DIY Organic Fertilizer Guide

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary


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Optimizing fertilizer application with respect to nitrous oxide emission

Global N2o Emission

Emissions of N2O from agricultural systems will not decrease to zero when no N fertilizer is applied, but will remain at some background level, as in any non-agricultural system. For example, when 383 non-manured, non-N-fertilized cropping systems were evaluated for N2O emissions, the average background emission was estimated at 0.55kg N2O ha-1 (Helgason et al, 2005). Natural N deposition and biological fixation, and N mineralization from soil organic Table 5.2 Global estimates of manure-N excretion in animal houses and storage systems and excretion during grazing, spreading of stored manure in cropland and grassland, and N fertilizer use in cropland and grassland for the year 2000 Table 5.2 Global estimates of manure-N excretion in animal houses and storage systems and excretion during grazing, spreading of stored manure in cropland and grassland, and N fertilizer use in cropland and grassland for the year 2000 N fertilizer use Agricultural systems serve for the production of food,...

Phosphate Fertilizer A

H2so4 Rady Flow Chart

The phosphate fertilizer industry is defined as eight separate processes phosphate rock grinding, wet process phosphoric acid, phosphoric acid concentration, phosphoric acid clarification, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, and sulfuric acid. Practically all phosphate manufacturers combine the various effluents into a large recycle water system. It is only when the quantity of recycle water increases beyond the capacity to contain it that effluent treatment is necessary. Wet Process Phosphoric Acid. A production process flow diagram is shown in Figure 8. Insoluble phosphate rock is changed to water-soluble phosphoric acid by solubilizing the phosphate rock with an acid, generally sulfuric or nitric. The phosphoric acid produced from the nitric acid process is blended with other ingredients to produce a fertilizer, whereas the phosphoric acid produced from the sulfuric acid process must be concentrated before further use. Minor quantities of fluorine,...

Use as Fertilizer Soil Conditioner

OMWW contains a high organic load, substantial amounts of plant nutrients (3.5-11 g l of K2O, 0.06-2 g l of P2O5, and 0.15-0.5 g l of MgO) and is a low cost source of water, all of which favor its use as a soil fertilizer or organic amendment to the poor soils that abound so much in the countries where it originates (Cegarra J. et al., 1966a,b Catalano L. and Felice M. de, 1989 Nunes J.M. et al., 2001). Direct application of OMWW to soil has been considered as an inexpensive method of disposal and recovery of their mineral and organic components (Di Giovacchino L. et al., 1990, 1996, 2001, 2002) see Chapter 8 ''Biological processes'', section ''Irrigation of agricultural land Land spreading''. The amurca of the ancients was recommended as a fertilizer for olive trees (Cato, XCIII), vines, and fruit trees (Columella, XI, 2 ''Geoponika''29, II, 10), although these latter sources suggested that amurca used for this purpose must be free from salt. However, the use of OMWW as a fertilizer...

Phosphate Fertilizer Industry in Eastern Europe

Waste Material Fertiliser Industry

Koziorowski and Kucharski 18 presented a survey of fertilizer industry experience in Eastern European countries and compared it with the United States and Western European equivalents. For instance, they stated that HF and silicofluoric acid are evolved during the process of In Czechoslovakian phosphate fertilizer plants, the superphosphate production waste-waters are further treated by neutralization on crushed limestone beds contained in special tanks that are followed by settling tanks for clarification of the wastewater. The beds have from three to five layers (with a minimum bed height of 0.35-1.60 m), treat a range of acidity of wastes from 438 to 890 meq L, and are designed for a hydraulic load ranging from 0.13 to 0.52 cm3 cm2 s (1.9-7.7 gpm ft2) at operating temperatures of 20-28 C. This experience agrees with results reported from Polish plants, the limestone used contains 56 CaO, and it was found in practice that coarse particles of 3-5 mm give better results because less...

Phosphoric Acid and NPK Fertilizer Plant

According to the literature 3,17,33 , the heterogeneous nature of fertilizer production plants precludes the possibility of presenting a typical case study of such a facility. Nevertheless, the wastewater flows, the characteristics, and the treatment systems for a phosphoric acid and N-P-K fertilizer plant were parts of a large fertilizer manufacturing facility. The full facility additionally included an ammonia plant, a urea plant, a sulfuric acid plant, and a nitric acid plant. The typical effluent flows were 183 m3 hour (806 gpm) from the phosphoric plant and 4.4 m3 hour (20 gpm) from the water treatment plant associated with it, whereas in the N-P-K plant they were 420 m3 hour (1850 gpm) from the barometric condenser and 108 m3 hour (476 gpm) from other effluent sources.

Ammonium Phosphate Fertilizer and Phosphoric Acid Plant

The fertilizer industry is plagued with a tremendous problem concerning waste disposal and dust because of the very nature of production that involves large volumes of dusty material. Jones and Olmsted 16 described the waste disposal problems and pollution control efforts at such a plant, Northwest Cooperative Mills, in St. Saul, Minnesota. Two types of problems are associated with waste from the manufacture of ammonium phosphate wastes from combining ammonia and phosphoric acid and the subsequent drying and cooling of the products, and wastes from the handling of the finished product arising primarily from the bagging of the product prior to shipping. Because the ammonia process has to be forced by introducing excess amounts of ammonia than the phosphoric acid is capable of absorbing, there is high ammonia content in the exhaust air stream from the ammoniator. Because it is neither economically sound nor environmentally acceptable to exhaust this to the atmosphere, an acid scrubber...

Table 6 Raw Wastewater Characteristics of Phosphate Fertilizer Industry Retention Ponds

Considerable variation, therefore, is observed in quantities and wastewater characteristics at different plants. According to a UNIDO report 34 , the most important factors that contribute to excessive in-plant materials losses and, therefore, probable subsequent pollution are the age of the facilities (low efficiency, poor process control), the state of maintenance and repair (especially of control equipment), variations in feedstock and difficulties in adjusting processes to cope, and an operational management philosophy such as consideration for pollution control and prevention of materials loss. Because of process cooling requirements, fertilizer manufacturing facilities may have an overall large water demand, with the wastewater effluent discharge largely dependent on the extent of in-plant recirculation 17 . Facilities designed on

Changes In Animal Manure Management And Fertilizer

The changes in livestock production and land use portrayed above also have important repercussions for the production, management and use of animal manure and fertilizers. Bouwman et al. (2005b) distinguished large ruminants (dairy and non-dairy cattle, buffaloes), small ruminants (sheep and goats), pigs, poultry, horses, asses, mules and camels for calculating the animal manure N production. The approach for distributing of animal manure over the two production systems, and within each system over different animal manure Global total N inputs from fertilizers and production of animal manure in agricultural systems have almost doubled between 1970 and 1995 from about 114 Tg yr to 188 Tg yr, whereby N manure contributed 83 Tg yr or about 73 in 1970 and 104 Tg yr (55 ) in 1995. Bouwman et al. (2005b) estimated a total N input from fertilizers and animal manure of 238 Tg yr, animal manure N being 127 Tg yr (53 ) and N fertilizer 110 Tg yr (estimate for 2030) (Table 5.3).

Categorization in Phosphate Fertilizer Production

The fertilizer industry comprises nitrogen-based, phosphate-based, and potassium-based fertilizer manufacturing, as well as combinations of these nutrients in mixed and blend fertilizer formulations. Only the phosphate-based fertilizer industry is discussed here and, therefore, the categorization mainly involves two broad divisions (a) the phosphate fertilizer industry (A) and (b) the mixed and blend fertilizer industry (G) in which one of the components is a phosphate compound. The following categorization system of the various separate processes and their production streams and descriptions is taken from the federal guidelines 8 pertaining to state and local industrial pretreatment programs. It will be used in the discussion that ensues to identify process flows and characterize the resulting raw waste. Figure 7 shows a flow diagram for the production streams of the entire phosphate and nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing industry.

Mixed and Blend Fertilizer G

The raw materials used to produce mixed fertilizers include inorganic acids, solutions, double nutrient fertilizers, and all types of straight fertilizers. The choice of raw materials depends on the specific nitrogen, phosphate, potassium (N-P-K) formulation to be produced and on the cost of the different materials from which they can be made. The mixed fertilizer process involves the controlled addition of both dry and liquid raw materials to a granulator, which is normally a rotary drum, but pug mills are also used. Raw materials, plus some recycled product material, are mixed to form an essentially homogeneous granular product. Wet granules from the granulator are discharged into a rotary drier, where the excess water is evaporated and dried granules from the drier are then sized on vibrating screens. Over- and undersized granules are separated for use as recycle material in the granulator. Commercial-product-size granules are cooled and then conveyed to storage...

Table 10 Effluent Limitations mgL for Subpart A Phosphate Fertilizer

Produce NPK grades in varying proportions 22 . According to Subpart O, mixed fertilizer means a mixture of wet and or dry straight fertilizer materials, mixed fertilizer materials, fillers, and additives prepared through chemical reaction to a given formulation, whereas blend fertilizer means a mixture of dry, straight, and mixed fertilizer materials. The effluent limitations guidelines for BPT, BCT, and BAT, and the standards of performance for new sources, allow no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. Finally, the pretreatment standards establishing the quantity of pollutants that may be discharged to publicly owned treatment works (POTW) by a new source are given in Table 11.

Increasing fertilizer use

Currently, fertilizer-N use efficiency by agricultural crops is estimated to be approximately 50 per cent (Smil, 1999 Howarth et al, 2002 Ladha et al, 2005). In other words, on average half of the amount of the fertilizer-N applied cannot be recovered in the crop or in the soil and has to be considered to have been lost from the cropping system. Denitrification (N2O and N2), volatilization (NH3) and leaching (NO3) are the major pathways of N losses (Schlesinger, 1997 Mosier et al, 2001), causing a cascade of environmental and human health problems (Galloway et al, 2003). Therefore there is the potential for major improvements in N use efficiency through adopting fertilizer, soil water and crop management practices that focus on maximizing crop N uptake, with minimum N fertilizer losses and the optimum use of indigenous soil N (Ladha et al, 2005). Through optimizing N use efficiency, a total reduction in N2O emissions will be achieved as well as a further reduction in N2O emissions per...

Reporting and Documentation

In general, it is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce national inventory estimates. For Tier 1, inventory compilers should document activity data trends and uncertainties in grasslands. Key activities include land-use change, biomass burning, use of silvopastoral practices, grazing intensity, use of mineral fertilizers or organic amendments, irrigation practices, liming, inter-seeding with legumes or planting more productive species, and biomass burning (wildfires and controlled burns).

Choice of activity data

Domestic production records and import export data on urea can be used to obtain an approximate estimate of the amount of urea applied to soils on an annual basis (M). It can be assumed that all urea fertiliser produced or imported annually minus annual exports is applied to soils. However, supplemental data on sales and or usage of urea can be used to refine the calculation, instead of assuming all available urea in a particular year is immediately added to soils. Regardless of the approach, the annual application estimates for urea fertilizers should be consistent between CO2 emission from urea and N2O emissions from soils. Usage statistics may be gathered as part of the national census or through enterprise records, while banks and the fertilizer industry should have information on sales and domestic production. Import export records are typically maintained by customs or similar organizations in the government. It is good practice to average data records over three years (current...

Nonblood derived meat coproducts

When meat animals are processed, considerable quantities of trim are produced which is sorted according to the lean meat content and sold to sausage makers or ground for hamburger meat. Surplus fatty trimmings are rendered to recover the fat from beef and lard from pork as tallow (Clark, 2005). Rendering involves cooking, usually by direct steam injection, followed by centrifugation and drying of the fat and protein fraction. The protein from edible rendering can be used in animal feeds, while that from inedible rendering can be used as a fertilizer. Tallow and lard are used in baking and frying, although recent nutritional concerns with respect to saturated fats are affecting their use. The aqueous phase from the above centrifugation step is usually called 'stick water' and may be concentrated as a source of beef flavour. If the 'stick water' is not concentrated, it can represent a significant waste disposal challenge (Clark, 2005). MBM contains appreciable amounts of nitrogen (N),...

Impact of Soil Management Practices on the Net GHG Fluxes

To calculate changes in soil C stock (0-20 cm depth) and stabilization of the soil organic C pools, the CENTURY model was run from 1910 to 2029. Crop production yields were calibrated for each run. Management practices, including tillage, fertilizer addition, etc., were taken from the work by Smith et al. (1997). The DNDC model was run for the period between 1970 and 2029. Weather data for the 1970-1999 period were obtained from weather stations close to each site. The same weather data were used to simulate the weather for the next 30-yr period (i.e., 2000 to 2029). A description of the soils, fertilizer application and climate at the 5 sites (Table II) is as follows 1. The Dark Brown Chernozem soil at the Lethbridge, Alberta site has a sandy clay loam texture changing to a clay loam below 30 cm depth. A rotation of wheat-wheat-fallow was simulated with a fertilizer application of 15 and 40 kg ha-1 N applied in the 1st and 2nd year of the rotation, respectively. Long-term annual...

The Sludge Pasteurization Process

Way Solenoid Symbol

In the United States procedures to reduce the number of pathogenic organisms are a requirement before sale of sludge or sludge-containing products to the public as a soil conditioner, or before recycling sludge to croplands. Since the final use or disposal of sludge may differ greatly with respect to health concerns, and since a great number of treatment options effecting various degrees of pathogen reduction are available, the system chosen for the reduction of pathogens should be tailored to the specific application. Thermal conditioning of sludge in a closed, pressurized system destroys pathogenic organisms and permits dewatering. The product generally has a good heating value or can be used for land filling or fertilizer base. In this process, sewage sludge is ground and pumped through a heat exchanger and sent with air to a reactor where it is heated to a temperature of 350-400 F. The processed sludge and air are returned through the heat exchanger to recover heat. The...

The Future Direct Co2 Effect A Good Or A Bad Thing For The Natural World

Even if rainforest does turn out to grow more lush and cover larger areas, it is not certain that increasing C02 will make it easier for large numbers of species to coexist. It is fairly widely established in ecology that if vegetation grows too vigorously, stronger species can triumph and push the weaker ones out. For example, throwing a mineral fertilizer on a grassland will often cause a crash in the species richness of the plant community, as a few fast-growing species that respond particularly well to fertilizer push all the others out. At lower nutrient levels, all species grow relatively slowly but are fairly evenly matched against one another in competition none can push the others out. The fear is that increasing C02 will act as a fertilizer in just the same way, causing plant communities all around the world to undergo a burst of growth that will eliminate many weaker species. The result might be massive-scale extinctions of plant species and the insect and fungal life forms...

Quality Assurance Quality Control QAQC Reporting and Documentation

European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Best Available Techniques for Pollution Prevention and Control in the European Fertilizer Industry Production of Ammonia, Booklet No. 1 of 8, European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Brussels. EFMA (2000b). European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Best Available Techniques for Pollution Prevention and Control in the European Fertilizer Industry Production of Nitric Acid, Booklet No. 2 of 8, European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Brussels. EFMA (2000c). European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Best Available Techniques for Pollution Prevention and Control in the European Fertilizer Industry Production of Urea and Urea Ammonium Nitrate, Booklet No. 5 of 8, European Fertilizer Manufacturers' Association, Brussels. van Balken, J.A.M. (2005). Personal communication from J.A.M. van Balken (European Fertilizer Manufacturers Association).

Diversity of Microbes

It was found that the percentage of root length colonized by AMF was 30-60 higher in low-input farming systems than in conventionally farmed soils. Variation of AMF root colonization was explained by chemical properties of the soils especially the effect of soluble soil P being most pronounced (Mader et al. 2000). In another study in Central Europe it was found that AMF spore abundance and species diversity was significantly higher in the organic than in the conventional systems (Oehl et al. 2004). Mineral fertilizer can have a profound negative effect on AMF, as reported by Galvez et al. (2001), who found less spore in mineral-fertilized soil than in organic soil. Gryndler et al. (2006) found that mineral fertilization reduced the growth of AMF, as estimated, using both measurements of hyphal length and the signature fatty acid 16 1w5, whereas manuring alone increased the growth of AMF. Some species of AMF may even be severely depressed by conventional management (Oehl et al. 2004)....

GIS and Hydrologic Models

Digitized Images Gis

Water quality modeling applications using remote sensing and GIS have concentrated mainly on non-point source (NPS) pollution. To date, several water quality models (AGNPS, ANSWERS, USLE, export coefficient model, etc.) have been interfaced with GIS. The spatially distributed agricultural non-point-source (AGNPS) model integrated with GIS (Srinivasan and Engel, 1994) allows modelers to handle each point source, pesticide, and channel information in a decision support system, WATERSHEDSS (Water, Soil, and Hydro-Environmental Decision Support System) (Osmond et al., 1997). Using such a system, one can determine critical areas within a watershed and evaluate effects of alternative land treatment scenarios on water quality. Mattikalli et al. (1996) implemented an export coefficient model within a vector-based GIS to quantify spatial and temporal changes of total nitrogen loading in surface water as a response to changes in watershed land use, management, and fertilizer application rates....

Agricultural Sequestration

Agriculture Greenhouse Gases

Carbon sequestration occurs in soils and agricultural crops mainly through the natural process of photosynthesis. Half of the agriculture biomass is composed of carbon. When the vegetation decays, the litter and roots also contribute carbon to the soil. When agricultural fields are plowed, CO2 can be released to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon in cropland soils can vary depending on types of crops, types of fertilizers used, and type of management practice (such as conventional or conservation tillage). These variables can also determine the presence of other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide, which have greater global warming potentials than CO2.

Potential For Sequestering Soil Organic Carbon In Zambia Soils

The SOC contents in most agricultural soils are below their potential levels, especially soils in developing agricultural systems (Lal, 1999). Carbon content of Zambian soils is low, ranging between 0.5 to 1 organic C (Singh et al., 1990), with an average of 0.8 (Silanpaa, 1982). In the three agro-ecological regions of Zambia, benchmark data of organic C content (Table 25.1) range from a low of 0.15 to 1.11 for bottom soils (38- to 70-cm depth) to a high of 2.45 to 3.0 for topsoils (0- to 8-cm depth) of clay soil (Lungu and Chinene, 1999). Other soil texture types show similar variations. When cultivated, these soils rapidly lose considerable amounts of organic C. The historic SOC loss can be regained by converting to an appropriate land use and adopting recommended agricultural practices (Lal, 1999). These include conservation tillage, mulch farming, cover crops, INM consisting of widespread use of biofertilizers for soil fertility replenishment, crop rotation, use of multipurpose...

Lipochitooligosaccharides and Controls on Crop Production

Enhancement of plant photosynthesis due to B. japonicum soybean associations has been reported. Imsande (1989a,b) reported increased net photosynthesis and grain yield in soybean inoculated with B. japonicum as compared with plants not inoculated but adequately supplemented with N fertilizer. Thus it seems probable that rhizobial associations enhance photosynthesis and that this might be mediated by signal molecules. To test the hypothesis that LCO is responsible for the increased photosynthesis a series of experiments were conducted in the greenhouse and in the field. Spray application of LCO at submicromolar concentrations enhanced the photosynthetic rates of soybean, maize, rice, bean, canola, apple and grapes. On average there was a 10-20 increase in the photosynthetic rate and this was concomitant with an increase in stomatal conductivity and constant or decreased leaf internal CO2 concentration. Under field conditions, spray application of LCO at concentrations of 10 6, 10 8 and...

Economy Of Treatment Processes

As previously discussed, it is important from an economic perspective to develop profitable uses for the final waste product, such as organic fertilizer, soil conditioner, and livestock feed. In this regard, it is worth pointing out that an opportunity exists to obtain a new type of renewable and low-cost activated carbon (J-carbon) from the processed solid residue of olive mill products. This is due to the fact that olive mills generate a huge amount of waste, which can be suitable as a raw material with economic value, and as a supportive means for pollutant removal from wastewater 98 . A study was performed to compare the capability of J-carbon with commercial activated carbon to remove ammonia (NH3), total organic carbon (TOC), and some special organics from Flexsy's (Rubber) wastewater treatment plant as tertiary treatment 99 .

Role Of Arthropods In Ecosystem And Agriculture

Populations of weeds, insects, and pathogens and genetic manipulation replaces natural processes of plant evolution and selection. Even decomposition is altered since plant growth is harvested and soil fertility maintained, not through nutrient recycling, but with fertilizers.

Strategic Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food Industry

Energy resources are closely linked with the development of agriculture sector. Therefore, energy is a particularly significant input in the so-called 'industrial' food and farming systems, with farm systems based on synthetic external inputs and producing for the processing or global markets (i.e., several manufacturing stages and long transport distances) (Ziesemer, 2007). Agriculture and food processing systems play an important role to increase the fossil fuel consumption and climate change because of their significant energy use and agriculture's potential to serve as a sink for the negative externalities of energy use. In food industry, energy is used not only in planting, cultivating, and harvesting the agricultural products, but also in manufacturing and transporting the inputs, such as pesticides, fertilizers, and machinery and in processing, packaging, and distribution of final products. In terms of energy consumption, the food supply chain including production, processing,...

Effect on N2O emissions

Assessing the influence of tillage systems on N2O emissions is not straightforward. Farming systems include a complex mix of tillage tools, timings and frequencies, combined with variations in fertilizer and residue management and crop type, all interacting with local climate, topography and soil type. Soil conditions in NT systems differ from those in tilled systems in several ways SOC and microbial biomass tend to be concentrated near the surface because residues are not buried bulk density and aggregation are often higher, affecting oxygen diffusion and surface moisture may be higher, suppressing oxygen because higher microbial activity consumes oxygen and air-filled porosity is lower. Linn and Doran (1984) reported that counts of denitrifiers in the surface of NT soils were several-fold those in CT soils. These factors may favour gaseous nitrogen loss via denitrification. Tillage tends to favour decomposition and nitrification by disrupting soil aggregates and exposing physically...

Features of Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub Humid Tropics

Unfit for crop production as a result of improper management, such as nutrient loading from fertilizers, water contamination from pesticides and herbicides, and waterlogging and salinization. ideal conditions, such as a compatible association of trees, annual crops and animals, these systems offer multiple agronomic, economic, environmental, and socioeconomic benefits for resource-poor small-scale farmers, including enhanced nutrient cycling, fixing of atmospheric nitrogen through the use of perennial legumes, efficient allocation of water and light, conservation of soil, natural suppression of weeds, and diversification of farm products (Lal, 1991). It is important to note, however, that trees have both positive and negative effects on soils. Negative effects include growth suppression caused by competition for limited resources (nutrients, water, and light). Mismanagement of trees (for example, through improper fertilizer application or inadequate water control) can also cause soil...

The Silicate Tetrahedron

Silicate Tetrahedra

Silicates are the most abundant rock-forming minerals, but other types do occur in sufficient quantities to call them rock-forming minerals. oxides use the oxygen anion and include ore minerals such as chromium, uranium, tin, and magnetite (Feo4). sulfides are minerals such as pyrite, copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, mercury, or silver that combine with the sulfur anion. For instance, Fes2 is the formula for pyrite, commonly known as fool's gold. The carbonates calcite, aragonite, and dolomite form with the complex carbonate anion (Co3)2-. Phosphates are formed using the complex anion (Po4)3-. An example is the mineral apatite, used for fertilizers, and the same substance as that which forms teeth and bones. sulfate minerals are formed using the complex sulfate

Biological Pest Control In Mix And Match Forests

The least simplified end of this spectrum is anchored by the native forest, in a lightly exploited or virgin state. In this condition, logging is followed by natural regeneration of local native trees. There is no use of fertilizers or herbicides to suppress competing vegetation. Present management of the mixed hardwood conifer forests in southern New England (USA) illustrates this kind of forest. Harvest is done on a small scale, without replanting, in a landscape that is predominantly natural forest. Pest problems in such forests may be caused by native insects such as forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria H bner) or invasive species such as the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ). Modified native forests are artificially replanted after logging, treated with herbicides for release of young trees from competing vegetation, and thinned. Fertilizers are not generally used, nor are soil preparations done. Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) forests on the national...

Soil Organic Matter Soil Carbon and Carbon Sequestration in Zambia

Diagram Tieridging

Reduced N fertilizer requirement Sesbania sesban Fully fertilized Gliricidia sepium Leucaena leucocephala Grass fallow Senna siamea Maize without fertilizer The impact of topsoil depth (TSD) and management on soil properties has been assessed using farmyard manure (FYM), N and P fertilizer, tie ridging, and ordinary farmer practices in Tanzania. SOC and P generally declined with a decrease in TSD, while SOC, N, P, K, and Mg were significantly increased by FYM application. The application of N and P fertilizers also had significant effects on SOC and P. Applying FYM increased SOC by about 0.55 in comparison with normal farmer practices, improved available water capacity (AWC), and root growth in soils with unstable structure and low SOC content (Gajri et al., 1994). The SOC pool was increased by adopting conservation tillage, using crop residue (mulch), incorporating cover crops in the rotation cycle, and using improved agricultural practices. The total potential for SOC sequestration...

Pandemics Co2 And Climate

Dead Lichen Halos Baffin Island

A little over a decade ago, we bought the property where we now live. The former owner had begun a small Christmas tree farm in the lower part of the meadow where our house stands. He kept most of the meadow in good trim by bush hogging, a method far cruder than cutting hay. The drive from a tractor spins a blunt blade that whacks down the grass by brute force, along with anything else that sprouts (saplings, shrubs, etc). Two summers had passed between the time when we bought the land and the point when house construction started, and in that short a time the meadow had begun to be invaded by forest. Young cedar trees sprouted along the meadow edges where berries fell from mature trees in nearby woods. Locust saplings sprouted well out into the meadow by a combination of root propagation and seed dispersal by pods. Several kinds of shrubs and cedars that had been whacked down but not killed by bush hogging also started to grow here and there. This meadow had no fences, or otherwise...

Summary of Key Federal Environmental Statutes Enacted Since 19701

The Safe Drinking Water Act was amended several times during the 1970s and 1980s to improve the drinking water standard-setting process for consumption of drinking water at the tap. Standards are set considering both the cost and effectiveness of available treatment technologies. The SWDA amendments of 1986 required EPA to promulgate a total of 108 standards for toxic chemicals by 1991. They also require states to develop a program to protect the area around wells (wellheads). This provision was enacted in response to findings by EPA that 8000 drinking water wells in the nation were contaminated by thousands of sources, including land disposal facilities, underground storage tanks, septic systems, underground injection wells, and pesticide and fertilizer applications. The chemicals found are widely used in common products, including plastics, solvents, pesticides, paints, dyes, varnishes, and ink.

Physiological Adaptations In Coastal Vegetation

Coastal Maritime Forest Florida

Typical machair develops through a growth, stabilization and degeneration cycle over a long period. Continued growth with fresh calcareous sand, blown inland from the dunes, continues until the surface rises so high above the water table that drought becomes a stress, and degeneration ensues. When the soil surface falls far enough for the water table to be available, colonization resumes and the growth cycle starts again (Dickinson & Randall, 1979). This slow renewal cycle has maintained the fertility of this type of pasture for thousands of years. Unfortunately much of the biodiversity of these coastal dune pastures is being lost due to the subsidized improvement of coastal grazings the natural cycle of erosion and renewal is being suppressed due to the application of fertilizers, herbicides, and electric fencing. Even though in many cases the machair may not have received direct applications of fertilizer, it is sufficient for cattle that have been previously fed on nutrient-rich...

Environmentally Balanced Industrial Complexes

Figure 13 Phosphoric acid and N-P-K fertilizer production waste treatment (from Ref. 17). Figure 13 Phosphoric acid and N-P-K fertilizer production waste treatment (from Ref. 17). producing raw materials for others within the complex. Examples of such major industries that can serve as the focus industry of an EBIC are fertilizer plants, steel mills, pulp and paper mills, and tanneries. Nemerow and Dasgupta 24 presented the example of a steel mill complex with a phosphate fertilizer and a building materials plant as the likely candidates for auxiliary or satellite industries (Fig. 14). A second example presented was an EBIC centered phosphate fertilizer plant, with a cement production plant, a sulfiiric acid plant, and a municipal solid wastes composting plant (its product to be mixed with phosphate fertilizer and sold as a combined product to the agricultural industry) as the satellite industries (Fig. 15). As previously mentioned, in the usual starting process of producing...

Bioaugmentation and Natural Attenuation

Allochthonous, designer, or genetically modified or engineered microorganisms amended with an emulsion or fertilizer and an enzyme catalyst are sold commercially as bioproducts. Bioproducts have been used to remediate petroleum-contaminated sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Norway. Usually applied with repetitive tilling, practitioners claim dramatic results within a single treatment season. However, laboratory trials of various bioproducts, comparison trials of bioproducts with garden variety and arctic-blend fertilizers, and field studies, all without tilling, found that bioproducts underperformed or fared no better than the fertilizers (Venosa et al. 1992 Margesin and Schinner 1997 Whyte et al. 1999 Braddock et al. 2000 Thomassin-Lacroix et al. 2002). Bioproducts are considerably more expensive than commercially available fertilizers. With climate change, ecologists are now documenting competition and proliferation of advancing flora in boreal forests and taiga and tundra...

Tracing N in Landscapes

The 15N-enriched fertilizer method, also known as 15N isotope dilution method, consists in adding 15N to soil. Unlike the 15N2-enriched atmosphere method, plants absorb N from soil containing more 15N content than atmosphere. The 15N dilution of atmospheric N reflects the magnitude of fixation. The main limitation is the need to estimate the 15N abundance of the N uptake by plants from soil through the analysis of 15N abundance in a reference plant. This kind of quantification is necessary since the addition of a labelled fertilizer makes difficult to assume a uniform mixing with soil N.

Application Of Tree Legume Rhizobia For Reforestation Programme In Thailand I Selection And Management Of Rhizobia For

Leguminous trees such as Acacia, Pterocartpus, and Leuceana have been recommended for reforesting in denuded and degraded lands in Thailand. These leguminous trees successfully compete with native grasses and adapted to adverse conditions, i.e. drought, fires, acid, saline and low fertility soils. The advantage of leguminous trees is their association with Rhizobium, a symbiotic microorganism. Since the legume-rhizobial symbiosis can fix atmospheric nitrogen, thus nitrogen status of soil is improved even though no chemical nitrogen fertilizer is applied. Root nodules of five tropical leguminous trees (Acacia mangium, Acacia auricultiformis, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Xylia kerii and Millettia leucantha) were collected from reforested sites around the country. Five trees were examined and nodules were collected for each of the species at each sites. About 300 rhizobial strains were isolated, purified and subcultured. The rhizobial strains were inoculated into their host plant and...

Phosphoric Acid Production

Acid Phosphoric Pfd

Phosphate production and phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities are situated in many areas in the United States (primarily in Florida and California) and in other countries such as Algeria, Jordan, and Morocco, as previously mentioned. The wastewaters from production and cleanup activities and surface runoff in most of these locations are stored, treated, and recycled, and the excess overflows are discharged into natural water systems. In those facilities where wastewater from production and cleanup activities and drainage are discharged into municipal water systems and treated together with domestic, commercial, institutional, and other industrial wastewaters, a degree of pretreatment is required to meet federal guidelines or local ordinances such as those presented in Section 9.4. For instance, according to the USEPA 6 , the pretreatment unit operations required for the phosphate fertilizer industry comprise solids separation and neutralization, and it may be achieved by...

The Future of Anaerobic Granulation

Environmental protection- and resource conservation-concepts focus on pollution prevention and on a minimum of consumptive use of energy, chemicals, and water in pollution abatement and a maximum of re-use of treated wastewater, by-products, and residues produced in the treatment of wastewater. Consequently, by implementing these concepts, wastewaters like sewage and industrial effluents become an important source of water, fertilizers, soil conditioners, and frequently energy instead of a social threat. In addition, a bridge is made between environmental protection and agriculture practice, stimulating urban agriculture in the neighborhood of large cities. Anaerobic granulation process is considered as the core technology for mineralizing organic compounds in highly polluted wastewater streams.

Opportunities for Increasing Soil C Sequestration

A number of agricultural land management practices have shown potential for increasing C contentin agricultural soils (Desjardins et al., 2001b). Table I summarizes some of the results reported in the literature. These data are either based on measured or modeled values. As shown by Smith et al. (2001), a range of values are associated with most management practices. This range depends on soil texture, soil taxonomy, climatic conditions, and many other factors. The practices in Table I are shown independently, however, some practices are often adopted in unison and may or may not have an additive effect. For example, a reduction in bare fallow is usually accompanied by greater use of fertilizers and sometimes the adoption of conservation tillage. McConkey et al. (1999) discuss how several interacting effects can be calculated for cropping in various soil zones on the Canadian Prairies. There are probably several other practices that have the potential to sequester C in agricultural...

Soil Nutrient Balance

In conventional systems four frequently used elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium are often applied as synthetic fertilizers in relatively heavy concentrations that frequently exceed crop requirements. This can cause soil imbalances in two ways (1) by increasing or decreasing availability of some elements essential for crop growth and also by changing soil pH, and (2) by increasing productivity over the short term but in decreasing productivity over the longer term due to imbalances and deficiencies for some other essential elements that are not replaced. For example, high levels of phosphorous fertilization can lead to a deficiency of both zinc and iron causing adverse effects on plant growth. Organic systems use organic fertilizers such as manures, compost, crop residues, legumes, rock phosphate and rock potash, containing minor and trace elements as well as moderate amounts of the primary elements. Organic farming encourages the reduction of agrochemicals and...

Role Of Soil Protozoa

Of nutrients to plants occur in the water films covering soil aggregates and filling their pores. Here, bacteria and fungi decompose organic matter and immobilize the extracted nutrients into their bodies, but grazing by the microfauna, protozoa, and nematodes regulates and modifies the size and composition of the microbial community and enhances microbial growth through microfaunal excretions. Nematodes also graze fungi (Chapter 1), but protozoa, especially amoebae, can graze bacteria in tiny pore spaces unavailable to nematodes. The degree of nutrient recycling is influenced by external factors of climate and soil management (e.g., inputs of fertilizers and biocides, compaction by farm machinery) and internally by the community of protozoa and nematodes, reflected in their biodiversity.

Microbial Parameters as Indexes of Soil Quality

A great number of methods have been developed to determine the presence and activities of microbial communities in soil. Some of them are internationally standardized (Winding et al. 2005), such as measures of population size for either a single organism type, a functional group, or a whole community. The effect of agricultural managements on soil microorganisms can be measured with changes in both community size (cell number) or microbial biomass, and biological activity, such as soil respiration. However, although addition to soil of good quality compost may increase global microbial biomass and enhance enzyme activity (Albiach et al. 2000 Perucci et al. 2000 Debosz et al. 2002), the specific responses of various bacterial groups to changing environment in agricultural soils are poorly known (Buckley and Schmidt 2001 Kiikkila et al. 2001 Chander and Joergensen 2002). Moreover, several studies showed that, in order to assess fertilizers' effects, microbial enumeration methods by...

Example of Comprehensive Fermentation Factory

During the 1970s, a fermentation factory in Yamaguchi Prefecture produced alcohol, MSG, lysine, antibiotics, and organic combined fertilizer and used molasses to produce alcohol, MSG, and yeast. It is introduced as an example, although its present situation has changed. Liquid fertilizer Sludge fertilizer factories, batch processes are generally adopted, so that it is difficult to estimate the reliable balance. As shown in Table 15, 76 tons of N were used 74 of it was generated as wastewater and 25 tons were discharged to the coastal water. As for P, 2.01 tons were used, excluding organic fertilizer production, and 1.2 tons, corresponding to 77 of use, were generated and Organic fertilizer aExcluding the input to fertilizer production. aExcluding the input to fertilizer production. 0.25 tons were discharged to the coastal water. The CODMn generated was 150 t day and discharged 7.4 t day. The production of organic fertilizer had been increasing year by year at that time, and 71, 29,...

N2O Production and Emission from Soils

Typical soil managements, such as nitrogen fertilization and irrigation, are responsible for large N2O fluxes. The great application of mineral-N fertilizers in traditional croplands, such as NO3 , NH4+, NH4NO3 and NH3, is a key controller of microbial processes involved in N2O evolution from soil (Bremner and Blackmar 1980 Duxbury et al. 1982 Dambreville et al. 2006). Irrigation is a fundamental crop management in arid lands characterized by cyclic water deficit, as in the Mediterranean regions. Several authors detected peaks of N2O fluxes from crop soils following irrigation events, evidently as a result of enhanced denitrifying activities under restricted aeration state (Teira-Esmatges et al. 1998 Sanchez et al. 2001 Vallejo et al. 2004), while large emissions occur when irrigation is performed simultaneously or soon after N supply (Webster and Dowdell 1982 Ranucci et al. 2011). reducing the use of artificial fertilizers, and the amount of waste added to landfill sites. Compost is...

Inventory methodologies

Amounts of applied mineral N fertilizers (FSN) and organic N fertilizers (FON) 1996 IPCC guidelines. Recently, Rochette et al (2008) used the same regression approach as Bouwman (1996) and Bouwman et al (2002) to estimate the N2O emission factor for N fertilizer from Canadian field studies. Their results suggested average background emissions of 0.1, 0.6 and 0.8kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for Canadian agricultural soils in three different regions. Some countries have adapted the IPCC default methodology to include 'background' emissions. For example, in Sweden a 'background' EF of 0.5kg N2O-N ha year for mineral soils (Kasimir-Klemedtsson, 2001) is used. This value was determined on the basis of the country-specific EF for inorganic N fertilizer inputs of 0.8 per cent, which is lower than the IPCC default value of 1.25 per cent. The reason for including these 'background' emissions in the Swedish inventory is to account for the effect of N mineralization following decomposition of soil organic...

Effects on Soil Chemical and Physical Properties

The increased growth response documented in almost all the solarization studies is mainly due to the above-cited higher levels of macronutrients or the improved uptake of micronutrients solubilized by humic substances (Chen and Aviad 1990 Chen et al. 1991). As a consequence of the enhancing effect of solarization on soil nutrients, Flores et al. (2007) suggested the application of low rates of mineral fertilizers before heating soil, in order to avoid an increased vegetative growth of the plants at the expense of crop yield.

Making Effective Use Of Rainfall

Hand Brakes For Carts

And the duration of intermittent dry and wet spells can be very useful for planning various agronomic operations such as preparing a seedbed, manuring, sowing, weeding, harvesting, threshing, and drying. This results in minimizing risk to crops and in optimum utilization of limited resources including water, labor, fertilizer, herbicides, and insecticides. There are critical periods in the life history of each crop, from sowing to harvesting. With knowledge of frequency of occurrence of wet and dry spells, a farmer can adjust sowing periods in such a way that moisture-sensitive stages do not fall during dry spells. Under irrigated farming, irrigation can be planned using data regarding consecutive periods of rainfall to satisfy the demands for critical periods. Knowledge of wet and dry spells can also help a great deal in improving the efficiency of irrigation-water utilization.

Simulation Models Relevant To Australian Farming Systems

During the twentieth century, world agriculture passed through three revolutionary eras. The first was the mechanical (1930-1950), the second, seed-fertilizer (1960-1970), and the third, information technology (in the closing decades of the century). Within the span of the last two decades of the century, several thousand computer-based plant and animal dynamical models were developed worldwide which have expanded scientific insight into the complex interactions between environmental and biological systems. Australian science and scientists made a substantial contribution in this expansion. Currently, scores of modeling groups and hundreds of individuals are actively engaged in this pursuit. Several crop and pasture models developed in Australia are in use on an international level. The choices of planting time, varietal selection, grazing strategies, and fertilizer, irrigation, and spray applications are complex decisions to be made at the farm level. These are important and decisive...

Mean annual warming 0 C

Podocarpus Totara

The expansion of heathlands in north-western Europe began with the spread of Neolithic farming. The problems of maintaining soil fertility in an oceanic environment before the advent of deep ploughing and the use of inorganic fertilizers (see Chapters 1 and 10) inevitably led to soil impoverishment and the development of podzols, particularly in the Iron Age with the advent of more efficient ploughing. Consequently, more and more land was left to become either heath or bog depending on local conditions. This did not necessarily mean that no further agricultural use was made of the developing heaths. In many cases the moorlands became a significant agricultural asset for summer grazing as well as providing winter pasturage for hardy stock. Given adequate manuring, excellent crops can be obtained from heathlands, usually through creating fertility by transporting turf and peat from other parts of the moor to the area for cultivation and incorporating as much manure as possible. This...

The Effect of Nitrogen Discharge

The production of fertilizers has grown exponentially in this century as demonstrated in Fig. 1.5, and the concentration of nutrients in many lakes reflects the same exponential growth, (Ambtihl, 1969). Figure 1.5.The production of fertilizers (t yr 1), as demonstrated for N and P205, has grown exponentially (the y-axis is logarithmic). Figure 1.5.The production of fertilizers (t yr 1), as demonstrated for N and P205, has grown exponentially (the y-axis is logarithmic).

The Nile Centuries Of Change

Sediment transport, estimated at 110 million tonnes per year, by 98 . The end result of these modifications in the basin is that the Nile delta is slowly declining and Egypt, at this time, uses more fertilizer per hectare than any other nation, in addition, 30 of the 47 commercial fish species available before construction of the Aswan Dam have been reduced to below harvestable levels.

Mitigation Options of Green House Gases Emission

Appropriate crop management practices, which lead to increase N use efficiency and yield, hold the key to reduce nitrous oxide emission. Application of nitrate (NO3-N) fertilizers e.g. calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), in crops with aerobic conditions and ammonium (NH4-N) fertilizers e.g., ammonium sulphate, urea, in wetland crops also help reducing the nitrous oxide emission (Pathak and Ned-well 2001). Curtailing the nitrification process by the use of nitrification inhibitor may further decrease the N2O emission from soil. There are some plant-derived organics, such as neem oil and neem cake, which can also act as nitrification inhibitors. These are being experimented in fields to reduce the emission of nitrous oxide and increase the fertilizer use efficiency. Other biocidal inhibitors, such as karanja seed extract, have been found to retard nitrification by 60-70 (Majumdar et al. 2000). The efficacy of various mitigation technologies, however, needs to be tested in farmers' fields....

Experimental SetUp and Soil Climatic Conditions for Maize Trials

Fertilization was carried out in spring just before moldboard plowing. Chemical composition of the compost used in all the three sites is reported in Table 3.4. Vetch crop (Vicia villosa L., cv. Haymaker plus) for green manure was sown at TO and NA sites in fall with a seed rate of 280 kg ha-1 and shredded at the same time of fertilizers addition. Phosphorus and K fertilization (P2O5 100 kg ha-1 K2O 200 kg ha-1) was the same on all plots.

Sustainable Agriculture to Reduce Environmental Impact Soil Organic Matter as a Source and Key Factor of Greenhouse

Human activities have also dramatically altered the earth's nitrogen (N) cycle, strictly linked with the C cycle, particularly in the agro-ecosystems, since N immobilized in plant tissues is removed with harvest, thereby reducing the N availability in soil for the next crop cycle. Loss of N soil fertility is recovered by means of mineral fertilizers, whose production needs large amount of fossil fuels (Haber's process). Input of reactive N into the biosphere by man now exceeds the rate of biological N2-fixation in native terrestrial ecosystems (Galloway et al. 2004). This increased reactive N is due not only by N fertilizer production, but also by the fossil fuel combustion used to support food and energy demands. The large input of added nitrogen and SOM management is responsible of a large diffusion of inorganic N in the environment with several impacts. A main impact is represented by the production of N2O, this gas accounts for about 6 of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect (IPCC...

Plants for Biological N Fixation

Suitable legume species and their soil water use characteristics have been described by Biederbeck and Bouman (1994). BNF by legumes during the green fallow phase can contribute a fertilizer N replacement value of up to 150 kg ha 1 (Badaruddin, Meyer 1989). A cultivar of Chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus L.), 'AC Greenfix', was recently developed specifically for green fallow (Biederbeck, personal communication). AC Greenfix has high tolerance to indigenous inorganic soil N and has a high water use efficiency. In wetter zones, where continuous grain cropping is feasible, cover crops offer an opportunity to add N to the soil system. These cover crops can be relay cropped with grain or vegetable crops, and are often used in orchards. Heat and water resources for relay cropping legume cover crops with winter wheat have recently been documented for western Canada (Thiessen Martens, Entz 2001). The fertilizer N replacement value of relay cropped legume cover crops in...

Biological Removal of Nitrogen Nitrification and Denitrification

The goal of nitrogen removal, regardless of what exactly forms of nitrogen compounds in wastewater streams, has been the production of nitrogen gas, an inert, water-insoluble gas that is easily separated from liquid media. The necessity of producing nitrogen gas in the treatment processes of nitrogen removal is mainly due to high solubility of nitrogen compounds such as NO3 , NH4+, and NO2 present in the nitrogen removal. There is some indication that this old paradigm is being challenged. Because nitrogen gas, as in wastewater treatment operations, does not have economical value, some researchers are seeking to remove nitrogen compounds in dissolved forms (Aiyuk et al., 2004). The most promising method of removing dissolved forms of nitrogen compounds is the application of adsorption-employing zeolite columns in an integrated waste-water treatment process. The recovered nitrogen compounds can be used as fertilizers. However, due to high costs of zeolite columns, the most economical...

C sequestration in maize and wheat cropping systems

Farming alters the C cycle and management of cropping systems will determine the amount of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere as well as the potential for C sequestration in the soil. Marland et al. (2003) distinguished four sources of CO2 emissions in agricultural systems (i) plant respiration (ii) the oxidation of organic C in soils and crop residues (iii) the use of fossil fuels in agricultural machinery such as tractors, harvesters and irrigation equipment and (iv) the use of fossil fuels in the production of agricultural inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. Therefore, C sequestration in soil, C storage in crop residues and CO2 emissions from farming activities should be considered, as well as the hidden CO2 costs of energy use and C emissions for primary fuels, electricity, fertilizers, lime, pesticides, irrigation, seed production and farm machinery (Wang and Dalal, 2006), to evaluate the atmospheric CO2 mitigation capacity of different farming practices. C levels in soil are...

Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Animal Wastes and Lagoons

Nitrous oxide is produced from a wide variety of biological sources in soil, water, and animal wastes. During the last two centuries, human activities have increased N2O concentration by 13 (EPA, 1998). The main activities producing N2O are fossil fuel combustion, agricultural soil management and industrial sources. Use of large amounts of N fertilizer creates secondary problems associated with N2O released in anaerobic conditions (Mosier et al., 1998a). Agricultural soil management activities such as fertilizer application and cropping practices were the largest source of N2O emission (56.5MMTCE), accounting for 43 of the US total (EPA, 1998). Manure management in feedlots (3.7 MMTCE) and agricultural residue burning (0.1 MMTCE) are small sources of N2O emissions. Greenhouse gases are associated with storage and application of animal manure. Of these GHGs, the greatest attention has been given to CH4 emissions generated by animals. There has been very little attention given to CO2...

Definition and Global Situation of Organic Agriculture

Organic agriculture has a long history with guidelines developed in 1924 to formalize an alternative to conventional production systems (Hovi et al. 2003). This was associated with Rudolf Steiner and the development of biodynamic farming and agriculture, which has unique features in addition to those of organic farming in general, and a certification scheme established in 1928. This still operates today and is identified by the Demeter and Biodyn labels on foods (Lampkin 1999). Organic farming can be defined as a method of production, which places the highest emphasis on protecting and enhancing the environment and minimizing pollution (Liebhardt 2003). Organic farming systems focus on soil fertility as the key to successful production and reduction of external inputs by refraining from the use of chemosynthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead, natural resources and processes are relied upon to manage soil nutrient status and pests, diseases and weeds and hence to...

Consequences of Altered Plant Nutrition

Figure 13.3 (opposite page) Performance niche responses. (A) Population growth responses by the grain beetles Calandra oryzae and Rhizopertha dominica for temperature and moisture content of wheat. (Data from Birch, L.C. 1953. Ecology, 34 698-711 figure from Maguire, B. Jr. 1973. Am. Naturalist, 107 213-246. With permission.) The dashed line indicates conditions that determine competitive outcomes when beetles co-occur. (B) Herbivore performance by two arthropod herbivores (soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens pupal mass, left two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, right) on soybeans with fertilizer containing different proportions of key minerals (S, P, and N). (From Busch, J.W., and L. Phelan. 1999. Ecol. Entomol., 24 132-145. With permission.) Note that the two herbivores show very different responses to the treatments good conditions for one may not be good for the other.

Co2 Fertilization Effects Across Trophic Levels

250 years has already had some effect on yields. Is there any direct evidence for this It is certainly true that there has been a massive increase in crop productivity over that time period. Even in the last several decades in the USA, yields have gone up by 50-100 in many areas. 0ne might take this as indicating that the direct C02 effect is at work here. However, such a conclusion would be far too simplistic. 0ver time, many different factors have changed agricultural yields, including crop-breeding, fertilizer use and pesticide use. Because so many of these other things have changed too, it is basically impossible to extract the trend of increasing yields from C02 in order to test or prove models of C02 fertilization. It is a reasonable guess that the direct C02 fertilization effect is in there somewhere, but we really cannot be sure how large it is. Are there any inexplicable increases in tree growth, for example Tree rings go back hundreds of years in old trees, so we can compare...

Utilizing all the waste

Fish Ensiling

Composting is the controlled, microorganism-mediated breakdown of organic materials containing both carbon and nitrogen, to produce a humuslike material that can be used as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Composting can be aerobic (requiring oxygen) or anaerobic (without oxygen). Aerobic composting reduces odors and improves nitrogen retention, compared with the anaerobic process. Another method for those generating a relatively small amount of waste is vermicomposting, or worm composting. Although called composting, this process actually comprises feeding worms with the waste and harvesting their excrement (professionally known as 'castings'). Worm castings are a particularly valuable fertilizer (due mostly to the microorganisms they contain rather than the amount of nitrogen and other nutrients), and worm composting has some real advantages over the more conventional process. First, it is much quicker. Second, unlike real compost, which has to cure prior to sale, worm castings have...

The global problem Too much or too little nitrogen

Global Nitrogen Pool Population

Reactive N is introduced to the natural terrestrial environment primarily by biological nitrogen fixation in forests and grasslands, particularly in the tropics. Human activity introduces reactive N inadvertently by fossil fuel combustion and purposefully through biological nitrogen fixation associated with agricultural crops and through the Haber-Bosch process that allows the manufacture of synthetic fertilizer. Human introduction of Nr has changed with time relative to natural sources (Figure 4.2). In 1860, natural terrestrial nitrogen fixation introduced between 100 and 200Tg per year of Nr (Galloway et al, 2004). Within the last few decades, human activities have roughly doubled this supply. Nr creation continues to increase every year. It is dominated by agricultural activities, but fossil fuel energy plays an important role, and the increasing use of biofuels is adding a new and rapidly changing dimension. From 1860 to 1995, energy and food production increased steadily on both...

Historical Trends Cotton Yields [CO2 and other Technological Advances

Cotton Lint Yield Per Acre

Historical US cotton yields (USDA, 1998) are presented in Fig. 8.12 along with changes in CO2 (Friedli et al., 1986 Keeling and Whorf, 1998). There has not been any attempt to relate long-term yield responses to temperatures because temperature data are much more complex. Cotton yields prior to 1940 were approximately 200 kg ha-1 and remarkably stable from year to year. Yields began to increase by about 1940 and reached 800 kg ha-1 in the mid-1990s. Numerous changes in technology occurred during that period. These include development of improved varieties, improved weed and insect control, increased use of fertilizers, and irrigation of sizable acreages. The number of acres grown decreased dramatically from the mid 1930s to the early 1950s. As acreage declined, yields began to improve, probably because the lowest-producing land was removed from production. Low-cost fertilizer became more widely available in the 1950s and crop production research increased the comparisons were made,...

Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Lakes Lake Mendota Wisconsin United States

These integrative studies led to new questions about how management can enhance ecosystem services in freshwater bodies How are distinct ecosystems, with apparently clearly defined surface boundaries (e.g., small ponds, large lakes, and rivers), interconnected hydrologically over time and space How might these linked ecosystems function and affect each other in predictable ways Why must fisheries biologists add fertilizers to increase fish production in some locations (hatcheries, aquaculture ponds) when water-quality engineers are designing treatment plants to remove nutrients in other downstream locations (groundwaters, rivers, and lakes) Is production of fish for food versus recreation a necessary trade-off Or can aquatic ecosystems be managed to optimize complex production functions Can natural processes of nutrient cycling and organic-matter breakdown provide supplemental services that could save construction of new treatment plants Answers to such questions have emphasized that...

Treatment of Bone and Meat Powder Suspicious of BSE

The Japanese government has prohibited the import of bone powder from England since March 1996 and also from EU countries since January 2001 to prevent the introduction of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), known as mad cow disease. After three infected cows were reported in Japan, bone and meat powder (BMP) rendered in domestic bone-boiling factories has been prohibited as use as feedstuff and also as fertilizer for a certain period. Although BMP is a good fertilizer, especially for fruit trees, consumers have avoided it because of the risk of BSE. Therefore BMP has been labeled a hazardous waste that is incinerated or treated in cement factories. In total, 8.5 of cow's body is bone, corresponding to 20 of meat. It is said that the amount that should be incinerated is near 1 thousand tons daily 24 .

Nitratereducing processes

Denitrification rates are influenced by the availability of N electron acceptors, and this is why they are stimulated by addition of N, usually in the form of inorganic fertilizers (Eichner, 1990). N availability also affects the N2O N2 ratio, which can be lowered with NO3 concentrations 10pg g_1 soil, where NO3 is preferred over N2O as an electron acceptor (Blackmer and Bremner, 1978 Baggs et al, 2003). The enzyme kinetics and affinity for substrates by denitrifiers is highly variable, possibly reflecting the wide phylogenetic diversity of this group, with Km values for N2O reduction of between 0.1 and 100 M (Conrad, 1996 Holtan-Hartwig et al, 2000). Little is known about the environmental regulation of nitrifier denitrification and effects on N2O production during this process. Several studies provide evidence for greater N2O production through nitrifier denitrification as oxygen concentration decreases (Goreau et al, 1980 Lipschultz et al, 1981 Hynes and Knowles, 1984 Kester et al,...

Composting process characters

The compost is used as fertilizer in agriculture. Benefits arise from the nutrient content of the compost, like salts of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrate. But it is even more important that the organic matter in the compost, such as humus like substances, improve the concentration of organic matter in the soil and its structure, and preserve soil fertility over a long period.

Approaches to estimating direct and indirect nitrous oxide emissions

The emission factor approaches such as those used by Bouwman (1996) are based on increasing N2O emissions following an increase in fertilizer-N input (Kaiser and Ruser, 2000 McSwiney and Robertson, 2005). IPCC (2006) estimated the proportion of N fertilizer applied that is emitted as N2O to be 1 per cent, i.e. an EF of 0.01 (or 1 per cent). This EF is used as a 'default factor' and reflects 'direct emissions' (Table 5.1). Recently, Crutzen et al (2008) proposed that instead of using a bottom-up approach for estimating the EF in agricultural systems, a top-down approach would give a more realistic estimate of N2O emissions in agriculture. The top-down approach includes secondary N2O emissions within agricultural systems, for example via livestock feed and manure, and indirect emissions of N2O from N leached from agricultural fields Emission from N input of fertilizer, manure, crop residues, mineralization Statistical methods have identified factors that control annual N2O emissions at...

Effect of Water Regime on N2O Emissions

In the present study, we did not find a significant relationship between N2O emission and nitrogen input in the continuous flooding rice paddy fields. Besides, the scanty measurements and low N2O emission may be another important cause. In contrast to continuous flooding, N2O emissions were significantly higher in paddy fields with mid-season drainage and thereby relationship between N2O emission and nitrogen input became pronounced. Under the water regime of F-D-F, fertilizer input and background emission in the simulated regression model can only explain 29 of the variability in the 27 observed seasonal average N2O fluxes. Under the water regime of F-D-F-M, however, up to 56 of the variability in the 38 observed N2O measurements can be explained by fertilizer together with background emission in the simulated regression model (Table 9.4). Obviously, some factors other than water regime may also be important to N2O emission factor in rice paddy fields. Besides fertilizer amount,...

Nitrification Inhibitors

Nitrification inhibitors (NI) prevent the conversion of NH+-N into NO--N (Bron-son et al. 1991), thereby reducing emissions of N2O via nitrification directly (Majumdar et al. 2000 Kumar et al. 2000) and then conserve by reducing the availability of NO- for denitrification (Aulakh et al. 1984 Bronson et al. 1992). Nitrification inhibitors are also increasingly recommended for rice agriculture to minimize fertilizer N losses (Prasad and Power 1995) by limiting the formation of nitrate from ammonium. Several benzene-ring compounds (Patel and Roth 1977) and N-containing compounds (Bollag and Czlonkowski 1973) are also known to suppress methanogens-esis in pure cultures and in soils. Chemicals, known to inhibit CH4 production as well as CH4 oxidation, include DDT (2, 2-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) (McBridge and Wolfe 1971) and the nitrification inhibitor, acetylene (Sprott et al. 1982). Availability of these specific as well as general inhibitors of microorganisms holds a promise for...

Biogeochemical Cycles

Agriculture, we have added nitrogen to soils in the form of fertilizer in order to increase crop yields. Another way humans have altered the nitrogen cycle is by burning fossil fuels, which releases nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere. Atmospheric nitrogen in the form of oxides are a source of pollution, and a significant form of photochemical smog. These compounds play roles in both the formation and destruction of ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere, and can produce nitric acid after reaction with water. The acid rain that is produced can cause acidification of soils and bodies of water if the underlying bedrock lacks alkaline species. Changes in the nitrogen cycle therefore result in chemical conditions that directly affect public health and environmental welfare. Phosphorus is unusual in its chemistry compared to the other elements discussed here in that it exists in the environment almost completely in the P(V) oxidation state of phosphate, P04 . Therefore, except in very...

Carbon Sequestration References

Yamasaki S (eds) Mass spectrometry of soils'. Dekker, New York, pp 225-245 Hauck HD, Bremner JM (1976) Use of tracers for soil and fertilizer nitrogen research. Adv Agron 28 219-266 Hauck RD, Bremner JM, Brady NC (1976) Use of Tracers For Soil And Fertilizer Nitrogen patterns in C3 and C4 plants a review and synthesis. New Phytol 161 371-385 Hobbie EA, Tingey DT, Rygiewicz PT, Johnson MG, Olszyk DM (2002) Contribution of current year photosynthate to fine roots estimated using a 13C-depleted CO2 source. Plant Soil 247 233-242 Jenkinson DS, Fox RH, Rayner JH (1985) Interactions between fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen Powlson DS, Hart PBS, Poulton PR, Johnston AE, Jenkinson DS (1992) Influence of soil type, crop management and weather on the recovery of 15N-labelled fertilizer applied to winter wheat in spring. J Agr Sci 118 83-100 Preston CM (1993) Optical emission spectrometry. In Knowles R, Blackburn TH (eds) Nitrogen seedlings following pulse-labelling with 14CO2. Ann Bot 72...

Mining and Phosphate Rock Processing

The phosphate concentration in the tailings is upgraded to a level adequate for commercial exploitation through removal of the nonphosphate sand particles by flotation 32 , in which the silica solids are selectively coated with an amine and floated off following a slurry dewatering and sulfuric acid treatment step. The commercial quality, kiln-dried phosphate rock product is sold directly as fertilizer, processed to normal superphosphate or triple superphosphate, or burned in electric furnaces to produce elemental phosphorus or phosphoric acid, as described in Section 9.2. The phosphate manufacturing and phosphate fertilizer industry is a basic chemical manufacturing industry, in which essentially both the mixing and chemical reactions of raw materials are involved in production. Also, short- and long-term chemical storage and warehousing, as well as loading unloading and transportation of chemicals, are involved in the operation. In the case of fertilizer production, only the...

Linking processes to the underpinning microbiology

Image N2o And Genes

Figure 2.4 Nitrifier-15N-N2O production after application of fertilizer (20g Nm 2) to a silt loam soil at 20-70 per centWFPS, and the AOB community profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene PCR products amplified from the soil at different WFPS before and following fertilizer application Figure 2.4 Nitrifier-15N-N2O production after application of fertilizer (20g Nm 2) to a silt loam soil at 20-70 per centWFPS, and the AOB community profiled by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene PCR products amplified from the soil at different WFPS before and following fertilizer application

Managed carbon sequestration in terrestrial biomass

A final concern is the need for complete carbon accounting over the complete lifetime of a project as well as knowledge of the ultimate use of the carbon pools, not just increases in aboveground biomass. The dangers of a narrow focus on wood production rather than complete carbon accounting are clearly illustrated in a recent study by Deckmyn et al. (2004), who modelled carbon sequestration for two different afforestation projects, initiated on agricultural land. They demonstrated that while NPP and wood production of a short-rotation poplar coppice (SRC) was much higher than that for an oak-beech forest (OBF), complete accounting after 150 years revealed that carbon stored in all carbon pools in the OBF was double that of the SRC. However, even though wood produced in the OBF was used for much longer-lived wood products, that from the poplar plantation substituted for fossil fuels, which ultimately resulted in a fourfold higher mitigation potential for the SRC of 26 t CO2 ha year....

Natural Reservoirs For Atmospheric Co2

There are a number of other speculated biological mechanisms that possibly could either accelerate or decelerate the process of oceanic drawing down of the excess atmospheric CO2. Most of these are not considered likely to change our thinking substantially on this problem. The role of the terrestrial biosphere in the uptake of atmospheric CO2 remains somewhat problematic. It is clear that added CO2 is a fertilizer for many plant species, increasing their growth rates (and thus their CO2 uptake rates), assuming the requisite water and nutrients are readily available. In unmanaged ecosystems, this is often not true because the availability of water and nutrients is frequently limited. Nevertheless, CO2 fertilization is still likely to be an important mechanism for accelerated uptake of CO2. It has been argued, however,

Controls on N2O production

Rigid Contact Lens Container

Denitrified, but also on the ratio of N2O generated per unit of nitrogen processed. The amount of nitrogen that is nitrified and or denitrified is related to the size and activity of the nitrifier and denitrifier populations, the amount of nitrogen available and the competitive pressure from other biological activity (e.g. nitrogen uptake by plants). Nitrogen availability is governed by external nitrogen additions (e.g. organic and inorganic fertilizers) and, because microbial decomposition of organic matter provides NH+ for nitrification and nitrification provides NO- for denitrification (Fig. 5.2), by the rate and magnitude of antecedent micro-bial processes. Fig. 5.2. A simplified view of the nitrogen cycle in a cropping system. Adoption of no-till (NT) can influence numerous processes in this cycle (i) industrial fixation (via amount of nitrogen fertilizer needed) (ii) mineralization (via reduced disturbance) (iii) immobilization (via residue placement) (iv) nitrification (via...

Carbon sequestration by compost application

Compost is applied in agriculture to improve soil fertility by means of the supply of mineral fertilizers, such as potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Moreover, the input of compost strongly influences the soil carbon storage which is also an important factor of soil fertility. This is due to the fact that composting partly results in the increased formation of stable carbon compounds, i.e. humus-like substances and aggregates. These are made of complex compounds that render them resistant to microbial attack.

Utilizing part of the waste

Fish scales are a good organic fertilizer, providing slow-release nitrogen. They must be dried to render them stable and acceptable to the marketplace. Although grinding is recommended, this may not be necessary. They would be an appropriate addition to fish bone meal fertilizer and would allow the processor to get rid of two by-products at once. Coelenterates and echinoderms are rarely processed in the United States or Western Europe. Processing sea urchins produces large quantities of waste (and waste water) of low value. The shell of the urchin is mostly calcium carbonate. Urchin waste, if not too salty from the inclusion of sea water, can be used as a fertilizer particularly for crops requiring calcium. The problem is in transporting large quantities of wet, rapidly degrading material. It can be a reasonable addition to compost and so can the waste water. Again, salt content may be a barrier, but this is ameliorated by diluting the waste with large amounts of other materials.

Key reasons to improve waste management in vegetable oil processing

In the case of olive oil, the application of the two-phase extraction process produces only a solid by-product that can be dried and extracted by solvent. The new DOR can be used for cogeneration of electric power, used in combination with saprobic fungi for removal of monomeric phenols. The by-product of the two-step olive mill process can represent an alternative to synthetic fertilizers and amendments. The development of environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of vegetable oil wastewaters still remains a problem, whereas the degradation of the toxic compounds contained in this wastewater will certainly enhance the quality of the remediated waters and of the sedimentation muds, in view of their safe utilization as fertilizers. From this view point, bioremediation of vegetable oil mill wastewater by chemical alteration induced for example by Azotobacter vinelandii and use of the end product as a conditioner and liquid organic fertilizer appears an economically convenient...

Relation between atmospheric nitrogen and the biosphere

This biologically governed cycle is now in some measure disturbed by the activity of mankind. According to Soderlund and Svensson (1976) the total abiological nitrogen fixation was 0.055 x 109 t yr 1 in 1970 and its value is increasing at approximately 4 per year. This anthropogenic N2 fixation is due partly to the production of nitrogenous fertilizers and partly to the combustion of fossil fuels. These latter authors estimate about 0.3 x 109 t yr-1 for the total value (biological-(-abiological) of N2 fixation which is about one-third of the rate of fixed nitrogen production given by Lovelock and Margulis (1974). In any case it can be concluded that the abiological nitrogen fixation seems to be small compared to the total nitrogen quantity in the atmosphere. However, anthropogenic production tends to be localized, and to produce high concentrations where it occurs. Hence, it may have effects on biological nitrogen sinks larger than its average global value would suggest. Much more...

Future themes of sustainable agriculture in relation to N2O emissions

In Japan, the focus of sustainable agriculture is on crop production practices, such as low input of chemical fertilizer for carrot to conserve groundwater quality (Kagamihara City Groundwater Study, 1989). Japanese laws on the agroenvironment and sustainability refer to livestock husbandry only in terms of manure application for soil fertility and soil health and livestock excreta management. The primary aim of these regulations is to preserve water quality in the environment and to reduce the direct effects on people (e.g., preventing excreta odors). However, the contribution of agricultural practices to global warming is a

Indian Agriculture and Climate Change

Analysis of the food grains production productivity data for the last few decades reveals a tremendous increase in yield, but it appears that negative impact of vagaries of monsoon has been large throughout the period. In this context, a number of questions need to be addressed as to determine the nature of variability of important weather events, particularly the rainfall received in a season year as well its distribution within the season. These observations need to be coupled to management practices, which are tailored to the climate variability of the region, such as optimal time of sowing, level of pesticides and fertilizer application. Atmospheric concentration of N2O is increasing at a rate of 0.22 0.02 per year (Machida et al. 1995 Battle et al. 1996 Mosier et al. 1998). The emission of N2O is of serious concern, because of its long atmospheric lifetime of 166 16 years (Prinn et al. 1990). But despite its lower concentration and less rapid rise, N2O is becoming an important...

Types Of Carbon Sequestration

Instead of using these fertilizers, which can have a negative effect environmentally, other practices could be used instead, such as rotational grazing. In addition, if forage quality is improved, livestock methane emissions should be significantly reduced. Nitrous oxide emissions could be avoided by eliminating the need for fertilizer. The EPA stresses that finding the right sequestration practices will help lessen the negative effects of all the greenhouse gases.

Enzymatic Activities and Soil Carbon Sequestration Strategies

Fourteen studies dealing with the effects of organic fertilizers on soil enzymatic activities have been reviewed. Twelve enzymatic activities have been considered, namely arylsulphatase, p-glucosidase, phosphatase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity (FDA), urease, dehydrogenase, invertase, phenoloxidase, catalase, protease, nitrate reductase and amylase. For each study the type and amount of organic fertilizer applied is reported, together with information (when available) on soil texture and taxonomy. Soil textures ranged from sandy to clay, whereas 11 different soil types were considered (Table 7.2). Organic fertilizer applied Organic fertilizer applied Organic fertilizer applied Urease activity is at the basis of nitrogen turnover and soil fertility. Being assessed through determination of the ammonium liberated after soil addition with urea, this enzyme plays a central role in organic nitrogen mineralization, as it is the gateway for nitrification. Urease is sensitive to a...

Groundwater Contamination

Groundwater may have many other contaminants, some natural and others the result of human activity. Human pollutants including animal and human waste, pesticides, industrial solvents, road salts, petroleum products, and other chemicals are a serious problem in many areas. Some of the biggest and most dangerous sources of groundwater contamination include chemical and gasoline storage tanks, septic systems, landfills, hazardous waste sites, military bases, and the general widespread use of road salt and chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides.

Adaptation Potential in the Arid and Semi Arid Tropics

The major impact of climate change in arid and semi-arid Asia is likely to be an acute shortage of water resources associated with significant increases in surface air temperature. Conservation of water used for irrigated agriculture, therefore, should be given priority attention. With increased evapotranspiration, any adaptation strategy in agriculture should be oriented toward a shift from conventional crops to types of agriculture that are less vulnerable to evapotranspiration loss (Safriel, 1995). Expansion of commercial and artesian fisheries also could help reduce dependence on food productivity. Protection of soils from degradation should be given serious consideration. Trying out salt water resistant varieties of crops in the areas where drainage is poor diversifying agriculture and food habits of the people primarily limited to some specific cereals, improving to management of irrigation systems implementing crop livestock integration changing crop varieties in cropping...

Stable isotope approaches

Enrichment approaches have been developed aimed at quantifying the individual sources of N2O in situ. To date, these have mostly focused on distinguishing between nitrification and denitrification following application of 15N-labelled fertilizer. Application of 15N-NH4+ and or 15N-NO3- to soil and attribution of the 15N-N2O fluxes to nitrification or denitrification depending on the 15N source applied negates the need for C2H2 inhibition (Baggs et al, 2003 Bateman and Baggs, 2005 Mathieu et al, 2006). For example, Baggs et al (2003) used this 15N-enrichment approach to verify that increased N2O emission under elevated atmospheric CO2 at the Swiss FACE experiment was mainly due to increased denitrification, with greater below-ground C allocation stimulating both denitrifier-N2O and -N2 production (Figure 2.3). Unfortunately, this approach is unable to distinguish denitrification from nitrate ammonification or nitrifier denitrification. A combined 15N-, 18O-enrichment approach has been...

Project Proposal Development Phase

(ii) Cultural practices and management activities could include selection of planting material, planting, fertilizer application, thinning, harvesting and transportation. The cultural and management practices have implications for carbon stocks and inventory. For example, fertilizer application could enhance biomass growth rates and land preparation could lead to loss of soil organic carbon. Fertilizer application Intensive cultivation practices land preparation, high density planting and fertilizer application All the activities incorporated in the approved project proposal and aimed at achieving the goals of the project will have to be implemented. The activities could include land preparation, planting trees or grasses, regulating grazing, protection, fertilizer application, thinning and harvesting, measuring carbon pools, capacity building and infrastructural development. Some of the activities relevant to carbon inventory include

Erosion Sediment Transport And Deposition In FluvIAL systems

Fine particles suspended in the stream. This makes many streams muddy, and the suspended load consists of silt and clay that moves at the same velocity or slightly lower than the stream. The suspended load generally accounts for 50-90 percent of the total load carried by the stream. The dissolved load of a stream consists of dissolved chemicals, such as bicarbonate, calcium, sulfate, chloride, sodium, magnesium, and potassium. The dissolved load tends to be high in streams fed by groundwater. Pollutants, such as fertilizers and pesticides from agriculture, and industrial chemicals also tend to be carried as dissolved load in streams.

Wetland Protection to Preserve Biodiversity and to Enhance Food Production and Recreation The Pantanal of South America

Deforestation by burning to create more grazing land has led to soil erosion and high rates of sedimentation (see Covich et al., Chapter 3 and Ine-son et al., Chapter 9). In more recent years, nonnative grasses have been introduced to improve forage, and pesticides and fertilizer use has increased in an effort to support the growth of rice and soybeans. These increased chemical inputs have negative effects such as bioaccumulation and eutrophication as occur elsewhere in the world (Moss 1998). Gold mining predates ranching by about 100 years, and open-pit gold mines are still being established. Purification of gold ore utilizes mercury, which is then evaporated, and there is some evidence of mercury pollution affecting birds (as in the Everglades). Subregions within the basin (such as Nhecolandia, Brazil, the second largest of 11 subregions) are being studied with remote sensing to increase available data on land-use values. Meanwhile, threats from the...

Case study Agricultural biogas production in a sports and recreation center

The results of the calculations indicate that a biogas plant consisting of two reactors and a capacity of 2,000 m3 is technically feasible under the given substrate supply potential. The electrical efficiency is 250 kW also 750 kW heat is produced. An amount of 9,000 m3 nitrogen rich residues can be irrigated as a fertilizer in agriculture.

Impacts of Climate Variability on Agriculture and Forestry

Hip Metaphysial Coating

Farm-level adaptations (changes in plant date, varieties, irrigation, fertilizer) economic adjustments (increased investment, reallocation of resources, more land in production) no feedback between economic adjustments and yields CO2 direct effects included Yield impacts based on Rosenzweig and Parry (1994) values for level 1 (farm level) adaptations and CO2 direct effects yield impacts are weighted (by production) average of country-level yield changes values for total agricultural production and per capita GDP include both yield and price impacts range for agricultural prices is across food and cash crops, and GCMs Further analysis was done using a number of adaptation strategies which include changing planting dates, applying irrigation, employing more site-specific fertilizer management, etc. For rice, yields would definitely increase when planted in some suitable times of the year, especially with the application of irrigation and the more site-specific crop and soil management....

Set Goals and Targets and Measure Progress Quantitatively

The economic results, like the environmental results, of proactive environmental management have been impressive. Dow Chemical's Louisiana Division reduced waste production by 250 million pounds and saved 5.2 million between 1984 and 1990. During the period 19751989, 3M Corporation not only cut its pollution per unit of production in half, but by its own accounting realized cumulative cost savings of 500 million. Cost savings occurred in the form of cost reductions in meeting environmental and worker safety objectives and reduced operational costs associated with more efficient resource use. For example, in Cottage Grove, Minnesota, 3M discharged an 8 ammonium sulfate solution into the facility's wastewater treatment facility. Regulations required a reduction in the ammonia content of effluent. The company installed a system that removed ammonium sulfate from the waste stream before dilution in the wastewater treatment facility made recovery impractical. The compression evaporation...

Conclusion On How Biotechnology Improve Organic Manure

In addition to the direct impact of climate change, the community is also expecting agriculture to address production inefficiencies, such as high fuel, fertilizer, pesticide and fungicide applications. In many cases, these represent new targets for breeders but they can be rapidly addressed through the application of new molecular techniques. Fertilizer use and production emits 1.2 of the world's greenhouse gases (Wood and Cowie, 2004) N fertilizer production consumes ten times more energy than other fertilizers (Lal, 2004) Crops only recover around 50 of N supplied (Eickhout et al., 2006). Identification of gene sequences controlling N-use efficiency has led to more fertilizer-efficient rice (Shrawat et al., 2008)

Conventional Composting of Organic Wastes

Technologically, composting is the simplest way to treat solid waste containing hazardous substances. Composting converts biologically unstable organic matter into a more stable humuslike product that can be used as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Additional benefits of composting of organic wastes include prevention of odors from rotting wastes, destruction of pathogens and parasites (especially in thermophilic composting), and retention of nutrients in the endproducts. There are three main types of composting technology the windrow system, the static pile system, and the in-vessel system.