, Northwest Cooperative Mills, in St. Saul, Minnesota. Two types of problems are associated with waste from the manufacture of ammonium phosphate wastes from combining ammonia and phosphoric acid and the subsequent drying and cooling of the products, and wastes from the handling of the finished product arising primarily from the bagging of the product prior to shipping. Because the ammonia process has to be forced by introducing excess amounts of ammonia than the phosphoric acid is capable of absorbing, there is high ammonia content in the exhaust air stream from the ammoniator. Because it is neither economically sound nor environmentally acceptable to exhaust this to the atmosphere, an acid scrubber...

Table 6 Raw Wastewater Characteristics of Phosphate Fertilizer Industry Retention Ponds

Considerable variation, therefore, is observed in quantities and wastewater characteristics at different plants. According to a UNIDO report 34 , the most important factors that contribute to excessive in-plant materials losses and, therefore, probable subsequent pollution are the age of the facilities (low efficiency, poor process control), the state of maintenance and repair (especially of control equipment), variations in feedstock and difficulties in adjusting processes to cope, and an operational management philosophy such as consideration for pollution control and prevention of materials loss. Because of process cooling requirements, fertilizer manufacturing facilities may have an overall large water demand, with the wastewater effluent discharge largely dependent on the extent of in-plant recirculation 17 . Facilities designed on

Changes In Animal Manure Management And Fertilizer

The changes in livestock production and land use portrayed above also have important repercussions for the production, management and use of animal manure and fertilizers. Bouwman et al. (2005b) distinguished large ruminants (dairy and non-dairy cattle, buffaloes), small ruminants (sheep and goats), pigs, poultry, horses, asses, mules and camels for calculating the animal manure N production. The approach for distributing of animal manure over the two production systems, and within each system over different animal manure Global total N inputs from fertilizers and production of animal manure in agricultural systems have almost doubled between 1970 and 1995 from about 114 Tg yr to 188 Tg yr, whereby N manure contributed 83 Tg yr or about 73 in 1970 and 104 Tg yr (55 ) in 1995. Bouwman et al. (2005b) estimated a total N input from fertilizers and animal manure of 238 Tg yr, animal manure N being 127 Tg yr (53 ) and N fertilizer 110 Tg yr (estimate for 2030) (Table 5.3).

Structure Of The Guidelines

Secondly, the 2006 IPCC Guidelines present Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use in a single volume, rather than two volumes comprising Agriculture, on the one hand, and Land-use Change and Forestry on the other. This allows for better integration of information on the pattern of land use and should facilitate more consistent use of activity data (for example, fertilizer application), that affects both agriculture and other land uses, thus reducing or avoiding the possibilities for double counting or omission.

Agricultural impacts of climate change

Soil dynamics will also be affected by changing temperature regimes. Rising temperatures will increase the rate at which organic material decomposes and possibly decrease the level of moisture in soils. This will lower soil productivity, thus prompting the increased use of fertilizers. This might be mitigated, though, by the growing presence of nitrogen oxides that are also increasing as a result of fossil fuel combustion. Increased temperatures might also accelerate soil erosion in agricultural areas, rising temperatures increase the severity of thunderstorms. Without appropriate adaptation by producers, soil erosion could accelerate as the increased flow and force of water droplets dislodge soil. This is a problem because soil erosion is itself a cause of carbon dioxide release into the atmosphere.

Tsujii Introduction

A green revolution in rice and wheat that is based on intensification in modern inputs such as fertilizers, chemicals, agricultural machinery and irrigation water increased, on one hand, production of these grains in the world to reduce the huge number of world hungry. But, on the other hand, it destroyed natural environment and overused natural resources. Population explosion and income growth in the developing countries will cause an explosion of grain demand. This may lead to severe environmental destruction and exhaustion of natural resources if the demand is met by growth of grain production based

Foreword to the Second Edition

In the first edition titled Olive-Mill Waste Management'' emphasis was given to olive-mill waste. In the second edition, the original title has been modified to encompass all types of by-products generated during olive tree cultivation and olive fruit processing. In the case of olive tree cultivation, information is presented referring to pruning and harvest residues but does not include wasted fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides which constitute a subject matter of their own. In the case of olive processing, information is presented referring to olive-milling waste-waters, solid, gaseous and energy wastes, and table olive processing wastewaters. In addition, information has been included concerning the management of used olive oil from cooking or other activities. Literature references and patents published or located since the first edition have been examined and incorporated where appropriate.

What Is The Principal Cause Of The Present Extinction Spasm

Human activities are associated directly or indirectly with nearly every aspect of the current extinction spasm. The sheer magnitude of the human population has profound implications because of the demands placed on the environment. Population growth, which has increased so dramatically since industrialization, is connected to nearly every aspect of the current extinction event. Amphibians may be taken as a case study for terrestrial organisms. They have been severely impacted by habitat modification and destruction, which frequently has been accompanied by use of fertilizers and pesticides (Hayes et al., 2002). In addition, many other pollutants that have negative effects on amphibians are byproducts of human activities. Humans have been direct or indirect agents for the introduction of exotic organisms. Furthermore, with the expansion of human populations into

Sustainable Versus Organic Agriculture

Abstract Awareness and concern for problems related to environmental quality are growing at a steady pace climate change, biodiversity, soil fertility decay and above all food quality and pollution are everyday subjects for debates and discussions. The complexity of the problems and the uncertainty about many basic data quite often make discussions inconclusive even indications issued by scientific authorities are sometimes misleading, and the problems are exacerbated by the frequent influence of ideological positions. In an endeavour to contribute to clarify agriculture-related environmental issues, a review is made here of the principles of sustainable agriculture and of the ways to deal with them. The need is emphasized for a system approach which is able to reconcile economic-productive, environmental and social aspects, the three 'pillars' of sustainability, permitting to consider simultaneously the numerous factors concurring to determine the most appropriate production...

Introduction 311 The Problem

It has been reported that in the UK the 'external costs' of agriculture in 1996 amounted to a staggering 89 of the average net farm income (Pretty et al. 2000), that annual damage by pesticides and fertilizers to water quality is suspected to range in the billions of dollars (Doran et al. 1996) and that annual off-site damages from soil erosion by water in the USA are over US 7 billion (Pimentel et al. 1993). Integrated farming, for instance, developed by the EISA, a group of six European organizations, is based on a set of sound, sensible rules judiciously adopting some principles of organic farming, integrating them when they are insufficiently restrictive, e.g. when the need to save energy or protecting the soil is not sufficiently considered, and relaxing them when unreasonably restrictive, e.g. when they totally ban synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. EISA released a Common Codex for Integrated Farming which considers aspects of food production, economic viability, producer and...

Mitigation Options for Agriculture

N fertilizer efficiency, achieving higher yield per unit land area and using conservation tillage hold the most promise for indirectly mitigating N2O and CO2 emissions. Mitigation of CH4 emissions from agriculture will require improved diets and rations for animals, aerobic conditions in manure management and improved rice production. Practices that will have the most impact on GHGs from rice production are water and carbon management, soil and variety selection, fertilizer type and amount, and soil preparation. Global understanding of these critical management practices will lead to enhanced soil and plant management and the development of new technologies that result in increased food production efficiency with minimum impact on environmental quality and GHGs. Acceptance of mitigation options will depend on the extent to which sustainable agricultural production can be achieved and the combined social, economic and environmental benefits.

Good housekeeping recommendations for specific industries to reduce waste

The principal steps in processing livestock include (1) rendering and bleeding (2) scalding and or skin removal (3) internal organ evisceration (4) washing, chilling, and cooling (5) packaging and (6) clean-up (US-AEP 1997). Waste includes carcasses, hides, hoofs, heads, feathers, manure, offal, viscera, bones, fat and meat trimmings, blood and other fluids, and off-spec animals and meat. There are several options for reducing this waste. Install strainers along evisceration lines to keep byproducts off the floor. Attach strainers to drains in the de-hairing process area. Send blood to a blood collection facility. Remove fat from conveyor belts by scraping rather than spraying. Before washing areas, collect solids with squeegees, brooms, or shovels. Waste reuse and recycling options include animal and pet food, composting or vermicomposting of paunch manure, fertilizers, cosmetics, blood meal, gelatin from heads, and glue from hides.

Food Availability and Climate Change

Furthermore, expanding cropped area, which is the alternative to increasing yield, is either difficult or unappealing throughout much of the world, either because of urban encroachment on agricultural land or because of the environmental costs of bringing new land into production. The FAO, which periodically assesses trends in crop demand and supply, envisages a significant expansion of cropland area in Africa and Latin America but little growth elsewhere, mainly because so little land in Asia remains uncultivated (Bruinsma 2003). Overall, most global assessments project that (1) crop demand will grow considerably over the next few decades, given the additive pressures of population growth (estimated to peak at 9.1 billion mid-century), higher incomes resulting in shifting food preferences, and potential development of large-scale biofuel production and the additional crop demand it represents (2) the rate of demand growth, however, will be slower than observed in the past few...

Opportunities for mitigation

One of the main aims of determining the microbial sources of N2O is to provide a scientific basis for more targeted mitigation strategies. Data on the environmental regulation of N2O production during the different microbial processes are scarce, particularly for nitrifier denitrification and nitrate ammonification. More effort needs now to be placed on considering all potential sources of N2O when measuring and interpreting N2O fluxes from different environments and under different management regimes. Richardson et al (2009) argue that understanding the regulation of the denitrifier N2O reductase is central to the development of management options to lower net N2O emissions by enhancing its reduction to N2, rather than trying to eliminate denitrification. They consider the effect on the regulation of the N2O reductase of management options such as application of nitrogenous or copper fertilizer to regulate Cu availability for this Cu-based enzyme, soil organic matter (SOM) management...

Trade and Commerce Connections

Embodied carbon represents the carbon that resides directly within the product itself (for cereals, wood, and paper, about half of the final weight is carbon). In addition to embodied carbon, at least two other components are usually excluded from estimates of carbon content in international trade. One is the production carbon, which comprises the inputs required to produce a final product, primarily energy-related consumption to provide inputs (e.g., pesticides, fertilizers) and processing (e.g., machinery for harvesting, milling, sawing). A second element is the transport carbon, which represents the energy costs of transporting the processed products to a final destination. Countries that use intensive production systems and engage in significant exports (pri

Limited Use of New Technologies

The only option to sustain production growth is to increase yields. Within the developing world, average regional grain yields are the highest in North Africa, and the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Yields are highly dependent on the use of additives, particularly fertilizers. The principal factor limiting yield response to fertilizer use is the inadequate supply of water during the growing season. Although water availability varies considerably across regions, it has been a serious problem in many countries. According to World Bank studies, depletion and degradation of water resources have become major problems facing many low-income countries (Crosson and Anderson, 1992 Cleaver and Schreiber, 1994). Within 10 years, if the population grows at projected rates, per capita water availability will decrease by an average 20 in developing countries, and by 34 in African countries. The agricultural The sparse rainfall that characterizes much of Sub-Saharan Africa affects the response to and...

Effects of [CO2 on biomass and grain yield

Biomass results from accumulation of carbon in plant products as the difference between photosynthesis and respiration, plus accumulation of minerals. Increasing biomass might, therefore, be expected to parallel stimulation of instantaneous Pn. However, in practice there are many complicating factors for example, stimulation of root or canopy growth may allow additional resource capture. Conversely, increased C assimilation may result in nutrients being more limiting for growth, thus necessitating increased fertilizer applications, which may increase lodging and disease. At low temperatures, wheat growth is probably not limited by assimilation, but rather by sink capacity. These factors may explain the increases in wheat biomass that range from 0 to 40 in response to doubling CO2 . Early field studies (reviewed in Lawlor and Mitchell, 1991) indicated responses ranging from 30 increase for a doubling of CO2 to only a 20 increase for a quadrupling of CO2 . Biomass of winter wheat in...

Modifying Food Production Systems Could Potentially Help Limit the Magnitude of Future Climate Change

Food production systems are not only affected by climate change they also contribute to it through GHG emissions of CO2, CH4 (primarily from livestock and flooded rice paddies), and N2O (primarily from fertilizer use). Recent global assessments conclude that agriculture accounts for about 10 to 12 percent of total global human emissions of GHGs. With the intensification of agriculture that will be required to feed the world's growing and increasingly affluent population, these emissions are projected to increase. Many options are available to manage agricultural and livestock systems to reduce emissions, such as changes in feed and feeding practices, manure management, and more efficient fertilizer application. At a landscape level, management of agricultural lands presents opportunities to reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2 by sequestering soil carbon, shifting to crops with higher carbon storage potential, and reducing forest clearing for agricultural expansion. Neither the...

Opportunities within a Compliance Market

Emissions trading can also offer provisions for companies to voluntarily enter facilities into the scheme referred to as 'opt-in' to undertake measures that reduce emissions and sell surplus allowances from the facility. The opt-in rule in the EU ETS allowed France and the Netherlands to include N2O emissions from fertilizers as of 2008 23 .

Soil Microbial Biomass

Field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that soil microbial activity can create soil conditions favourable to sustainable production (Andrade et al. 1998). Bolton et al. (1985) found that microbial activity and microbial biomass were higher under organic management systems. Soil microbial communities are strongly influenced by agricultural practices. Many farming practices such as intensive tillage, application of chemical pesticides and mineral fertilizers and monoculture are directly or indirectly harmful to soil microbes. Microbial population density and diversity are affected by the level of organic matter, which provides energy for soil micro-organisms. Peacock et al. (2001) reported that soil management practices that result in differential carbon inputs also affect the size and structural community of soil biomass. One such practice is the use of organic amendments and cover crops, which increase carbon availability to micro-organisms. Non-pathogenic and plant growth...

Its Start and Impacts

There were some experiences in varietal improvement in many countries in Asia. There was a strong motivation for intensive agriculture following the model of the countries in the Far East, where land reform was successful and recovered heavy industries were able to provide sufficient chemical fertilizers. Then, the new plant type was further improved through breeding programs into the release of IR 8 from IRRI in 1967. The improved type was characterized by a single gene for semi-dwarfism, sd-1, which is a basis for the short stature and improved response to increased fertilizer application. This type performed best with a combination of increased fertilizers under irrigation. Similar approaches were adopted in other crops like wheat.

Extreme temperatures including heat waves and cold waves

Changes in crops, growing periods, planting dates, varieties, irrigation and fertilizers as well as crop diversification, intercropping, growing off-season crops and preference for the more resistant traditional varieties are some of the farm level mitigations possible (e.g. Gommes and N gre 1992) together with microclimate management and manipulation (Stigter et al. 1992 Stigter 1994). tte very likely higher maximum temperatures, more hot days and heat waves over nearly all land area will also give increased heat stress in livestock and wildlife (Zhao Yanxia et al. 2005) for which shade and other protection facilities will have to be expanded.

Making Agriculture and Land Use Climatefriendly and Climateresilient

An agricultural landscape should simultaneously provide food and fiber, meet the needs ofnature and biodiversity, and support viable livelihoods for people who live there. In terms of climate change, landscape and farming systems should actively absorb and store carbon in vegetation and soils, reduce emissions of methane from rice production, livestock, and burning, and reduce nitrous oxide emissions from inorganic fertilizers. At the same time, it is important to increase the resilience of production systems and ecosystem services to climate change.8 Rotational grazing minimizes livestock impacts biogas digesters turn waste into energy and organic fertilizer. Rotational grazing minimizes livestock impacts biogas digesters turn waste into energy and organic fertilizer.

Framework for Evaluation of Adaptation Measures

The state and decision indicators are related to each other. If a state indicator changes (thus the water system of a river changes), the decision indicator will also change, and hence can imply that a certain objective cannot be met. Or, the other way around. When, for example, the goal is to bring a certain fish species like the salmon back into the river, the following steps have to be taken. First the current state of the water resources system has to be assessed. For instance, the concentration of fertilizer in the water and the absence of spring floods are the limiting factors for the return of the salmon. These limiting factors can be found through the indicators we assigned to measure the state of the WRS. The next step is to design and implement measures to improve the status of water resources. Such measures could be to reduce cropland near the river and to change reservoir management by allowing more spring floods. The effectiveness of such measure is evaluated through the...

Allocating for the Chemical Industry

Full auctioning of allowances is criticized by manufacturing industries but is particularly disadvantageous for some sectors of the chemical industry such as PVC, nitrogenous fertilizer, and soda ash producers, as demonstrated earlier in the chapter. Industry suggests that this approach does not drive market efficiency

Availability Really Limit Moist Tropical Forest Productivity

This conclusion is based, at least in part, on the observation that forests on older soils show increased growth in response to phosphorus but not to nitrogen fertilization (Herbert and Fownes, 1995). But at the individual plant level, it is also often observed that climax-tree species native to both moist and dry tropical forests may show little if any growth response to increased soil phosphorus availability (Rincon and Huante, 1994 Huante et al, 1995 Raaimakers and Lambers, 1996 Veenendaal et al, 1996). Thus, as was discussed in Sec. 3.2, it may actually be that most plants adapted to low-phosphorus tropical forest soils, while having adaptions to such soils such as lower inherent growth rates and higher root-shoot ratios may not be able to substantially increase that growth in response to higher phosphorus levels (Veenendaal et al, 1996). In this context, one can still regard the low productivity of some tropical forests as being a consequence of low nutrient availability, but...

Creating Highcarbon Cropping Systems

Currently two thirds of all arable land is used to grow annual grains. This production depends on tilling, preparing seed beds, and applying chemical inputs. Every year the process starts over again from scratch. This makes production more dependent on chemical inputs, which also require a lot of fossil fuels to produce. Furthermore, excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer is a major source of nitrous oxide emissions, as noted earlier.22 In contrast, perennial grasses retain a strong root network between growing seasons. Hence, a good amount of the living biomass remains in the soil instead of being released as greenhouse gases. And they help hold soil organic matter and water together, reducing soil erosion and GHG emissions. Finally, the perennial nature of these grasses does away with the need for annual tilling that releases GHGs and causes soil erosion, and it also makes the grasses more conservative in the use of nutrients. In one U.S. case, for example,...

Soil Carbon Sequestration Options

For forests, carbon sequestration options include the increase of soil carbon stocks through afforestation, reforestation, improved forest management or revegetation. For croplands, options include zero or reduced tillage, set-aside or Conservation Reserve Program, conversion to permanent or deep-rooting crops, improved efficiency of animal manure use, improved efficiency of crop residue use, agricultural use of sewage sludge, application of compost to land, rotational changes, fertilizer use, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification or de-intensification of farming, organic farming (a combination of many different individual practices), conversion of cropland to grassland and management to reduce wind and water erosion. For grazing lands, soil carbon sequestration measures include improved efficiency of animal manure use, improved efficiency of crop residue use, improved livestock management to reduce soil disturbance, improved livestock management to maximize manure carbon...

Agriculture and poverty alleviation

Apart from the social problems of large-scale agriculture, there are also serious environmental problems. A focus on cash crops for export often means that sooner or later high-yield varieties with a corresponding need for soil, irrigation, fertilizers and pesticides will be planted, often subsidized. Under these conditions, positive energy and greenhouse gas balances are difficult to attain and there will be negative environmental effects on, for instance, biodiversity. The use of genetically modified organisms in the production of industrial bioenergy raises many unresolved questions about risks (mostly environmental) and side effects (mostly health). The technology involved is also linked to the centralized control by a few large companies over seeds and plant varieties.

Atmosphere LandOcean Interactions

The vulnerability of the land-river-marine transport and fate system (conveyor belt) depends on the regional functioning of the hydrological cycle and on the way its dynamics are driven by patterns of water use, changes in land use practices affecting mobilization of carbon and nutrients to and through channels, and ultimately how the seas of the continental margins respond to these changes in forcing. Under scenarios of an increased hydrological cycle and changes in land use, river flow could increase, leading to increased ability of rivers to carry materials. Conversely, those areas subject to drier conditions would incur reduced flow and a reduced capacity of rivers to mobilize materials. Regardless of climate changes, an increased demand for water for agricultural and for urban and industrial practices would reduce water available to be routed down channels. Changes in forcing from upstream would affect coastal receiving waters. Decreases in river flow (from either drier climates...

Other Sequestration Methods

Based on a report in Environmental News Network, a company called Carbon Sciences has developed a relatively simple technology that puts the mixture under pressure and temperature to create precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). PCC is a common component of many products used everyday such as paper, plastic, wallboard, food additives, pharmaceuticals, vinyl siding, fencing, agricultural products, and fertilizer.

The lesson from the past

The ongoing rapid increase in atmospheric N2O, which started during the 19th century, is mainly attributed to the increase of agricultural activities (Kroeze et al, 1999 Ishijima et al, 2007), which in turn was caused by the expansion of agricultural land and industrialization that came along with the increasing availability of agricultural fertilizers triggered by the development of the Haber-Bosch process (see Chapters 4 and 5). A potential indirect contribution by oceanic sources (for example increased N2O emissions as a result of eutrophication of coastal areas) has not been quantified yet.

Agricultural Disturbances

Succession can be interrupted at various stages by agricultural practices, such as cultivation and applications of fertilizer and pesticide (Ferris and Ferris, 1974 Wasilewska, 1979). Such interruptions reduce diversity and successional maturity. Maturity indices are based on the principles of succession and relative sensitivity of various nematode taxa to stress or disruption of the successional sequence (Bongers, 1990). Indices that describe associations within biological communities, such as a maturity index, are less variable than measures of abundance of a single taxonomic or functional group and are, thus, more reliable as measures of ecosystem condition (Neher et al., 1995).

Changes In Emissions To The Atmosphere

Table 5.3 Disposal of animal manure on grazing land and application in pastoral and mixed industrial systems, and N fertilizer use for 1970, _1995 and 2030 (N in Tg yr)_ Table 5.3 Disposal of animal manure on grazing land and application in pastoral and mixed industrial systems, and N fertilizer use for 1970, _1995 and 2030 (N in Tg yr)_ Fertilizer Global direct emissions of N2O from animal manure calculated according to (IMAGE-team, 2001) strongly increased from 1.2 to 1.4 Tg N2O-N yr between 1970 and 1995 (Table 5.5). For the coming three decades a further increase to 1.7 Tg is projected. In the period 1970 to 1995 the N2O emission from N fertilizers increased rapidly from 0.4 to 1.0 Tg N2O-N yr, and a further 30 increase to 1.4 Tg N2O-N yr 2030 is projected for 2030. Ammonia emissions are calculated with different approaches for stable and grazing emissions (Bouwman et al., 1997) and manure and fertilizer application (Bouwman et al., 2002). Emissions increased from 21 Tg yr in 1970...

Methane consumption by soils

1990 Yavitt et al., 1990 Mosier et al., 1991 Striegl et al., 1992). In well-aerated soils, methanotrophs can use CH4 as a source of carbon and, by oxidation to CO2, as a source of energy. Globally, this oxidation represents a significant sink for CH4 (Smith and Conen, 2004). Converting native ecosystems to agricultural use tends to reduce the soil sink strength (Ojima et al., 1993 Willison et al., 1995 Dobbie et al., 1996 Prieme et al., 1997 Smith et al., 2000). Resolving the reason for this reduction is not easy because many changes occur simultaneously when native ecosystems are converted to agricultural use, but application of NH+-containing fertilizers (Mosier et al., 1991 H tsch et al., 1994 King and Schnell, 1994) and physical disturbance have been implicated as likely causes (H tsch, 2001).

Impacts Of Present And Future Climate Change And Climate Variability On Agriculture In The Temperate Regions North

The potential impact of climate variability and climate change on agricultural production in the United States and Canada varies generally by latitude. Largest reductions are projected in southern crop areas due to increased temperatures and reduced water availability. A longer growing season and projected increases in CO2 may enhance crop yields in northern growing areas. Major factors in these scenarios analyzes are increased drought tendencies and more extreme weather events, both of which are detrimental to agriculture. Increasing competition for water between agriculture and non-agricultural users also focuses attention on water management issues. Agriculture also has impact on the greenhouse gas balance. Forests and soils are natural sinks for CO2. Removal of forests and changes in land use, associated with the conversion from rural to urban domains, alters these natural sinks. Agricultural livestock and rice cultivation are leading contributors to methane emission...

Nitrate Contamination

During the last few decades agricultural productivity has increased enough to keep pace with the rapid increase in global population. This dramatic increase in productivity is largely due to improvements in crop varieties and associated increases in the use of fertilizers and pesticides, technical innovations sometimes collectively referred to as the Green revolution. The benefits of these innovations are apparent and relatively easy to document. What is not so apparent are the costs, both to human health and to the environment in general. Concerns about these costs have generated debates and have led to a number of regulations, especially in the developed countries. Many of the issues which arise in the case of fertilizer application can be illustrated with the case of nitrate use in Germany. The increased use of nitrogen fertilizer for agriculture introduces additional nitrate into the biosphere. In order to put the issue in perspective, the nitrogen balance for Germany is...

The Response Of Agriculture To Climate Change

The effect of increased temperature can have either a positive or negative effect, based on geography. For instance, for the colder high-latitude locations such as Alaska and Canada, warmer temperatures would enable the existence of longer growing seasons. This could encourage the possibility of extended growing seasons as long as soil conditions are adequate. If soil conditions are not adequate and are not fertile enough (lacking proper nutrients and soil structure) to support the growth of crops, the length of the growing season will not matter because growing crops would not be successful. Adding large doses of fertilizer to increase fertility is also not a good option because they can have negative effects on the environment, such as being washed off into the drainage and entering and polluting the water cycle and biogeo-chemical systems.

Wastewater Characteristics and Sources

Wastewaters from the manufacturing, processing, and formulation of inorganic chemicals such as phosphorus compounds, phosphates, and phosphate fertilizers cannot be exactly characterized. The wastewater streams are usually expected to contain trace or large concentrations of all raw materials used in the plant all intermediate compounds produced during manufacture all final products, coproducts, and byproducts and the auxiliary or processing chemicals employed. It is desirable from the viewpoint of economics that these substances not be lost, but some losses and spills appear unavoidable and some intentional dumping does take place during housecleaning, vessel emptying, and preparation operations. The federal guidelines 8 for state and local pretreatment programs reported the raw wastewater characteristics (Table 4) in mg L concentration, and flows and quality parameters (Table 5) based on the production of 1 ton of the product manufactured, for each of the six subcategories of the...

Effluent Standards in Other Countries

The control of wastewater discharges from the phosphate and phosphate fertilizer industry in various countries differs significantly, as is the case with effluents from other Table 11 Effluent Limitations (mg L except for pH) for Subpart G, Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Table 11 Effluent Limitations (mg L except for pH) for Subpart G, Mixed and Blend Fertilizer

Agriculture in the Semi Arid Tropics

Despite the harsh environmental conditions, the rate of population increase has been high in the past and will be kept high(er) in the near future. To feed the growing population, more foods should be produced, by improving productivity of the lands and crops and by developing more sophisticated and sustainable ways of resource management. Due to the unpredictable weather and to poor accessibility of agricultural resources such as fertilizers, the cropping options for farmers are restricted to low input farming systems. High rainfall, which often comes at the onset of each growing season, greatly reduces the efficiency of fertilizer for crop uptake. The fear of a fatal crop failure due to drought makes the farmers reluctant to apply sufficient fertilizer for crop growth. Most crops in the region are grown with no fertilizer or insufficient amounts of fertilizer, due to the consideration of safe investment.

Implications for Other Practices

Perhaps the most obvious is the urgency of accounting for all GHGs in assessing how well a proposed practice might reduce emissions (Robertson and Grace, 2004 Mosier et al., 2005). Although much of the early focus, justifiably, was on soil carbon sequestration, agriculture is a major contributor of N2O and CH4, both potent GHGs. Because of the high GWPs of these gases, small shifts in their emissions can substantially augment or offset the benefits from any soil carbon gain. So we cannot consider only the soil carbon accrual from reduced tillage we have to estimate the effects on N2O emission. We cannot limit our attention only to the SOC gains from planting grasses we have to think about the CH4 emitted when those grasses are fed to livestock. We cannot examine only the SOC benefits of practices that favour higher yields we have to quan-tiffy the N2O emitted from higher fertilizer rates needed to support those yields and the energy consumed in making...

Effects of Organic Matter Amendments

Animal manures and compost can be valuable nutrients sources to crops. In addition, while their amendments to soils represent a convenient disposal and recycle of considerable amounts of wastes, they allow to limit the application of mineral fertilizers and, thus, save farm money and energy. A number of studies have shown that manure addition is beneficial to soil in terms of plant productivity and soil quality (Haynes and Naidu 1998 Edmeades 2003). A long-term experimental platform exists at the TO site in close proximity of the MESCOSAGR experiment, where organic fertilizers are tested. This platform was intended to evaluate management options of livestock farming in terms of crop production, soil quality, and environment impact. Different maize-based cropping systems are fertilized with bovine farmyard manure or slurry, in comparison to urea. It was therein found that tested organic fertilizers made N available to crops to the same extent as urea and were better retained in the...

Table 15 Phosphate Manufacturing Industry Wastewater Treatment Practises and Unit Removal Efficiencies and Effluent pH

The wastewater is again treated with a second lime addition to raise the pH level from 8 to at least 9 (where phosphate removal rates of 95 may be achieved), although two-stage dosing to pH 11 may be employed. Concentrations of phosphorus and fluoride with a magnitude of 6500 and 9000 mg L, respectively, can be reduced to 5-500 mg L P and 30-60 mg L F. Soluble orthophosphate and lime react to form an insoluble precipitate, calcium hydroxy apatite 17 . Sludges formed by lime addition to phosphate wastes from phosphate manufacturing or fertilizer production are generally compact and possess good settling and dewatering characteristics, and removal rates of 80-90 for both phosphate and fluoride may be readily achieved 13 . Mixed fertilizer (subcategory G) treatment technology consists of a closed-loop contaminated water system, which includes a retention pond to settle suspended solids. The water is then recycled back to the system. There are no liquid waste streams associated with the...

Environmental Impacts of the Project

Other environmental benefits claimed are reduced soil erosion and the regulation of hydrological flows in the watershed, improving soil health and contributing to climate stabilization. Importantly the project will act as a demonstration to other areas plowing, which results in severe soil erosion, is avoided by establishing trees manually, and careful control of fertilizers and insecticide use minimize threats to downstream water quality. (The biodiversity benefits of this project, and of A R projects generally, are reviewed in some detail in Chapter 4.)

Crop and Resource Management in Low Input Farming Systems

Nitrogen fertilizer application is a management practice that can be easily modified by farmers in terms of time and method of application. The method of application would considerably affect N fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE), which indicates how much proportion of N applied as fertilizer is utilized by the crop. To minimize the amount of N fertilizer which is not utilized by crops, in other words to increase NFUE, timing of application should be well synchronized with patterns of N supply from the soil and with crop requirement. In regions where intercropping is commonly practiced, most farmers do not apply, or apply very low doses (less than 25 kg N ha-1), of N fertilizer, because of economic, logistic and social reasons. When N is applied, the farmers prefer basal to delayed applica Delayed urea-N application results in a higher NFUE in sorghum than a basal application (Fig 8.4). The NFUE of sole crop pigeonpea is higher (14.6) than that of intercrop pigeonpea (1.8-3.9), because...

Agricultures Role in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The application of synthetic nitrogen and organic fertilizers is a leading contributor to N2O emissions. Bacterial action on the chemical fertilizers results in the release of N2O. The gas is released when soil microbes digest the fertilizers. The more inorganic nitrogen-based fertilizers that are applied, the more N2O goes into Rosenzweig and Hillel (2000) noted that proper land management aimed at enhancing soil organic matter improves soil fertility and soil structure, reduces soil erosion, and helps to mitigate the greenhouse effect. It is estimated that methane comprised about 11 of U.S. greenhouse gas emission in 1995. The improvement in animal breeding and husbandry, the adoption of biotechnology, and the current declining trend in the consumption of milk and red meat could cut methane emission by 20 . Research on ways and means of capturing methane released from manure management systems and using the captured methane as an on-farm energy resource showed that it is...

Production of Biofuels

The Environmental Defense Fund has determined that a key factor in how effective biofuels are in fighting global warming is the energy efficiency of their production methods. These include everything from running plows and harvesters to manufacturing pesticides and fertilizer to converting the material into fuel and transporting it. Improving land use through sustainable practices such as no-till farming, and boosting energy efficiencies make biofuels more effective at reducing heat-trapping pollution.

Coevolution and Migration of Bean and Rhizobia in Europe

Abstract The legumes crop common bean is one of the most important crops for the human nutrition common bean is the protein basis from developing countries. Common bean presents many limitations such as the deficiencies or toxicities of minerals in soils. These limitations in common bean production regions occur throughout the world. To overcome mineral deficiencies and toxicities, common bean growers must use corrective soil amendments. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) is important as a source of N for agriculture, because the use of nitrogenous fertilizers has resulted in unacceptable levels of water and atmosphere pollution and by nitrate and N2O emissions, contributing to the increase of greenhouse effect. The common bean grown in Europe, and other continents, is the result of a process of domestication and evolution, from wild forms found exclusively in the Americas, and it is possible to distinguish two major domestication centres, Andean and Mesoamerican centers. Most of the...

Adaptation Strategies

Erosion in the Great Plains was reduced after devastating losses of valuable topsoil during the dust bowl years of the 1930s by planting shelterbelts of trees to reduce wind erosion. Reduction of summer fallow practice and move to minimum or zero tillage are management practices which have reduced erosion and promoted higher soil organic matter (McRay et al., 2000, Chapter 7). Other means of alternative agriculture included systematically incorporating natural processes, such as nutrient cycles, nitrogen fixation, and pest-predator relationships into the agricultural production process reducing the use of chemicals and fertilizers making greater use of the biological and genetic potential of plant and animal species improving the match between cropping patterns and the productive potential and physical limitations of agricultural lands in order to ensure the long-term sustain-ability of the land and, emphasizing improved farm management and conservation of the soil, water, and...

The Wastewater Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen fixation, namely the conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonium ions, is achieved by the enzyme nitrogenase that is found only in nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Equation 9.1). Prior to the widespread use of nitrogen fertilizers, nodule-growing plants or legumes provided soil nitrogen. Examples of legumes include alfalfa, clover, and soybeans.

Response to Nutrient Addition and Warming

As expected, addition of fertilizer has almost always led to increase in nutrient uptake, tissue nutrient mass, and net primary production. Tissue turnover rates generally have increased because of community changes toward increased proportion of species with short leaf-longevity. In several cases, fertilizer addition has also led to transient responses in biomass. For instance, while the biomass increased during the first two years of fertilizer addition to subarctic, northern Swedish forest-floor vegetation (Parsons et al, 1994), the response did not continue after five years (Press et al, 1998a) because the grass Calamagrostis lapponica expanded strongly and affected growth of dwarf shrubs and mosses negatively (Potter et al, 1995 Press et al, 1998a). Similarly, the canopy density and mass of the deciduous Betula nana increased in Alaskan tussock tundra over nine years of fertilizer application and reduced the biomass of most other species (Chapin et al, 1995). As a result of the...

Responses in Ecosystem Carbon Balance

Ecosystem C exchange has been measured in a few experiments, mostly in Alaskan wet and moist tundra (Fig. 4). In the wet tundra both gross ecosystem production, i.e., the photosynthetic gains, and respiratory C losses increased with nutrient addition. The increases were particularly pronounced in P and NP addition treatments with a strong N X P interaction, which was similar to the response pattern in the biomass (see above). Warming, in contrast, had smaller effects on C02 fluxes but still increased or tended to increase the fluxes. The net ecosystem productivity, which is the difference between the C fluxes into and out of the ecosystem, increased strongly after fertilizer addition and also tended to increase after warming. Hence, the increase in photo-synthetic carbon sequestration was more pronounced than the increase in respiration with warming only. However, as with the biomass response to combined warming and fertilizer addition, there was a negative interaction with decreased...

Soils Characteristics and Experimental Setup

- Traditional (TRA) plowing at 35 cm depth, followed by surface harrowing with addition of mineral fertilizers. - Minimum tillage (MIN) no plowing, with addition of mineral fertilizers. - Green manure (GMAN) plowing at 30 cm depth, followed by surface harrowing. Leguminous crops were interlaced between two main annual cycles and used as green manure to totally or partially replace nitrogen fertilizer. - CAT plowing at 35 cm depth, followed by surface harrowing with the addition of mineral fertilizer and 10 kg ha-1 of a biomimetic catalyst, the water-soluble iron-porphyrin (FeP). FeP was synthesized in the laboratory as meso-tetra of iron(III) chloride, Fe-(TDCPPS) Cl (Piccolo et al. 2005a). - No-CAT plowing at 35 cm depth followed by surface harrowing with the addition of mineral fertilizers.

Role of organic matter and nutrients

In rice cultivation, as in any other form of agriculture, it is necessary to sustain soil fertility by returning plant nutrients to the soil. Plant residues, green manure from intercrops or the aquatic plant Azolla and its associated N-fixing blue-green alga Anabaena azollae, human faeces and animal manure are the most important forms of organic fertilizers used in rice crops. Since the 'green revolution' in the 1960s introduced new varieties with increased yields and nutrient requirements, these organic amendments have been generally complemented in many regions by mineral forms of fertilizer. A major difference between organic and mineral fertilizers, in the context of methanogenesis, is that organic fertilizers contain, in addition to plant nutrients, energy sources (for example carbohydrates) that stimulate soil microbial activity. The energy content in organic amendments declines rapidly with time during aerobic decomposition. Applied freshly, however, organic materials lead to...

Rising Atmospheric Concentrations of C02

It is expected that an initial increase in CO2 will actually behave like a fertilizer and enhance the growth of crops such as rice, wheat, and soybeans. The IPCC cautions, however, that even though it may initially increase production, there will be a slowing that occurs as temperature and precipitation changes may counteract the beneficial CO2 effects. According to a report in Discovery News, farmers hoping to use desalinated water as a resource in water-scarce areas to irrigate crops have had to overcome a hurdle. At a desalination plant currently operated in Israel, it was determined that the converted water was lacking in calcium and magnesium, but was overloaded with boron. While not a problem for drinking water, it was for the production of crops but with the addition of fertilizer and some other adjustments, the water could be treated so that it could be safely used for irrigation.

Climate Change And Food Production

Higher temperatures also have an effect on soil quality. Warmer soil breaks down organic matter more quickly, stripping it of nutrients and requiring the use of more fertilizers to enhance soil fertility. These, like pesticides and herbicides, emit pollutants. Dried-out soil is also more prone to erosion. Precipitation patterns are expected to change dramatically over the next century. Climate scientists expect that there will be more prolonged dry spells, punctuated by brief, heavy downpours. This will have a negative impact on crop yield, because most staple crops

Comparison of topdown and bottomup estimates

The basis of the Crutzen et al (2008) methodology is that the newly fixed N entering agricultural systems (synthetic fertilizer-N and N from BNF) is regarded as the source of all agriculture-related N2O emissions. These emissions will not all happen in the season when fixation takes place, but will involve longer cycling crop residues ploughed in as fertilizer for a successor crop In contrast, in the IPCC approach, emissions from crop residues and mineralization are included in the 'direct' emissions and have the same EF separate EFs are used for emissions from grazing animals, and the N source here is quantified on the basis of the N excreted, and essentially is treated as a 'new' N source, not as fertilizer- or BNF-derived N (see also Chapters 5 and 6). The fractions of the N applied to fields that are lost by leaching, runoff and volatilization have additional EFs applied to them to describe the resulting 'indirect' emissions. The aggregate emissions from agriculture are arrived at...

Challenges in Favorable Agricultural Production Areas

In modern agroecosystems in favorable agricultural areas there are two main challenges. First, the current practice of high external input agriculture is not sustainable. The resulting high outputs (i.e., high yield) often come at the expense of the natural resources base (water, soils, biodiversity), both on-farm and off-farm. Yield plateaus of major crop species in high production areas have been reported, causing concern regarding the sustainability of on-farm production. The heavy dependence on agrochemicals (including pesticides and chemical fertilizers) in uniform production systems can result in the destruction of a wide array of susceptible species in the ecosystem7 and pollution of water sources. Intensive cultivation with irrigation can lead to rapid water depletion and salinization of the soil. Future as well as present generations are affected, since valuable stores of genetic resources in natural habitats may be irretrievably lost.8

Impact of water management

Some of the gains achieved by drainage in terms of global warming potential can be offset by enhanced N2O emissions (Cai et al, 1997 Akiyama et al, 2005). The IPCC guidelines estimate that, on average, 0.31 per cent of the nitrogen fertilizer applied to rice paddies is emitted as N2O (IPCC, 2007a). This emission factor was based on an analysis conducted by Akiyama et al (2005), in which they calculated a N2O emission factor of 0.22 per cent for continuously flooded rice paddies and an emission factor of 0.37 per cent for intermittently irrigated rice paddies. Yan et al (2009) estimated that 27 million hectares of the global rice area is continuously flooded. Assuming an average fertilizer application rate of 150kg N ha-1, if these continuously flooded rice fields were all drained more than once during the rice-growing season the N2O emission from rice fields would increase by approximately 9.5Gg. Even though the GWP of 1kg of N2O is approximately 12 times higher that of 1kg of CH4...

Livestock Crop Bottomup Topdown manure residue

Although the Del Grosso et al (2008) paper contains too large a value for US emissions modelled by DAYCENT (see note to Table 4.4), their conclusions about the agreement at the global scale are unaffected and encouraging. The numbers demonstrate that the 3-5 per cent EF relates to agriculture as a whole - i.e. it is not limited to crop-based biofuel production. Crutzen et al (2008) focused only on crop-based biofuels because of a logical inconsistency in one of the motivations for their production, i.e. the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil fuel, while at the same time introducing another, much more potent, greenhouse gas. As food production for a still-growing world population will require further increases in fertilizer nitrogen application (Erisman et al, 2008), efforts to limit N2O emissions cannot be allowed to affect production. Instead, efforts need to focus on improvement of the nitrogen use efficiency throughout the production chain. This entails...

Understanding Traditional Knowledge and Management Systems

Farmers have an intimate knowledge of useful plant characteristics such as which seeds require less fertilizer, which varieties are able to outgrow weeds, which are less susceptible to pests, and, not least, which taste better. As we pay greater attention to the role that farmers play in the conservation and use of genetic resources in situ, we will need to consider social and cultural factors such as decision making patterns, local institutions, indigenous knowledge and value systems. Gender analysis can provide an understanding of the critical role that women play in the management and use of genetic resources at the farm level. Equitable and ethical use of local knowledge of genetic resources requires a system for recognizing and supporting traditional resource rights and local systems for the maintenance and exchange of knowledge.

Sequestering Soil Carbon

Crop production requires relatively large amounts of N, P, S, and other essential plant nutrients. Decomposition of SOM is the primary source of plant nutrients for the first few years after crop production is initiated. As SOM decomposition begins to slow significantly, manures or fertilizers are often required to supplement nutrient requirements. Legumes are sometimes used to supplement N needs, but the use of legumes is limited in semi-arid regions. Nitrogen is usually the first nutrient that becomes limiting as SOM decomposition slows, and P is often the second essential nutrient that limits crop production. Some rather optimistic estimates have been made about how much of the C lost from soils can be restored. Paustian et al. (1995) estimated that the 13.8 million ha in the U.S. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) could sequester about 25 Tg of C over a 10-year period. This would require approximately 2.5 Tg of N, or 18 kg per year for each hectare. Nitrogen fertilizers are not...

The Impact Of Globalism

These corporations not only pursue profits in low-wage markets but also seek to escape the tighter regulatory frameworks of the global North, thus greatly accelerating the destruction of ecosystems and biodiversity in the global South.10 In addition, twenty-first century agribusiness has opted for unprecedentedly manipulative techniques of genetic food engineering and development of new synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides.11 Ever larger areas of the global landscape are drawn into the exclusive orbit of corporate globalization, accelerating 500 years of ecological degradation

Material and Methods 921 N2O Data Collection

We compiled measurements of direct N2O emission from rice field studies that were published to date in peer-reviewed Chinese and English journals. Data published in Chinese were gathered from the Chinese Journal Net (CJN) full-text database and those in English from the Science Citation Index (SCI) database. Measurements of N2O flux taken from field studies over an abnormally shorter period (Xu et al. 1995), from pot experiments (Xiong et al. 2003a) or from incubation studies (Yan et al. 2000) were not considered in this study. We did not adopt an obviously abnormal result that N2O fluxes were not detectable when pig manure was incorporated at the rate of 164 kg N ha-1 under the water regime of F-D-F (Yang et al. 1996). Measurements from aerobic rice fields (Xu et al. 2004), and from those in which the controlled release fertilizers were applied (Li et al. 2004a) or the amount of organic amendments was not presented for nitrogen treatments (Khalil et al. 1998) were excluded as well....

The General Evaluation Problem

However they are produced by agriculture, and become competitive with human nutrition. Need for land may foster deforestation and stress biodiversity. Production needs would influence input of fertilizers and pesticides which may negatively affect soil and groundwater, and cause air pollution. The production of fertilizers and pesticides consumes fossil fuel. Environmental effects of biofuel production are to be considered.

Emissions from manure

Methane production is often increased by so-called co-digestion of manure with other biomass. This can be dedicated crops, crop residues, residues and leftovers from the food industry, or biomass from nature reserve areas (refer to Table 10.1 for examples). Digestion of manure by co-digestion is considered to shorten the length of time in pre-storage at farms. However, because of the relatively low biochemical methane potential (BMP) of manure (Table 10.1) compared to, for example, maize (around 0.3m3 CH4 tonne-1), and the lower organic matter content of manure compared to maize (Amon et al, 2007) and other co-substrates, the effect of shorter storage times may be offset. In The Netherlands, the amount of co-substrate that is permitted while still treating the digestate as 'fertilizer of animal origin' is 50 per cent on a volumetric basis.

Soybean BNF Promotion Program

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played an important part in sourcing funds for BNF technology training for rural communities and local extension agents and micro-finance. The CU has set up strategically located farmer-managed and extension-supervised technology transfer demonstration plots to show proper application of BNF technology, soybean varietal performance and rotational effects with maize. After harvest farmers have been trained to grade their crop for seed and for the market and given tips on managing crop residues for soil fertility enhancement and as livestock feed. In all cases farmers undertake most of the tasks to ensure self-reliance and sustainability. Traders and agro-dealers have added soybean inputs such as seed, inoculants and fertilizers, and harvested grain to their list of trading items.

Agricultural intensification

Specialised cash-crop systems A common outcome of intensification is the increase in the proportion of specialised fields, some of them devoted to high value crops. These often form part of traditional economies, yielding products which can be bartered for other materials. As more structured markets develop, these crops may become important components of the cash economy. The traditional cash crops include a diversity of fruit trees, bananas, ginger, pineapples, yams and special products like broom grass (for broom making) or bamboo (for a variety of purposes). With the coming of the industrial revolution, small-scale plantation crops of rubber, cocoa, oil-palm or coffee were incorporated in farming systems in many parts of the world. These fields often require intensive management at certain times of the year, either in field preparation, pest management, harvest or post-harvest activities. Nonetheless they arc traditionally handled internally, labour coming exclusively from within...

Contributions of Fixed N by Legumes

The ability of legumes to progressively improve the N status of soils has been utilized for thousands of years in crop rotations and traditional farming systems. The 163 million ha of legume crops grown each year, legume components of the 200 million ha under temporary pastures or forage crops, the 10-12 million ha of perennial legume cover-crops in rubber and oil-palm plantations, and the legume trees and shrubs in agroforestry systems all contribute fixed N to agriculture. Collectively experimental and on-farm data both suggest potential inputs of several hundreds of kg of fixed N ha per year (Table 1), often with maximum rates of N2 fixation of 3-4 kg shoot N ha per day (Unkovich, Pate 2000). The amounts of N2 fixed with most legumes are regulated by environmental or management constraints to plant growth associated with soil nutrients, water supply, diseases and pests. Legumes commonly fix around 20-25 kg of shoot N for every tonne of shoot dry matter accumulated across a range of...

Model Adaptation to Local Conditions

Maize was planted each year in the computer experiment as soon as the soil in the top 30 cm of soil reached 60 of plant available water, but no earlier than June 18 to ensure adequate moisture for germination. Harvest was assumed to occur at maturity, which was simulated for each season. Plant density was set at three plants m-2 in all simulations, and row width was 75 cm. Crops simulated under CT had no manure or N fertilizer applications, and 90 of the crop residue was removed after harvest. Management of RT included application of inorganic N (40 kg ha1 applied in two doses), return of 90 of crop residue to the soil, and addition of 3 metric tons ha-1 of (dry) manure.

Simulation of Soil C Sequestration Potential RT vs CT

Two other treatments were simulated in the computer experiment to estimate how much SOC sequestration would occur under RT only (no amendments added), and under RT with 40 kg ha-1 N and return of 90 of crop residue (RT, Fl, R, no manure addition). Data in Table 16.4 indicate that yield increased under the RT only treatment, but that SOC did not increase. Although roots added C to the soil in all treatments, simulated results show that roots of maize alone would not be enough to increase SOC in this environment. For RT plus N fertilizer and residue return to the field, yield increased about the same as for RT plus all amendments, but the SOC increase was only 2058 kg ha-1, or about 60 of the amount sequestered when manure was included. Notes CT conventional tillage F 40 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer added R 90 of crop residue left on the field each year RT ridge tillage SOC soil organic carbon. Notes CT conventional tillage F 40 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer added R 90 of crop residue left on the...

Improving animal diets

Changing animal diets can also lead to a reduction in N input, leading to lower rates of denitrification. Zebarth et al (1999) constructed a large-scale N budget for an area of approximately 70,000ha heavily used for animal husbandry including the production of feed. They found that through improved manure storage and fertilizer management practices, in combination with an improved animal diet by removing surplus dietary crude protein and balancing protein, carbohydrates and amino acids in the diet leading to a reduction in N in the excreta of between 20 and 25 per cent, the total N input across the region could be reduced by 17 per cent and the N surplus by 24 per cent. Moreover, it was estimated that the improved animal diet would reduce denitrification by 22 per cent compared to the reference scenario. If we apply improved animal diets by assuming a 20 per cent reduction of the N in animal excreta, manure N application to arable land falls from 33.3 to 26.2Tg yr-1 (Table 5.3). This...

Contribution and Value of PGRFA

For the developed nations, population increases can be accommodated in part by eating lower on the food chain and consuming grains directly, but the developing world is already doing that. Because new arable land in the developing world is becoming steadily more scarce, higher yields can come with better agronomy dependent on a combination of more fertilizer, plowing, water lifting energy and improved plant material. All but the last are agricultural inputs that compete for meager resources available in developing countries. Therefore, breeding for better crop plants will be the central focal point around which all strategies to increase crop yields will develop. The improvements in agricultural production brought about through the use of modern varieties have been possible because of the rich and varied genetic diversity in farmers' landraces, and of wild and weedy species. There are now several examples of the introgression of valuable agronomic traits from landraces, and wild...

Use of nitrification inhibitors

Nitrification inhibitors are often used to increase N fertilizer use efficiency and decrease NO3- losses by leaching and denitrification. There is increasing interest in the use of nitrification inhibitors that effectively block nitrification when applied to soils in conjunction with N fertilizers. In recent years, Nitrification inhibitors can effectively reduce N2O emission, and yield is generally higher when inhibitors are applied with N fertilizer. For example, a meta-evaluation of the effectiveness of nitrapyrin (NP) in the mid-West of the US showed that, on average, NP combined with N fertilizer led to higher crop yield (7 per cent), increased soil N retention (28 per cent), less nitrate leaching (-16 per cent) and 51 per cent lower N2O emissions compared to fields receiving N fertilizer without NP (Wolt, 2004). Alternative nitrification inhibitors such as DCD (dicyandiamide), ATS (ammonium thiosulphate) and DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) can be expected to have a similar...

Radioactive Pollution

The radioactive pollution of the environment comes partly from nuclear and coal power stations and partly from other industrial processes. That from nuclear power stations has been discussed in Section 4.5 and those from various power sources are given in Table 6.2. In addition many industrial activities use naturally occurring minerals that contain varying amounts of radioactive material. Such industries include those producing phosphorus and phosphoric acid, fertilizers, iron and steel, coke, minerals, coal tar processing, ceramics and uranium and thorium mining (Nuclear Issues 22, November 2000). Some of this radioactivity remains in the product and the remainder is discharged into the sea or buried underground. The total amount of radioactivity discharged into the oceans is estimated to be about 0.1 EBq, compared with the amount already there of about 10,000 EBq.

Summary and conclusions

A simple decrease in fertilizer-N input would lead to a concurrent reduction of N2O emissions. Depending on the size of the decrease in fertilizer-N input, a dilemma will manifest itself as lower fertilizer-N input will have a negative effect on grain yield. A positive relationship between the amount of N fertilizer input and yield is well established (Cassman et al, 2003). Such a positive relationship between N fertilizer input and yield is also reflected at the global level as worldwide increases in the use of synthetic fertilizer-N have led to a significant increase in total yield and food production (FAO, 2008). Therefore, a significant reduction in N2O emissions through a reduction in fertilizer-N input will most likely lead to lower food Simply reducing fertilizer use is therefore not an option, except in regions where there is over-fertilization, i.e. where reducing N inputs has no effect on crop yields. Generally, optimum and near optimum levels of fertilizer-N input in...

Problems Linked to the Use of15N

Amount of labelled N is actually available than the amount distributed, a lower transformation rate is estimated than actually occurs. ANI can be caused by processes whose rate is not determined by N availability, but by other factors. Examples are immobilization and, sometimes, denitrification. If the extent of the process is not determined by the N availability, the amount of N involved in the process is constant and will be distributed between the labelled and unlabelled N on the basis of their relative abundance. If the rate is determined by N availability, the amount of N involved in the process will be a fraction of the total available N (for example in leaching). Consequently, the amount of N subtracted will be a constant fraction of each labelled and unlabelled pool, and no variation in the relative abundance of labelled and unlabelled fertilizers will occur (Giusquiani et al. 1994 Jenkinson et al. 1985 Powlson and Barraclough 1993). An example of ANI in the inorganic N pool...

Nutrient supply from land

It has been proposed that fertilizer cocktails of macro- and micronutrients should be manufactured on land and transported by submarine pipe to a region significantly beyond the edge of the continental shelf. The nutrient ratios and the temporal supply rates could be controlled so that biological populations develop that optimize sequestration. Such environmental manipulation is today carried out in a sophisticated manner in terrestrial glasshouses where the physical conditions can be controlled, but, with close monitoring, there is no a priori reason why this should not also be possible in an environment such as the open ocean where control of the physical environment is unlikely to be possible. Empirical support for this approach has been based largely on the observations that the substantial leakage of agricultural fertilizer to coastal seas increases production greatly (with the associated problems of excessive eutrophication see Section 8.3.1). In the open oceans, observations...

Emission Factor of Nitrogen for N2O

The fertilizer-induced emission factor of N2O in the present study was, on average, 0.42 for the water regime of F-D-F and 0.73 for the F-D-F-M. Obviously, these estimated emission factors of N2O in rice paddies are significantly lower than the IPCC (1997) default factor of 1.25 or estimates in upland croplands in this area (Zheng et al. 2004). Yan et al. (2003) estimated that N2O emission factors and background emissions averaged 0.25 and 0.26kgN2O-N ha-1 in the rice growing season, respectively. However, they did not distinguish N2O emissions under different water regimes in rice paddies. In contrast, Akiyama et al. (2005) recently reported that the EFs averaged 0.22 for the continuous flooding rice paddies and 0.37 for the fertilized paddies with mid-season drainage. These estimates rep resent the mean of 16 and 23 emission factors directly measured from field studies in which both nitrogen and no-nitrogen treatments were designed, respectively. As the authors pointed out, seasonal...

Olive Oil Wastewater Characteristics

The olive consists of flesh (75-85 by weight), stone (13-23 by weight) and seed (23 by weight) 12 .The chemical composition of the olive is shown in Table 1. The quantities and composition of olive mill waste (OMW) vary considerably, owing to geographical and climatic conditions, tree age, olive type, extraction technology used, use of pesticides and fertilizers, harvest time, and stage of maturity.

International efforts

The US also produces ethanol, but uses corn instead of sugar cane to create the fuel. As a result, the manufacturing process is more complicated, expensive and demanding of fertilizer generated using fossil fuels. As a result, in order to make domestic ethanol competitive, the federal government imposes a 54-cent tariff on each gallon of Brazilian ethanol that is imported, hindering the widespread adoption of competitive Brazilian ethanol in the US.

Changes During Conversion

The transition from conventional to organic and low-input farming is accompanied by changes in an array of soil chemical properties and processes that affect soil fertility. Fundamental differences, both qualities and quantitative, in the flow and processing of nutrient result from the use of cover crops, manure and compost applications, and reduction or elimination of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. These changes affect nutrient availability to crops either directly by contributing to nutrient pools or indirectly by influencing the soil chemical and physical environment.

Precipitation Flocculation

Occurs in three or four stages in purification towers with a separation device for the solids (biomass) and biomass recirculation. The resulting wastewater has a BOD5 of 2000 mg L. The fourth phase consists of the filtration of the wastewater, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis. The concentrated and thickened sludge from the previous phase is then dried by means of band filters for further use as fertilizer.

Business management and technology

Developments in greenhouse horticulture (the scale of production and energy consumption per unit of the product) are determining factors for CO2 emissions in primary agriculture. For livestock production, the development of the stock and the feed management (quantity and use) are important factors for emissions of CH4 and N2O. The emission of methane is chiefly related to the number of animals (particularly cows) through their digestion of feed the manner of storing manure also influences emissions of methane. The emission of nitrous oxide is closely related to the use and application of manure and artificial fertilizer.

Forecast Information of Greatest Value to Corn Production

Table 16.3 shows that agricultural extension workers view the onset of the rainy season, duration of rainy days, rainfall distribution, and drought and typhoon occurrence as equally important climate information that they would like to request to be made available to them. On the other hand, farmers' most requested information is the duration of rainy days. This information is important in scheduling land preparation and planting. While the Philippines experiences, on the average, about 20 typhoons annually and Isabela is along the typhoon belt, there was very little need for typhoon-related information since it is considered a regular occurrence in Isabela (PAGASA 2000). Farmers and extension workers are quite satisfied with the advance typhoon warnings and advisories of PAGASA. However, majority of the extension agents and all of the farmers interviewed would like a lead time of at least 1-2 weeks for their advanced climate-related information to be significantly useful in corn...

Specific Pretreatments and Quality Limits

Materials diffused through marine outfalls may or may not affect the ecology of the receiving water area. Consequently, the oceanography, biology, and ecology of receiving water areas were studied to determine sensitivities to contaminants and design allowing diffusion below sensitivity levels. By satisfying these requirements, marine outfalls could have a positive impact on the coastal water including the presence of fertilizers, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon in wastewater that maintain life productivity 81 .

Fixation by Rubisco and the Calvin Cycle

Predicted future environments (Long et al., 2006b). The kinetic properties of Rubisco are widely recognized as a major limitation to crop productivity. This is not only because of Rubisco's weak affinity for CO2 and catalysis of a competing reaction with O2 but also because the enzyme has a very low kcat (catalytic rate). High photosynthetic rates therefore demand large amounts of Rubisco which is often more than 50 of soluble leaf protein and 50 of leaf N. Thus, both crop productivity and the demand for N fertilizer could be addressed (Fig. 8.1) by overcoming Rubisco's manifest inadequacies. This could increase photosynthetic rates by as much as 100 in C3 crops (Long et al., 2006b Parry et al., 2007 Reynolds et al., 2009) and increase N-use efficiency (NUE) in both C3 and C4 crops (Ghannoum et al., 2005). While the advantages of addressing individual parameters are briefly discussed below it is essential to take into account the overall impact, if any, of the other kinetic parameters...

Coproduct recovery and development

The spectrum of potential co-products (or by-products) is enormous, ranging from the very high end (fish oil capsules) to the very low (compost), and encompassing mince, gelatin, roe and other specialty organs, leather, liquid fertilizer, flavorants, and fish meal. Shellfish wastes lend themselves to some of the same products - namely flavorants, liquid fertilizer, meal, and compost - while shrimp, lobster, and crab shells contain chitin, which

Crop Improvement and Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Alleviating environmental impact is more likely to arise as a consequence of specifically targeting reduced inputs, for example in relation to fertilizers or pesticides. Reduced inputs will aid reductions in emissions, principally those GHGs associated with energy production and manufacturing. In addition reducing N fertilizer requirements and therefore inputs will have a substantial effect on ammonia and NOX emissions. Improving efficiency of use of other fertilizers will also reduce environmental impacts such as coastal algal blooms which also result in gaseous emissions (see Ortiz-Monasterio et al., Chapter 9, this volume).

Potato Processing Wastes as Soil Conditioner

Potato processing solid wastes are often applied to agricultural land as a disposal medium. Research supports this method 68 . Solid potato processing wastes containing nitrogen are obtained by filtering or centrifuging the settled solids from the primary clarifiers. Wastes are applied to land and used for crops, which utilize the applied nitrogen. The soil does not accumulate the nitrogen or other organic waste and becomes increasingly fertile with continued wastewater application. Additionally, potato processing wastewater was found to be effective in promoting corn growth as effectively as commercial ammonium nitrate fertilizers, when applied at optimum nitrogen levels 69 . Applying wastewater and solid wastes from potato processing provides an effective method of applying reusable nutrients that would be otherwise wasted, and thus reduces pollution levels in municipal waterways.