DIY Organic Fertilizer Guide

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

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Mixed and Blend Fertilizer G

The raw materials used to produce mixed fertilizers include inorganic acids, solutions, double nutrient fertilizers, and all types of straight fertilizers. The choice of raw materials depends on the specific nitrogen, phosphate, potassium (N-P-K) formulation to be produced and on the cost of the different materials from which they can be made. The mixed fertilizer process involves the controlled addition of both dry and liquid raw materials to a granulator, which is normally a rotary drum, but pug mills are also used. Raw materials, plus some recycled product material, are mixed to form an essentially homogeneous granular product. Wet granules from the granulator are discharged into a rotary drier, where the excess water is evaporated and dried granules from the drier are then sized on vibrating screens. Over- and undersized granules are separated for use as recycle material in the granulator. Commercial-product-size granules are cooled and then conveyed to storage...

Table 10 Effluent Limitations mgL for Subpart A Phosphate Fertilizer

Produce NPK grades in varying proportions 22 . According to Subpart O, mixed fertilizer means a mixture of wet and or dry straight fertilizer materials, mixed fertilizer materials, fillers, and additives prepared through chemical reaction to a given formulation, whereas blend fertilizer means a mixture of dry, straight, and mixed fertilizer materials. The effluent limitations guidelines for BPT, BCT, and BAT, and the standards of performance for new sources, allow no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. Finally, the pretreatment standards establishing the quantity of pollutants that may be discharged to publicly owned treatment works (POTW) by a new source are given in Table 11.

Increasing fertilizer use

Currently, fertilizer-N use efficiency by agricultural crops is estimated to be approximately 50 per cent (Smil, 1999 Howarth et al, 2002 Ladha et al, 2005). In other words, on average half of the amount of the fertilizer-N applied cannot be recovered in the crop or in the soil and has to be considered to have been lost from the cropping system. Denitrification (N2O and N2), volatilization (NH3) and leaching (NO3) are the major pathways of N losses (Schlesinger, 1997 Mosier et al, 2001), causing a cascade of environmental and human health problems (Galloway et al, 2003). Therefore there is the potential for major improvements in N use efficiency through adopting fertilizer, soil water and crop management practices that focus on maximizing crop N uptake, with minimum N fertilizer losses and the optimum use of indigenous soil N (Ladha et al, 2005). Through optimizing N use efficiency, a total reduction in N2O emissions will be achieved as well as a further reduction in N2O emissions per...

Optimizing fertilizer application with respect to nitrous oxide emission

Global N2o Emission

Emissions of N2O from agricultural systems will not decrease to zero when no N fertilizer is applied, but will remain at some background level, as in any non-agricultural system. For example, when 383 non-manured, non-N-fertilized cropping systems were evaluated for N2O emissions, the average background emission was estimated at 0.55kg N2O ha-1 (Helgason et al, 2005). Natural N deposition and biological fixation, and N mineralization from soil organic Table 5.2 Global estimates of manure-N excretion in animal houses and storage systems and excretion during grazing, spreading of stored manure in cropland and grassland, and N fertilizer use in cropland and grassland for the year 2000 Table 5.2 Global estimates of manure-N excretion in animal houses and storage systems and excretion during grazing, spreading of stored manure in cropland and grassland, and N fertilizer use in cropland and grassland for the year 2000 N fertilizer use Agricultural systems serve for the production of food,...

Phosphate Fertilizer A

H2so4 Rady Flow Chart

The phosphate fertilizer industry is defined as eight separate processes phosphate rock grinding, wet process phosphoric acid, phosphoric acid concentration, phosphoric acid clarification, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, and sulfuric acid. Practically all phosphate manufacturers combine the various effluents into a large recycle water system. It is only when the quantity of recycle water increases beyond the capacity to contain it that effluent treatment is necessary. Wet Process Phosphoric Acid. A production process flow diagram is shown in Figure 8. Insoluble phosphate rock is changed to water-soluble phosphoric acid by solubilizing the phosphate rock with an acid, generally sulfuric or nitric. The phosphoric acid produced from the nitric acid process is blended with other ingredients to produce a fertilizer, whereas the phosphoric acid produced from the sulfuric acid process must be concentrated before further use. Minor quantities of fluorine,...

Use as Fertilizer Soil Conditioner

OMWW contains a high organic load, substantial amounts of plant nutrients (3.5-11 g l of K2O, 0.06-2 g l of P2O5, and 0.15-0.5 g l of MgO) and is a low cost source of water, all of which favor its use as a soil fertilizer or organic amendment to the poor soils that abound so much in the countries where it originates (Cegarra J. et al., 1966a,b Catalano L. and Felice M. de, 1989 Nunes J.M. et al., 2001). Direct application of OMWW to soil has been considered as an inexpensive method of disposal and recovery of their mineral and organic components (Di Giovacchino L. et al., 1990, 1996, 2001, 2002) see Chapter 8 ''Biological processes'', section ''Irrigation of agricultural land Land spreading''. The amurca of the ancients was recommended as a fertilizer for olive trees (Cato, XCIII), vines, and fruit trees (Columella, XI, 2 ''Geoponika''29, II, 10), although these latter sources suggested that amurca used for this purpose must be free from salt. However, the use of OMWW as a fertilizer...

Phosphate Fertilizer Industry in Eastern Europe

Waste Material Fertiliser Industry

Koziorowski and Kucharski 18 presented a survey of fertilizer industry experience in Eastern European countries and compared it with the United States and Western European equivalents. For instance, they stated that HF and silicofluoric acid are evolved during the process of In Czechoslovakian phosphate fertilizer plants, the superphosphate production waste-waters are further treated by neutralization on crushed limestone beds contained in special tanks that are followed by settling tanks for clarification of the wastewater. The beds have from three to five layers (with a minimum bed height of 0.35-1.60 m), treat a range of acidity of wastes from 438 to 890 meq L, and are designed for a hydraulic load ranging from 0.13 to 0.52 cm3 cm2 s (1.9-7.7 gpm ft2) at operating temperatures of 20-28 C. This experience agrees with results reported from Polish plants, the limestone used contains 56 CaO, and it was found in practice that coarse particles of 3-5 mm give better results because less...

Phosphoric Acid and NPK Fertilizer Plant

According to the literature 3,17,33 , the heterogeneous nature of fertilizer production plants precludes the possibility of presenting a typical case study of such a facility. Nevertheless, the wastewater flows, the characteristics, and the treatment systems for a phosphoric acid and N-P-K fertilizer plant were parts of a large fertilizer manufacturing facility. The full facility additionally included an ammonia plant, a urea plant, a sulfuric acid plant, and a nitric acid plant. The typical effluent flows were 183 m3 hour (806 gpm) from the phosphoric plant and 4.4 m3 hour (20 gpm) from the water treatment plant associated with it, whereas in the N-P-K plant they were 420 m3 hour (1850 gpm) from the barometric condenser and 108 m3 hour (476 gpm) from other effluent sources.

Ammonium Phosphate Fertilizer and Phosphoric Acid Plant

The fertilizer industry is plagued with a tremendous problem concerning waste disposal and dust because of the very nature of production that involves large volumes of dusty material. Jones and Olmsted 16 described the waste disposal problems and pollution control efforts at such a plant, Northwest Cooperative Mills, in St. Saul, Minnesota. Two types of problems are associated with waste from the manufacture of ammonium phosphate wastes from combining ammonia and phosphoric acid and the subsequent drying and cooling of the products, and wastes from the handling of the finished product arising primarily from the bagging of the product prior to shipping. Because the ammonia process has to be forced by introducing excess amounts of ammonia than the phosphoric acid is capable of absorbing, there is high ammonia content in the exhaust air stream from the ammoniator. Because it is neither economically sound nor environmentally acceptable to exhaust this to the atmosphere, an acid scrubber...

Table 6 Raw Wastewater Characteristics of Phosphate Fertilizer Industry Retention Ponds

Considerable variation, therefore, is observed in quantities and wastewater characteristics at different plants. According to a UNIDO report 34 , the most important factors that contribute to excessive in-plant materials losses and, therefore, probable subsequent pollution are the age of the facilities (low efficiency, poor process control), the state of maintenance and repair (especially of control equipment), variations in feedstock and difficulties in adjusting processes to cope, and an operational management philosophy such as consideration for pollution control and prevention of materials loss. Because of process cooling requirements, fertilizer manufacturing facilities may have an overall large water demand, with the wastewater effluent discharge largely dependent on the extent of in-plant recirculation 17 . Facilities designed on

Changes In Animal Manure Management And Fertilizer

The changes in livestock production and land use portrayed above also have important repercussions for the production, management and use of animal manure and fertilizers. Bouwman et al. (2005b) distinguished large ruminants (dairy and non-dairy cattle, buffaloes), small ruminants (sheep and goats), pigs, poultry, horses, asses, mules and camels for calculating the animal manure N production. The approach for distributing of animal manure over the two production systems, and within each system over different animal manure Global total N inputs from fertilizers and production of animal manure in agricultural systems have almost doubled between 1970 and 1995 from about 114 Tg yr to 188 Tg yr, whereby N manure contributed 83 Tg yr or about 73 in 1970 and 104 Tg yr (55 ) in 1995. Bouwman et al. (2005b) estimated a total N input from fertilizers and animal manure of 238 Tg yr, animal manure N being 127 Tg yr (53 ) and N fertilizer 110 Tg yr (estimate for 2030) (Table 5.3).

Categorization in Phosphate Fertilizer Production

The fertilizer industry comprises nitrogen-based, phosphate-based, and potassium-based fertilizer manufacturing, as well as combinations of these nutrients in mixed and blend fertilizer formulations. Only the phosphate-based fertilizer industry is discussed here and, therefore, the categorization mainly involves two broad divisions (a) the phosphate fertilizer industry (A) and (b) the mixed and blend fertilizer industry (G) in which one of the components is a phosphate compound. The following categorization system of the various separate processes and their production streams and descriptions is taken from the federal guidelines 8 pertaining to state and local industrial pretreatment programs. It will be used in the discussion that ensues to identify process flows and characterize the resulting raw waste. Figure 7 shows a flow diagram for the production streams of the entire phosphate and nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing industry.

Structure Of The Guidelines

Secondly, the 2006 IPCC Guidelines present Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use in a single volume, rather than two volumes comprising Agriculture, on the one hand, and Land-use Change and Forestry on the other. This allows for better integration of information on the pattern of land use and should facilitate more consistent use of activity data (for example, fertilizer application), that affects both agriculture and other land uses, thus reducing or avoiding the possibilities for double counting or omission.

Opportunities for mitigation

One of the main aims of determining the microbial sources of N2O is to provide a scientific basis for more targeted mitigation strategies. Data on the environmental regulation of N2O production during the different microbial processes are scarce, particularly for nitrifier denitrification and nitrate ammonification. More effort needs now to be placed on considering all potential sources of N2O when measuring and interpreting N2O fluxes from different environments and under different management regimes. Richardson et al (2009) argue that understanding the regulation of the denitrifier N2O reductase is central to the development of management options to lower net N2O emissions by enhancing its reduction to N2, rather than trying to eliminate denitrification. They consider the effect on the regulation of the N2O reductase of management options such as application of nitrogenous or copper fertilizer to regulate Cu availability for this Cu-based enzyme, soil organic matter (SOM) management...

Effects of [CO2 on biomass and grain yield

Biomass results from accumulation of carbon in plant products as the difference between photosynthesis and respiration, plus accumulation of minerals. Increasing biomass might, therefore, be expected to parallel stimulation of instantaneous Pn. However, in practice there are many complicating factors for example, stimulation of root or canopy growth may allow additional resource capture. Conversely, increased C assimilation may result in nutrients being more limiting for growth, thus necessitating increased fertilizer applications, which may increase lodging and disease. At low temperatures, wheat growth is probably not limited by assimilation, but rather by sink capacity. These factors may explain the increases in wheat biomass that range from 0 to 40 in response to doubling CO2 . Early field studies (reviewed in Lawlor and Mitchell, 1991) indicated responses ranging from 30 increase for a doubling of CO2 to only a 20 increase for a quadrupling of CO2 . Biomass of winter wheat in...

Framework for Evaluation of Adaptation Measures

The state and decision indicators are related to each other. If a state indicator changes (thus the water system of a river changes), the decision indicator will also change, and hence can imply that a certain objective cannot be met. Or, the other way around. When, for example, the goal is to bring a certain fish species like the salmon back into the river, the following steps have to be taken. First the current state of the water resources system has to be assessed. For instance, the concentration of fertilizer in the water and the absence of spring floods are the limiting factors for the return of the salmon. These limiting factors can be found through the indicators we assigned to measure the state of the WRS. The next step is to design and implement measures to improve the status of water resources. Such measures could be to reduce cropland near the river and to change reservoir management by allowing more spring floods. The effectiveness of such measure is evaluated through the...

Allocating for the Chemical Industry

Full auctioning of allowances is criticized by manufacturing industries but is particularly disadvantageous for some sectors of the chemical industry such as PVC, nitrogenous fertilizer, and soda ash producers, as demonstrated earlier in the chapter. Industry suggests that this approach does not drive market efficiency

Availability Really Limit Moist Tropical Forest Productivity

This conclusion is based, at least in part, on the observation that forests on older soils show increased growth in response to phosphorus but not to nitrogen fertilization (Herbert and Fownes, 1995). But at the individual plant level, it is also often observed that climax-tree species native to both moist and dry tropical forests may show little if any growth response to increased soil phosphorus availability (Rincon and Huante, 1994 Huante et al, 1995 Raaimakers and Lambers, 1996 Veenendaal et al, 1996). Thus, as was discussed in Sec. 3.2, it may actually be that most plants adapted to low-phosphorus tropical forest soils, while having adaptions to such soils such as lower inherent growth rates and higher root-shoot ratios may not be able to substantially increase that growth in response to higher phosphorus levels (Veenendaal et al, 1996). In this context, one can still regard the low productivity of some tropical forests as being a consequence of low nutrient availability, but...

Methane consumption by soils

1990 Yavitt et al., 1990 Mosier et al., 1991 Striegl et al., 1992). In well-aerated soils, methanotrophs can use CH4 as a source of carbon and, by oxidation to CO2, as a source of energy. Globally, this oxidation represents a significant sink for CH4 (Smith and Conen, 2004). Converting native ecosystems to agricultural use tends to reduce the soil sink strength (Ojima et al., 1993 Willison et al., 1995 Dobbie et al., 1996 Prieme et al., 1997 Smith et al., 2000). Resolving the reason for this reduction is not easy because many changes occur simultaneously when native ecosystems are converted to agricultural use, but application of NH+-containing fertilizers (Mosier et al., 1991 H tsch et al., 1994 King and Schnell, 1994) and physical disturbance have been implicated as likely causes (H tsch, 2001).

Impacts Of Present And Future Climate Change And Climate Variability On Agriculture In The Temperate Regions North

The potential impact of climate variability and climate change on agricultural production in the United States and Canada varies generally by latitude. Largest reductions are projected in southern crop areas due to increased temperatures and reduced water availability. A longer growing season and projected increases in CO2 may enhance crop yields in northern growing areas. Major factors in these scenarios analyzes are increased drought tendencies and more extreme weather events, both of which are detrimental to agriculture. Increasing competition for water between agriculture and non-agricultural users also focuses attention on water management issues. Agriculture also has impact on the greenhouse gas balance. Forests and soils are natural sinks for CO2. Removal of forests and changes in land use, associated with the conversion from rural to urban domains, alters these natural sinks. Agricultural livestock and rice cultivation are leading contributors to methane emission...

The Response Of Agriculture To Climate Change

The effect of increased temperature can have either a positive or negative effect, based on geography. For instance, for the colder high-latitude locations such as Alaska and Canada, warmer temperatures would enable the existence of longer growing seasons. This could encourage the possibility of extended growing seasons as long as soil conditions are adequate. If soil conditions are not adequate and are not fertile enough (lacking proper nutrients and soil structure) to support the growth of crops, the length of the growing season will not matter because growing crops would not be successful. Adding large doses of fertilizer to increase fertility is also not a good option because they can have negative effects on the environment, such as being washed off into the drainage and entering and polluting the water cycle and biogeo-chemical systems.

Effects of Organic Matter Amendments

Animal manures and compost can be valuable nutrients sources to crops. In addition, while their amendments to soils represent a convenient disposal and recycle of considerable amounts of wastes, they allow to limit the application of mineral fertilizers and, thus, save farm money and energy. A number of studies have shown that manure addition is beneficial to soil in terms of plant productivity and soil quality (Haynes and Naidu 1998 Edmeades 2003). A long-term experimental platform exists at the TO site in close proximity of the MESCOSAGR experiment, where organic fertilizers are tested. This platform was intended to evaluate management options of livestock farming in terms of crop production, soil quality, and environment impact. Different maize-based cropping systems are fertilized with bovine farmyard manure or slurry, in comparison to urea. It was therein found that tested organic fertilizers made N available to crops to the same extent as urea and were better retained in the...

Table 15 Phosphate Manufacturing Industry Wastewater Treatment Practises and Unit Removal Efficiencies and Effluent pH

The wastewater is again treated with a second lime addition to raise the pH level from 8 to at least 9 (where phosphate removal rates of 95 may be achieved), although two-stage dosing to pH 11 may be employed. Concentrations of phosphorus and fluoride with a magnitude of 6500 and 9000 mg L, respectively, can be reduced to 5-500 mg L P and 30-60 mg L F. Soluble orthophosphate and lime react to form an insoluble precipitate, calcium hydroxy apatite 17 . Sludges formed by lime addition to phosphate wastes from phosphate manufacturing or fertilizer production are generally compact and possess good settling and dewatering characteristics, and removal rates of 80-90 for both phosphate and fluoride may be readily achieved 13 . Mixed fertilizer (subcategory G) treatment technology consists of a closed-loop contaminated water system, which includes a retention pond to settle suspended solids. The water is then recycled back to the system. There are no liquid waste streams associated with the...

Environmental Impacts of the Project

Other environmental benefits claimed are reduced soil erosion and the regulation of hydrological flows in the watershed, improving soil health and contributing to climate stabilization. Importantly the project will act as a demonstration to other areas plowing, which results in severe soil erosion, is avoided by establishing trees manually, and careful control of fertilizers and insecticide use minimize threats to downstream water quality. (The biodiversity benefits of this project, and of A R projects generally, are reviewed in some detail in Chapter 4.)

Crop and Resource Management in Low Input Farming Systems

Nitrogen fertilizer application is a management practice that can be easily modified by farmers in terms of time and method of application. The method of application would considerably affect N fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE), which indicates how much proportion of N applied as fertilizer is utilized by the crop. To minimize the amount of N fertilizer which is not utilized by crops, in other words to increase NFUE, timing of application should be well synchronized with patterns of N supply from the soil and with crop requirement. In regions where intercropping is commonly practiced, most farmers do not apply, or apply very low doses (less than 25 kg N ha-1), of N fertilizer, because of economic, logistic and social reasons. When N is applied, the farmers prefer basal to delayed applica Delayed urea-N application results in a higher NFUE in sorghum than a basal application (Fig 8.4). The NFUE of sole crop pigeonpea is higher (14.6) than that of intercrop pigeonpea (1.8-3.9), because...

Coevolution and Migration of Bean and Rhizobia in Europe

Abstract The legumes crop common bean is one of the most important crops for the human nutrition common bean is the protein basis from developing countries. Common bean presents many limitations such as the deficiencies or toxicities of minerals in soils. These limitations in common bean production regions occur throughout the world. To overcome mineral deficiencies and toxicities, common bean growers must use corrective soil amendments. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) is important as a source of N for agriculture, because the use of nitrogenous fertilizers has resulted in unacceptable levels of water and atmosphere pollution and by nitrate and N2O emissions, contributing to the increase of greenhouse effect. The common bean grown in Europe, and other continents, is the result of a process of domestication and evolution, from wild forms found exclusively in the Americas, and it is possible to distinguish two major domestication centres, Andean and Mesoamerican centers. Most of the...

The Wastewater Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen fixation, namely the conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonium ions, is achieved by the enzyme nitrogenase that is found only in nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Equation 9.1). Prior to the widespread use of nitrogen fertilizers, nodule-growing plants or legumes provided soil nitrogen. Examples of legumes include alfalfa, clover, and soybeans.

Response to Nutrient Addition and Warming

As expected, addition of fertilizer has almost always led to increase in nutrient uptake, tissue nutrient mass, and net primary production. Tissue turnover rates generally have increased because of community changes toward increased proportion of species with short leaf-longevity. In several cases, fertilizer addition has also led to transient responses in biomass. For instance, while the biomass increased during the first two years of fertilizer addition to subarctic, northern Swedish forest-floor vegetation (Parsons et al, 1994), the response did not continue after five years (Press et al, 1998a) because the grass Calamagrostis lapponica expanded strongly and affected growth of dwarf shrubs and mosses negatively (Potter et al, 1995 Press et al, 1998a). Similarly, the canopy density and mass of the deciduous Betula nana increased in Alaskan tussock tundra over nine years of fertilizer application and reduced the biomass of most other species (Chapin et al, 1995). As a result of the...

Responses in Ecosystem Carbon Balance

Ecosystem C exchange has been measured in a few experiments, mostly in Alaskan wet and moist tundra (Fig. 4). In the wet tundra both gross ecosystem production, i.e., the photosynthetic gains, and respiratory C losses increased with nutrient addition. The increases were particularly pronounced in P and NP addition treatments with a strong N X P interaction, which was similar to the response pattern in the biomass (see above). Warming, in contrast, had smaller effects on C02 fluxes but still increased or tended to increase the fluxes. The net ecosystem productivity, which is the difference between the C fluxes into and out of the ecosystem, increased strongly after fertilizer addition and also tended to increase after warming. Hence, the increase in photo-synthetic carbon sequestration was more pronounced than the increase in respiration with warming only. However, as with the biomass response to combined warming and fertilizer addition, there was a negative interaction with decreased...

Climate Change And Food Production

Higher temperatures also have an effect on soil quality. Warmer soil breaks down organic matter more quickly, stripping it of nutrients and requiring the use of more fertilizers to enhance soil fertility. These, like pesticides and herbicides, emit pollutants. Dried-out soil is also more prone to erosion. Precipitation patterns are expected to change dramatically over the next century. Climate scientists expect that there will be more prolonged dry spells, punctuated by brief, heavy downpours. This will have a negative impact on crop yield, because most staple crops

Comparison of topdown and bottomup estimates

The basis of the Crutzen et al (2008) methodology is that the newly fixed N entering agricultural systems (synthetic fertilizer-N and N from BNF) is regarded as the source of all agriculture-related N2O emissions. These emissions will not all happen in the season when fixation takes place, but will involve longer cycling crop residues ploughed in as fertilizer for a successor crop In contrast, in the IPCC approach, emissions from crop residues and mineralization are included in the 'direct' emissions and have the same EF separate EFs are used for emissions from grazing animals, and the N source here is quantified on the basis of the N excreted, and essentially is treated as a 'new' N source, not as fertilizer- or BNF-derived N (see also Chapters 5 and 6). The fractions of the N applied to fields that are lost by leaching, runoff and volatilization have additional EFs applied to them to describe the resulting 'indirect' emissions. The aggregate emissions from agriculture are arrived at...

Challenges in Favorable Agricultural Production Areas

In modern agroecosystems in favorable agricultural areas there are two main challenges. First, the current practice of high external input agriculture is not sustainable. The resulting high outputs (i.e., high yield) often come at the expense of the natural resources base (water, soils, biodiversity), both on-farm and off-farm. Yield plateaus of major crop species in high production areas have been reported, causing concern regarding the sustainability of on-farm production. The heavy dependence on agrochemicals (including pesticides and chemical fertilizers) in uniform production systems can result in the destruction of a wide array of susceptible species in the ecosystem7 and pollution of water sources. Intensive cultivation with irrigation can lead to rapid water depletion and salinization of the soil. Future as well as present generations are affected, since valuable stores of genetic resources in natural habitats may be irretrievably lost.8

Livestock Crop Bottomup Topdown manure residue

Although the Del Grosso et al (2008) paper contains too large a value for US emissions modelled by DAYCENT (see note to Table 4.4), their conclusions about the agreement at the global scale are unaffected and encouraging. The numbers demonstrate that the 3-5 per cent EF relates to agriculture as a whole - i.e. it is not limited to crop-based biofuel production. Crutzen et al (2008) focused only on crop-based biofuels because of a logical inconsistency in one of the motivations for their production, i.e. the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil fuel, while at the same time introducing another, much more potent, greenhouse gas. As food production for a still-growing world population will require further increases in fertilizer nitrogen application (Erisman et al, 2008), efforts to limit N2O emissions cannot be allowed to affect production. Instead, efforts need to focus on improvement of the nitrogen use efficiency throughout the production chain. This entails...

Understanding Traditional Knowledge and Management Systems

Farmers have an intimate knowledge of useful plant characteristics such as which seeds require less fertilizer, which varieties are able to outgrow weeds, which are less susceptible to pests, and, not least, which taste better. As we pay greater attention to the role that farmers play in the conservation and use of genetic resources in situ, we will need to consider social and cultural factors such as decision making patterns, local institutions, indigenous knowledge and value systems. Gender analysis can provide an understanding of the critical role that women play in the management and use of genetic resources at the farm level. Equitable and ethical use of local knowledge of genetic resources requires a system for recognizing and supporting traditional resource rights and local systems for the maintenance and exchange of knowledge.

Adaptation Strategies

With a (potential) increase in flood frequency and flood levels, the duration of floods and the extent of flooding will increase. As a result, the area of flood-prone land will expand and the economic value of already flood-prone agricultural areas will be reduced. It is expected that flood-prone agricultural areas will increasingly be used for nature rehabilitation or reforestation projects. This shift in land use can be combined with recreational use, although the main role often is a buffering function for excess runoff. Limiting agricultural activities in floodplains as an adaptation to increasing discharges is expected to have a positive impact on the environment. Autonomous development of nature in these floodplains is expected to contribute to a higher diversity of habitats, which in turn will create conditions for (re)colonization by species that have disappeared or are (locally) threatened. An additional positive impact on nature will be the reduced application of fertilizers...

The Impact Of Globalism

These corporations not only pursue profits in low-wage markets but also seek to escape the tighter regulatory frameworks of the global North, thus greatly accelerating the destruction of ecosystems and biodiversity in the global South.10 In addition, twenty-first century agribusiness has opted for unprecedentedly manipulative techniques of genetic food engineering and development of new synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides.11 Ever larger areas of the global landscape are drawn into the exclusive orbit of corporate globalization, accelerating 500 years of ecological degradation

Material and Methods 921 N2O Data Collection

We compiled measurements of direct N2O emission from rice field studies that were published to date in peer-reviewed Chinese and English journals. Data published in Chinese were gathered from the Chinese Journal Net (CJN) full-text database and those in English from the Science Citation Index (SCI) database. Measurements of N2O flux taken from field studies over an abnormally shorter period (Xu et al. 1995), from pot experiments (Xiong et al. 2003a) or from incubation studies (Yan et al. 2000) were not considered in this study. We did not adopt an obviously abnormal result that N2O fluxes were not detectable when pig manure was incorporated at the rate of 164 kg N ha-1 under the water regime of F-D-F (Yang et al. 1996). Measurements from aerobic rice fields (Xu et al. 2004), and from those in which the controlled release fertilizers were applied (Li et al. 2004a) or the amount of organic amendments was not presented for nitrogen treatments (Khalil et al. 1998) were excluded as well....

The General Evaluation Problem

However they are produced by agriculture, and become competitive with human nutrition. Need for land may foster deforestation and stress biodiversity. Production needs would influence input of fertilizers and pesticides which may negatively affect soil and groundwater, and cause air pollution. The production of fertilizers and pesticides consumes fossil fuel. Environmental effects of biofuel production are to be considered.

Emissions from manure

Methane production is often increased by so-called co-digestion of manure with other biomass. This can be dedicated crops, crop residues, residues and leftovers from the food industry, or biomass from nature reserve areas (refer to Table 10.1 for examples). Digestion of manure by co-digestion is considered to shorten the length of time in pre-storage at farms. However, because of the relatively low biochemical methane potential (BMP) of manure (Table 10.1) compared to, for example, maize (around 0.3m3 CH4 tonne-1), and the lower organic matter content of manure compared to maize (Amon et al, 2007) and other co-substrates, the effect of shorter storage times may be offset. In The Netherlands, the amount of co-substrate that is permitted while still treating the digestate as 'fertilizer of animal origin' is 50 per cent on a volumetric basis.

Soybean BNF Promotion Program

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played an important part in sourcing funds for BNF technology training for rural communities and local extension agents and micro-finance. The CU has set up strategically located farmer-managed and extension-supervised technology transfer demonstration plots to show proper application of BNF technology, soybean varietal performance and rotational effects with maize. After harvest farmers have been trained to grade their crop for seed and for the market and given tips on managing crop residues for soil fertility enhancement and as livestock feed. In all cases farmers undertake most of the tasks to ensure self-reliance and sustainability. Traders and agro-dealers have added soybean inputs such as seed, inoculants and fertilizers, and harvested grain to their list of trading items.

Agricultural intensification

Specialised cash-crop systems A common outcome of intensification is the increase in the proportion of specialised fields, some of them devoted to high value crops. These often form part of traditional economies, yielding products which can be bartered for other materials. As more structured markets develop, these crops may become important components of the cash economy. The traditional cash crops include a diversity of fruit trees, bananas, ginger, pineapples, yams and special products like broom grass (for broom making) or bamboo (for a variety of purposes). With the coming of the industrial revolution, small-scale plantation crops of rubber, cocoa, oil-palm or coffee were incorporated in farming systems in many parts of the world. These fields often require intensive management at certain times of the year, either in field preparation, pest management, harvest or post-harvest activities. Nonetheless they arc traditionally handled internally, labour coming exclusively from within...

Contributions of Fixed N by Legumes

The ability of legumes to progressively improve the N status of soils has been utilized for thousands of years in crop rotations and traditional farming systems. The 163 million ha of legume crops grown each year, legume components of the 200 million ha under temporary pastures or forage crops, the 10-12 million ha of perennial legume cover-crops in rubber and oil-palm plantations, and the legume trees and shrubs in agroforestry systems all contribute fixed N to agriculture. Collectively experimental and on-farm data both suggest potential inputs of several hundreds of kg of fixed N ha per year (Table 1), often with maximum rates of N2 fixation of 3-4 kg shoot N ha per day (Unkovich, Pate 2000). The amounts of N2 fixed with most legumes are regulated by environmental or management constraints to plant growth associated with soil nutrients, water supply, diseases and pests. Legumes commonly fix around 20-25 kg of shoot N for every tonne of shoot dry matter accumulated across a range of...

Model Adaptation to Local Conditions

Maize was planted each year in the computer experiment as soon as the soil in the top 30 cm of soil reached 60 of plant available water, but no earlier than June 18 to ensure adequate moisture for germination. Harvest was assumed to occur at maturity, which was simulated for each season. Plant density was set at three plants m-2 in all simulations, and row width was 75 cm. Crops simulated under CT had no manure or N fertilizer applications, and 90 of the crop residue was removed after harvest. Management of RT included application of inorganic N (40 kg ha1 applied in two doses), return of 90 of crop residue to the soil, and addition of 3 metric tons ha-1 of (dry) manure.

Simulation of Soil C Sequestration Potential RT vs CT

Two other treatments were simulated in the computer experiment to estimate how much SOC sequestration would occur under RT only (no amendments added), and under RT with 40 kg ha-1 N and return of 90 of crop residue (RT, Fl, R, no manure addition). Data in Table 16.4 indicate that yield increased under the RT only treatment, but that SOC did not increase. Although roots added C to the soil in all treatments, simulated results show that roots of maize alone would not be enough to increase SOC in this environment. For RT plus N fertilizer and residue return to the field, yield increased about the same as for RT plus all amendments, but the SOC increase was only 2058 kg ha-1, or about 60 of the amount sequestered when manure was included. Notes CT conventional tillage F 40 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer added R 90 of crop residue left on the field each year RT ridge tillage SOC soil organic carbon. Notes CT conventional tillage F 40 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer added R 90 of crop residue left on the...

Contribution and Value of PGRFA

For the developed nations, population increases can be accommodated in part by eating lower on the food chain and consuming grains directly, but the developing world is already doing that. Because new arable land in the developing world is becoming steadily more scarce, higher yields can come with better agronomy dependent on a combination of more fertilizer, plowing, water lifting energy and improved plant material. All but the last are agricultural inputs that compete for meager resources available in developing countries. Therefore, breeding for better crop plants will be the central focal point around which all strategies to increase crop yields will develop. The improvements in agricultural production brought about through the use of modern varieties have been possible because of the rich and varied genetic diversity in farmers' landraces, and of wild and weedy species. There are now several examples of the introgression of valuable agronomic traits from landraces, and wild...

Radioactive Pollution

The radioactive pollution of the environment comes partly from nuclear and coal power stations and partly from other industrial processes. That from nuclear power stations has been discussed in Section 4.5 and those from various power sources are given in Table 6.2. In addition many industrial activities use naturally occurring minerals that contain varying amounts of radioactive material. Such industries include those producing phosphorus and phosphoric acid, fertilizers, iron and steel, coke, minerals, coal tar processing, ceramics and uranium and thorium mining (Nuclear Issues 22, November 2000). Some of this radioactivity remains in the product and the remainder is discharged into the sea or buried underground. The total amount of radioactivity discharged into the oceans is estimated to be about 0.1 EBq, compared with the amount already there of about 10,000 EBq.

Summary and conclusions

A simple decrease in fertilizer-N input would lead to a concurrent reduction of N2O emissions. Depending on the size of the decrease in fertilizer-N input, a dilemma will manifest itself as lower fertilizer-N input will have a negative effect on grain yield. A positive relationship between the amount of N fertilizer input and yield is well established (Cassman et al, 2003). Such a positive relationship between N fertilizer input and yield is also reflected at the global level as worldwide increases in the use of synthetic fertilizer-N have led to a significant increase in total yield and food production (FAO, 2008). Therefore, a significant reduction in N2O emissions through a reduction in fertilizer-N input will most likely lead to lower food Simply reducing fertilizer use is therefore not an option, except in regions where there is over-fertilization, i.e. where reducing N inputs has no effect on crop yields. Generally, optimum and near optimum levels of fertilizer-N input in...

Problems Linked to the Use of15N

Amount of labelled N is actually available than the amount distributed, a lower transformation rate is estimated than actually occurs. ANI can be caused by processes whose rate is not determined by N availability, but by other factors. Examples are immobilization and, sometimes, denitrification. If the extent of the process is not determined by the N availability, the amount of N involved in the process is constant and will be distributed between the labelled and unlabelled N on the basis of their relative abundance. If the rate is determined by N availability, the amount of N involved in the process will be a fraction of the total available N (for example in leaching). Consequently, the amount of N subtracted will be a constant fraction of each labelled and unlabelled pool, and no variation in the relative abundance of labelled and unlabelled fertilizers will occur (Giusquiani et al. 1994 Jenkinson et al. 1985 Powlson and Barraclough 1993). An example of ANI in the inorganic N pool...

Emission Factor of Nitrogen for N2O

The fertilizer-induced emission factor of N2O in the present study was, on average, 0.42 for the water regime of F-D-F and 0.73 for the F-D-F-M. Obviously, these estimated emission factors of N2O in rice paddies are significantly lower than the IPCC (1997) default factor of 1.25 or estimates in upland croplands in this area (Zheng et al. 2004). Yan et al. (2003) estimated that N2O emission factors and background emissions averaged 0.25 and 0.26kgN2O-N ha-1 in the rice growing season, respectively. However, they did not distinguish N2O emissions under different water regimes in rice paddies. In contrast, Akiyama et al. (2005) recently reported that the EFs averaged 0.22 for the continuous flooding rice paddies and 0.37 for the fertilized paddies with mid-season drainage. These estimates rep resent the mean of 16 and 23 emission factors directly measured from field studies in which both nitrogen and no-nitrogen treatments were designed, respectively. As the authors pointed out, seasonal...

Olive Oil Wastewater Characteristics

The olive consists of flesh (75-85 by weight), stone (13-23 by weight) and seed (23 by weight) 12 .The chemical composition of the olive is shown in Table 1. The quantities and composition of olive mill waste (OMW) vary considerably, owing to geographical and climatic conditions, tree age, olive type, extraction technology used, use of pesticides and fertilizers, harvest time, and stage of maturity.

International efforts

The US also produces ethanol, but uses corn instead of sugar cane to create the fuel. As a result, the manufacturing process is more complicated, expensive and demanding of fertilizer generated using fossil fuels. As a result, in order to make domestic ethanol competitive, the federal government imposes a 54-cent tariff on each gallon of Brazilian ethanol that is imported, hindering the widespread adoption of competitive Brazilian ethanol in the US.

Changes During Conversion

The transition from conventional to organic and low-input farming is accompanied by changes in an array of soil chemical properties and processes that affect soil fertility. Fundamental differences, both qualities and quantitative, in the flow and processing of nutrient result from the use of cover crops, manure and compost applications, and reduction or elimination of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. These changes affect nutrient availability to crops either directly by contributing to nutrient pools or indirectly by influencing the soil chemical and physical environment.

Precipitation Flocculation

Occurs in three or four stages in purification towers with a separation device for the solids (biomass) and biomass recirculation. The resulting wastewater has a BOD5 of 2000 mg L. The fourth phase consists of the filtration of the wastewater, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis. The concentrated and thickened sludge from the previous phase is then dried by means of band filters for further use as fertilizer.

Business management and technology

Developments in greenhouse horticulture (the scale of production and energy consumption per unit of the product) are determining factors for CO2 emissions in primary agriculture. For livestock production, the development of the stock and the feed management (quantity and use) are important factors for emissions of CH4 and N2O. The emission of methane is chiefly related to the number of animals (particularly cows) through their digestion of feed the manner of storing manure also influences emissions of methane. The emission of nitrous oxide is closely related to the use and application of manure and artificial fertilizer.

Specific Pretreatments and Quality Limits

Materials diffused through marine outfalls may or may not affect the ecology of the receiving water area. Consequently, the oceanography, biology, and ecology of receiving water areas were studied to determine sensitivities to contaminants and design allowing diffusion below sensitivity levels. By satisfying these requirements, marine outfalls could have a positive impact on the coastal water including the presence of fertilizers, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon in wastewater that maintain life productivity 81 .

Fixation by Rubisco and the Calvin Cycle

Predicted future environments (Long et al., 2006b). The kinetic properties of Rubisco are widely recognized as a major limitation to crop productivity. This is not only because of Rubisco's weak affinity for CO2 and catalysis of a competing reaction with O2 but also because the enzyme has a very low kcat (catalytic rate). High photosynthetic rates therefore demand large amounts of Rubisco which is often more than 50 of soluble leaf protein and 50 of leaf N. Thus, both crop productivity and the demand for N fertilizer could be addressed (Fig. 8.1) by overcoming Rubisco's manifest inadequacies. This could increase photosynthetic rates by as much as 100 in C3 crops (Long et al., 2006b Parry et al., 2007 Reynolds et al., 2009) and increase N-use efficiency (NUE) in both C3 and C4 crops (Ghannoum et al., 2005). While the advantages of addressing individual parameters are briefly discussed below it is essential to take into account the overall impact, if any, of the other kinetic parameters...

Crop Improvement and Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Alleviating environmental impact is more likely to arise as a consequence of specifically targeting reduced inputs, for example in relation to fertilizers or pesticides. Reduced inputs will aid reductions in emissions, principally those GHGs associated with energy production and manufacturing. In addition reducing N fertilizer requirements and therefore inputs will have a substantial effect on ammonia and NOX emissions. Improving efficiency of use of other fertilizers will also reduce environmental impacts such as coastal algal blooms which also result in gaseous emissions (see Ortiz-Monasterio et al., Chapter 9, this volume).

Potato Processing Wastes as Soil Conditioner

Potato processing solid wastes are often applied to agricultural land as a disposal medium. Research supports this method 68 . Solid potato processing wastes containing nitrogen are obtained by filtering or centrifuging the settled solids from the primary clarifiers. Wastes are applied to land and used for crops, which utilize the applied nitrogen. The soil does not accumulate the nitrogen or other organic waste and becomes increasingly fertile with continued wastewater application. Additionally, potato processing wastewater was found to be effective in promoting corn growth as effectively as commercial ammonium nitrate fertilizers, when applied at optimum nitrogen levels 69 . Applying wastewater and solid wastes from potato processing provides an effective method of applying reusable nutrients that would be otherwise wasted, and thus reduces pollution levels in municipal waterways.

Genetic Improvement to Reduce Inputs

Reductions in fertilizer inputs by genetic improvement have been more difficult, although by selecting for yield at fixed fertilizer inputs (often imposed by legislation and or usually a fixed variable in breeding trials), effectively, improvement in fertilizer efficiency is achieved. This will mainly be a result of improved utilization efficiency (production of biomass as a result of nutrients taken up) but increasing efficiency of capture of nutrients by roots is clearly also a logical primary target (Fig. 8.2). The obvious targets are uptake processes, but roots may have other roles in minimizing N losses from the soil, for example by inhibiting nitrification and thus maintaining organic and ammonium-N pools which are less subject to leaching. This is achieved by biological nitrification inhibition genes which are responsible for the trait of exudation of nitrification inhibitors by the roots. These genes, which only occur in certain wild species, may be introduced more generally...

Natural Systems Agriculture

One Kansas Farmer Feeds 101 People and You, proclaims a billboard alongside Interstate 135, near Salina, KS. Modern agriculture has been overwhelmingly successful in terms of output per farmer, acre, or hour worked. Agricultural productivity has steadily increased as a result of technological advances in machinery, fertilizer, and pesticides coupled with the intensive use of plant genetic diversity to improve yield through plant breeding. For example, yields of corn and sorghum increased severalfold in the U.S. between the 1930s and the 1980s (Jordan et al., 1986). Another consequence resulting from decades of chemical application on agricultural soils is contamination of surface waters and groundwaters by toxic chemicals. Particularly troublesome are unsafe levels of nitrate derived from applied fertilizer and residues from pesticides aimed at harmful insects, weeds, and pathogenic fungi. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater are strongly correlated with overlying land use (Singh and...

Policy Relevance and Legitimacy

An example of the different role of these mechanisms is provided by emissions of sulfur dioxide. Indicators presented in the OECD report on decoupling (OECD 2002) show an absolute decoupling of sulfur dioxide emissions from energy production (e.g., as a result of regulations on and incentives for the use of low-sulfur fuels) in nearly all OECD countries. This decoupling partly reflects the reduction in energy use from GDP (e.g., through greater energy efficiency or shifting demand to less-energy-intensive goods and services). Another example of the role of these different mechanisms is provided by discharges of nitrogen in the future, these could be decoupled from conventional agricultural production (aiming at less and better use of nitrogenous fertilizers) as demand shifts toward ecolabeled products or low-meat diets. Similarly, the negative environmental impacts of waste can by reduced by technologies that minimize the release of dioxins from incineration and the leaching of...

Impact of climate change

Hotter, drier summers increase the risk for wildfires as well as droughts, and flooding could be caused by rapid snowmelt in the spring. More severe summer downpours could lead to more frequent flash flooding. Flooding increases the possibility of contamination of water supplies by sediment erosion, and also increases levels of pesticides and fertilizers and runoff from grazing, mining, and urban areas. The yields of some crops like wheat and sorghum would decrease as temperatures rise over the tolerance level for optimal growth. With less water available for irrigation, farming on the whole could decrease as well.

Point and Nonpoint Source Pollution

Diffuse or nonpoint sources typically include urban runoff, construction activities, mining operations, agriculture and animal farming, atmospheric deposition, erosion of virgin lands and forests, and transportation of these, the major problems stem from urban runoff and agricultural activities 22 . Pollution from urban runoff contains such quality parameters as organic pollutants, heavy toxic metals, coliforms and pathogens, suspended solids, oil and grease, nitrogen and phosphorus, and toxic priority pollutants. Obviously, industrial zones and highly dense urban areas produce higher pollution loads and contribute a greater variety of pollutants. Agricultural activities primarily contribute nitrogen and phosphorus, pesticides and insecticides, organic substances, pathogens, and soil erosion products. Their concentrations depend on the application of fertilizers and pesticides and various tillage activities. Finally, atmospheric deposition has also been designated 22 as a major...

Impacts of climate change

Although there is some level of certainty associated with increasing temperature and climate change, predictions of rainfall change are far less clear. It is evident that there will be some regions where rainfall will increase and seasonal patterns will change, and other regions where rainfall will decrease. These changing patterns of rainfall will affect N2O emissions, particularly where associated with extreme events such as protracted droughts (for example in Australia) and extreme flooding. For example, N fertilizer use in southern and eastern Australia has decreased since 1997 with decreasing rainfall. This has inevitably resulted in less total N2O emission, but also The net effect of warmer winter temperatures, higher plant growth rates under elevated CO2, and PNL may mean that more N fertilizer is applied to crops and pastures in the future. This increased N input may well result in greater N2O emissions in areas with increased rainfall, but may have limited impact in regions...

Nitrous Oxide And Global Warming

Global warming is believed to be due to the increased use of fossil fuel resources, the production of industrial chemicals, and the use of chemical fertilizers. Among the greenhouse gases that are produced by burning fossil fuels and the use of chemical fertilizers, carbon dioxide is the gas most associated with global warming however, nitrous oxide is also implicated. It is believed that N2O is the cause of about 6 percent of current global warming. The amount of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere is of great concern, because a molecule of nitrous oxide can absorb over 300 times the amount of infrared energy absorbed by a carbon dioxide molecule. This means that a much smaller amount of nitrous oxide can contribute immensely more to global warming than carbon dioxide. A small increase in the level of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere can have a major impact upon the global environment. Other sources of nitrous oxide are burning vegetation, gasoline engine exhaust that is reduced with a...

Construction Site Runoff

Nonpoint source pollution resulting from construction activities has very high localized impacts on water quality. Sediment is the main construction site contaminant, but the stormwater runoff may contain other pollutants such as fertilizers and nutrients, pesticides and insecticides (used at construction sites), petroleum products and construction chemicals (cleaning solvents, paints, asphalt, acids, etc.), and debris. Erosion rates from construction sites may be 10 to 20 times and runoff flow rates can be up to 100 times those from agricultural lands 37 . Some of the pollution control methods that could be used are protection of disturbed areas from rainfall and flowing runoff water, dissipation of the energy of runoff, trapping of transported sediment, and good housekeeping practices to prevent the other pollutants mentioned above from being transported by stormwater runoff. Finally, each construction project should be planned and managed by considering drainage problems and...

Agricultural Industry

The nature and extent of agricultural nonpoint source pollution are directly related to the way and intensity with which the land is used. For instance, raw cropping usually involves not only a great deal of land disruption, but also the application of fertilizers and pesticides. According to the USEPA 37 , therefore, agricultural activities constitute the most pervasive cause of water pollution from nonpoint sources. Actually, pollution from agriculture has various sources, each with different associated impacts, which may be categorized as follows nonirrigated croplands, both row (i.e., corn and soybeans) and field (i.e., wheat) irrigated croplands animal production on rangeland and pastureland and livestock facilities. The latter two activities will be discussed in Section 19.3.11. The discharged contaminants from agricultural croplands include eroded sediments and washed out fertilizers, nutrients and organics from manure applications, traces of pesticides and herbicides, and...

Policy instruments for mitigation

In the New Zealand case, the main question relates to the feasibility of moving the point of obligation for holding emissions permits from farmers onto other parts of the food chain that are more easily monitored. In this case fertilizer manufacturers appear to be the prime target for inclusion in a trading scheme. It is currently unclear how acceptable this suggestion is to the industry or how effective this approach will prove. In the UK exploratory work funded by Defra is considering the relative merits of alternative trading schemes for livestock producers and fertilizer merchants. Alternative approaches include the introduction of specific emissions obligations under forms of cross compliance, or a specific agricultural climate change agreement that would entail a climate change levy on producers with rebates for those signing-up and complying with good practice agreements. The agricultural sector includes GHGs from pastoral agriculture, horticulture and arable production methane...

Greenhouse gas emissions from the production side

When we focus on other greenhouse gasses, we find that the agricultural sector plays an important role with respect to the emissions of CH4 and N2O. Figures 12.2 and 12.3 show these emissions by sector. Nearly 50 of the national N2O emissions occur in agriculture. This is mainly due to de-nitrification processes in soils resulting from application of manure and chemical fertilizers. Emissions from grasslands (dairy production) hold the largest share. A large part of the N2O emitted in industry is also associated with agriculture the production of chemical fertilizer involves substantial emissions of N2O (Kramer, 2000).

Greenhouse gas emissions from the consumer side

The production side data were obtained from environmental statistics. Estimation of emissions related to consumption requires quite different methodologies. Life cycle analysis (LCA) methodologies (Rebitzer et al., 2004) are the most suitable tools. Initially LCA was developed to assess the environmental impacts of industrial processes recently the method is also applied to agriculture (Audsley et al., 1997). It determines the environmental impacts of a product from cradle to grave, accounting for all the processes involved in manufacturing, transport and consumption of the product, this includes the extraction of the raw materials to possible waste treatments. Conducting an LCA involves a lot of information and a lot of work. To give an example to calculate the environmental impacts associated with consumption of a litre of milk it is necessary to determine all the impacts required to get a litre of milk on the table of the consumer. This includes consideration of the impacts of...

Franz Conen and Albrecht Neftel Introduction

World population has quadrupled during the 20th century. This has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in agricultural productivity, based to a major extent on industrial nitrogen fixation by the Haber-Bosch process developed at the beginning of that century. From a global perspective, population growth was, and still is, larger than the growth in agricultural productivity per unit land area. Consequently, agriculture continues to expand into previously pristine ecosystems. Also, emerging and growing demands for new products, such as biofuels from sugar cane, maize or palm oil, result in land-use changes. Increasing affluence in many parts of the world boosts demands for meat and milk products, driving a conversion of large areas of tropical forests into grasslands and soya bean fields. Land-use change has also taken place in temperate and boreal regions, where pristine grasslands have been converted to cropland, and wetlands have been drained to establish commercial forestry,...

Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Activity data check The inventory agency should, where possible, check data comprising of all managed land areas, using independent sources and compare them. For many countries, FAO database could be the main source and in such a case the data must be cross-checked with other sources. Any differences in area records should be documented for the purposes of review. Activity data area totals should be summed across all land-use categories to ensure that total area involved in the inventory and its stratification across climate and soil types remains constant over time. This ensures that Forest Land areas are neither 'created' nor 'lost' over time, which would result in major errors in the inventory. When using country-specific data (such as data on standing biomass and biomass growth rates, carbon fraction in above-ground biomass and biomass expansion factors, and synthetic fertilizer consumption estimates), the inventory agency should compare them to the IPCC default values or the...

Cultural And Historical Perspectives Of The Present Agrolandscape

Odum (1997) classified ecosystems based on the proportions of solar and fossil fuel energy used to drive the system. Most natural ecological systems are driven entirely by solar energy. Subsidized systems depend, to varying degrees, on the input of subsidies such as fossil fuel energy, fertilizers, and or pesticides. Agroecosystems, for example, are driven by both solar energy and subsidies urban systems depend mainly on enormous inputs of fossil fuel subsidies (Odum, 1989).

Conversion of grassland to cropland

They assumed that mineral N liberated by mineralization of soil organic matter and plant remains, following land-use change, can be regarded as a comparable potential source of N2O to N being applied in the form of synthetic N fertilizer. The IPCC (2006) has subsequently adopted the same approach, in which the NH4+ and NO3 resulting from the mineralization of soil organic matter following a change in land use is deemed to be of the same value as a substrate for microorganisms producing N2O by nitrification or denitrification as the NH4+ and NO3 in an application of synthetic N fertilizer. By way of illustration, Smith and Conen (2004) applied this approach

Drainage and cultivation of organic soils

Drainage of organic soils and associated effects on N2O emissions have been well documented in Scandinavia. Weslien et al (2009) describe the historical development in Sweden, where in the 1930s around 0.65-0.70 x 106ha of organic soil were farmed. Economic and political reasons led to the abandonment of 0.40-0.45 x 106ha by the 1990s. Nowadays, most of the abandoned area is probably under forest. Alm et al (2007) describe an even more dramatic situation in Finland. Of the original 10.4 x 106ha of pristine ecosystems, 5.4-5.7 x 106ha have been drained for forestry and 0.7-1.0 x 106ha for agriculture. Further major areas of drained organic soils are found in the Baltic states and in Russia (Rydin and Jeglum, 2006). Emissions of N2O from drained organic soils are, per unit area, much larger than those discussed for tropical forests in the first section. The IPCC (2006) default value for temperate organic crop and grassland soils is 8kg ha-1 yr-1 with an uncertainty envelope of 2-24kg...

Options to reduce N2O emissions

N2O emissions result from de-nitrification processes in soils and in slurry on the farm. Most N2O emissions occur from soils after application of manure fertilizer. The highest emissions are found when manure is applied with sod injection techniques (Velthof et al., 2003). The simplest way to reduce N2O emissions is to apply fertilizer to the soil surface, instead of injecting it into in the soil. However, these sod-injections techniques reduce NH3 emissions by about 30 relative to soil surface application. Here a trade-off between acidification and climate change is observed.

Cleaner production from the consumers perspective

The changes in agriculture involve increasing production per cattle (reduction of the CH4 emissions, more efficient use of fertilizers (reduction of the N2O and CO2) and large energy savings in horticulture. In industry they involve a general increase in energy use efficiency with 30-35 gains by the year 2010 relative to 1990. In the retail sector this general energy efficiency improvement leads to an energy reduction of 3 . The improvements in transport are the results of a combination of more energy efficient trucks, better driving practices, etc these measures lead to a reduction of 7 of the emissions related to transport. Transport improvements play a minor role in the overall reduction amounting to 0.6 .

Science To Support Limiting Climate Change By Modifying Agricultural And Fishery Systems

Food production systems are not only affected by climate change, but also contribute to it. Agricultural activities release significant amounts of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere (Cole et al., 1997 Paustian et al., 2004 Smith et al., 2007). CO2 is released largely from decomposition of soil organic matter by microorganisms or burning of live and dead plant materials (Janzen, 2004 Smith, 2004) decomposition is enhanced by vegetation removal and tillage of soils. CH4 is produced when decomposition occurs in oxygen-deprived conditions, such as wetlands and flooded rice systems, and from digestion by many kinds of livestock (Matson et al., 1998 Mosier et al., 1998). N2O is generated by microbial processes in soils and manures, and the flux of N2O into the atmosphere is typically enhanced by fertilizer use, Typically, the projected future of global agriculture is based on intensification increasing the output per unit area or time which is typically achieved...

Toward Sustainability Of Agrolandscapes

Urban areas contain human and natural resources that once again must become integrated with the agrolandscape to the extent that the city can be sustained by both economic capital (gross national product, employment, property values) and natural capital (primary productivity, biotic diversity, solar energy, and sludge usage as natural fertilizers). We refer to this perspective as dual capitalism. Economic and ecological capital must become integrated otherwise the resulting oxbow urban areas will increasingly become drained of aesthetic and natural resources. Ecosystem processes will increasingly become disconnected and or diminished from the vital flow of energy, information, or biotic diversity that once connected the landscape system as an integrated whole.

Reporting and Documentation

In general, it is good practice to document and archive all information required to produce the national inventory estimates. For Tier 1, inventory compilers should document activity data trends and uncertainties for croplands. Key activities include land-use change, use of mineral fertilizers, agroforestry practices, organic amendments, tillage management, cropping rotations, residue management (including burning), irrigation practices, extent of mixed cropping systems, water management in rice systems, and land-use change.

Use And Benefits Of Climate Forecast Information

Many investigations are available in which economic benefits from agro-climatological services are quantified (Adams et al., 2003). Additional but unquantified economic benefits of agroclimatological advisories are through checking land degradation from wind and water erosion and decreasing environmental pollution from fertilizer leaching and chemical spray drifts. In the northern part of the Australian grain belt, significant increases in profit (up to 20 percent) and or reduction in risk (up to 35 percent) can be achieved with wheat crops based on a seasonal forecast available at planting time (Hammer, Holzworth, and Stone, 1996). This can be achieved through tactical adjustment of nitrogen fertilizer application or cultivar maturity, with significant financial benefits (Marshall, Parton, and Hammer, 1996).

The atmospheric source

The atmosphere acts as a source for N2O through the oxidation of ammonia (NH3). In total, atmospheric NH3 oxidation is thought to be responsible for 0.6 Tg N2O year. Again the line between natural and anthropogenic sources is blurred. The primary sources of atmospheric NH3 are human-made, with the largest increases in emissions in recent decades being due to increased global livestock farming. Ammonia is emitted from both solid and liquid livestock waste through volatilization and can also induce N2O production in soils by deposition after its initial release. Plumes of ammonia can often be detected arising from intensive livestock-rearing facilities, such as poultry and pig farms. Fertilizer application and agricultural chemical use are also significant sources of atmospheric ammonia, as is fossil fuel-powered transport.

The natural soil sources

Over large areas of otherwise pristine soil. Rates of N2O from such soils at all latitudes are also likely to change in response to variations in temperature and rainfall resulting from global climate change. Ensuring that fertilizers do not end up on natural soils, whether directly or indirectly, makes sense both environmentally and economically.

It is the Poor And the Marginalized That Are Hit Hardest By Climate Change

Then we might modify fertilizer application and irrigation, just as possible forms of adaptation, to see how much flexibility there is in possible management response. This gives us an idea of yield changes due to climate change, which we can then translate into estimates of altered production potential for a region. And from there, using UN projections for increasing demand (due to the growing number of people and demand per capita), we can estimate the effect on risk of hunger. So we are building a chain of models, connecting them but also being aware of the uncertainty that increases as you go down that chain.

Major developments in agriculture

In the new agricultural policy of the USSR, major emphasis was given to fertilizer application. It is worth mentioning that it was Khrushchev who initiated the wide application of chemical fertilizers in the USSR. At the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU in December 1963, following the wave of crop failures that year, Khrushchev proposed a grandiose program for the production of mineral fertilizers, herbicides, and other chemicals needed to increase agricultural production.

Choice of activity data

Management activity data supplement the land-use data, providing information to classify management systems, such as stocking rates, fertilizer use, irrigation, etc. These data can also be aggregate statistics (Approach 1) or provide information on explicit management changes (Approach 2 or 3). It is good practice where possible for grassland areas to be assigned appropriate general management activities (i.e., degraded, native, or improved) or specific management activities (e.g., fertilization or grazing intensity). Soil degradation maps may be a useful source of information for stratifying grassland according to management (e.g., Conant and Paustian, 2002 McKeon et al., 2004). Expert knowledge is another source of information for management practices. It is good practice to elicit expert knowledge, where appropriate, using methods provided in Volume 1, Chapter 2 (Annex 2A.1, A protocol for expert elicitation).

Year United States dollarSoviet Union ruble

The Soviet leader used all the power and propaganda of the state to promote the program. Lenin's injunction that Communism is the Soviet system plus the electrification of the entire country was altered to read Communism is the Soviet system plus the electrification of the entire country, plus the chemicalization of agriculture (Goldman, 1968). This program called for an expenditure of 104 billion rubles (133 billion dollars) for seven years for the expansion and modernization of the USSR's chemical industry in order to obtain the fertilizers. The Soviet leader said this was needed in order to make the USSR self-sufficient in agricultural production (Kiselev and Shagin, 1996). It was planned to supply the farms with 72 million tons of fertilizers by 1975, almost three times more than in 1965. The Soviet Union intended to increase production of phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers as well as artificial protein substitutes for feeding cattle. Western know-how was a crucial factor in the...

Year United States Soviet Union

There were also some improvements in agricultural practice in the steppe zone of the USSR. The exploitative nature of Khrushchev's style of farming (Stalin, by contrast, was an advocate of grasslands, as it proved to be a substitute for chemical fertilizer), with its emphasis on grain and corn growing at the expense of soil conservation practices, was rejected. The bitter lessons of the virgin lands proved to the Soviet authorities that grain crops depleted the soil and actually promoted soil erosion, while grassland farming was soil conserving. The measures undertaken by the Soviet authorities relied on the experience of Western farmers, mainly from Canada. In the 1960s, in the virgin lands of Kazakhstan and Western Siberia, average yields reached 7 to 8 centners per hectare, while in the steppe districts of Canada an average yield was 16.7 centners per hectare at that time (Problemy sel'skogo khozyastva, 1967). It is worth stressing that financial and material support from the state...

Integrated Soil Nutrient Management

Declines in soil productivity can be attributed, in part, not only to the quantities of nutrients removed by plants compared to the quantities of nutrients being put back into the system, but also to the unavailability of nutrients in soils due to soil environments such as soil pH, leaching, mineralization, and other processes. Extensive agricultural production with tillage encourages continuous mining of SOM and release of N. Soil organic matter has a C N ratio of 11 1 thus, sequestration of SOM requires high opportunity cost of N. Therefore, symbiotic N2 fixation through the use of legumes seems the most likely cost-effective means of achieving this N input (Olness et al., 2002). Further, addition of plant nutrients through chemical fertilizers and organic amendments may be necessary to set in motion the restoration of these highly depleted soils. The SOC content cannot be improved without availability of additional quantities of N, P, and K in soils of low...

Conservation Tillage Cover Crops and Residue Management

In a maize bean rotation subjected to various management practices in Kenya, on a Kikuyu Red Clay Loam (Humic Nitisol, Food and Agriculture Organization Alfisol, U.S. Department of Agriculture), the C content of the soil ranged from 1830 kg C ha-1 for stover application to 7940 kg C ha-1 for stover fertilizer manure management practice (Woomer et al., 1998 Swift et al., 1994). Addition of fertilizer, in this case, reduced soil C. The efficiency of C sequestration ranged from 1.4 for stover-fertilizer management to 6.9 for fertilizer management (Woomer et al., 1998).

Removal of by Nitrification Denitrification

Similar to phosphorus, nitrogen is a very important element that has attracted much attention because of its ability to cause eutrophication in bodies of water. As stated in the chapter on phosphorus removal, the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia is fed by tributaries from farmlands as far away as New York. Because of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers for these farms, the bay receives an extraordinarily large amount of nitrogen input that has triggered excessive growths of algae in the water body. Presently, large portions of the bay are eutrophied.

Approaches To Valuing Genetic Diversity For Agroecosystems

Single variety with the highest net returns. But other explanations from economic theory have been invoked to explain partial adoption. The most widely accepted explanations involve (1) differentiation of varieties, such that different varieties are in fact seen as different commodities, with partial adoption explained by some of the same factors that explain species diversity (2) farmers' risk aversion, resulting in portfolio diversification or disaster avoidance (3) fixity or rationing of seed-related production inputs such as fertilizer, soil type, or credit and (4) learning behavior or experimentation.

Chicken Waste Treatment

The screen is a wedge-wire screen and the screen surface is medium, ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 in. The device is specially designed to be in a triangular shape as this helps the solid waste to slide down the screen (through gravity) to the lower edge of the device where the solids are collected. The separated solids, due to the high nutritious value (broken eggs, manure, and feed), are then used as fertilizers. The effluent is transported to the anaerobic tank for further treatment. A completely mixed anaerobic activated sludge system is used. The temperature of the reactor is maintained between 30 and 38 C. Anaerobic processes can achieve high levels of organic removal, with an efficiency of up to 99 . The sludge produced in the anaerobic reactor is directed to the sludge digester, where the sludge is stabilized. Methane produced is collected and used to generate electricity to run the farm. The unremoved nitrogen and phosphorus is then directed to the VIP process for further treatment.

Direct and indirect emissions from agriculture

Direct and indirect N2O emissions from livestock husbandry and crop production are shown in Fig. 40.2 (bar graph). Total N2O emissions peaked in 1990 (46,672 Mg) as a result of an increase in livestock husbandry, then declined until 2005 (37,620 Mg). The decline in N2O emissions resulted mainly from a decline in crop production from 17,644 Mg in 1985 to 12,088 Mg in 2005. Livestock husbandry also declined between 29,381 Mg in 1990 and 25,532 Mg in 2005, however less than crop production. Mishima (2006) indicated that crop production and non-utilized N by agricultural production peaked in 1985, then declined until 2002. The main cause of this decline was a reduction in the use of chemical N fertilizer in crop production. Livestock excreta N production, which reflects livestock production, peaked in 1990 then declined more slowly than the rate of reduction in chemical N fertilizer application. Livestock husbandry comprised a higher proportion of total agricultural N2O emissions than...

N2O emissions from each sector and their trends

In 1985, when crop N2O emissions were highest, paddy rice (4,714 Mg) was the largest source of N2O and forage crops (3,376 Mg) the second highest, because these crops occupied about 60 of farmland (Fig. 40.4). In 2005, when N2O emissions were lowest, 70 of N2O came from paddy rice (2,770 Mg), vegetables (2,810 Mg), and forage fields (2,850 Mg). Over the study period, the area of paddy rice declined from 27 to 23 and that of vegetables increased from 17 to 23 . N fertilizer input to paddy rice declined from 114 to 72 kg N ha-1 and N fertilizer input to vegetables increased from 180 to 201 kg N ha-1. Tea comprised 10 to 13 of total crop production of N2O emissions during the period. Although the area planted in vegetables and tea was small (12 and 1 of total planted area in 2005, respectively), vegetables and tea were significant sources of N2O. This result shows that vegetables and tea are hotspots of N2O emissions in the crop production sector, because of the higher chemical N...

Differences and uncertainties

There are several reasons for the difference between our estimations and those of the GIO (2007). Our framework includes disposal of livestock excreta but not burning of excreta and crop by-products. N volatilization rate during excreta handling also differed greatly (50 to 85 in this study and 10 to 30 on GIO). These factors would have made our estimation of indirect emissions by N deposition that account as indirect emission from livestock production larger than that of GIO, although GIO did not indicate indirect emissions. Because the emission factor for indirect emissions is larger than that for direct emissions from farmland (except tea), estimated N2O emissions would be larger than GIO. Because our estimation of the basic unit of livestock N excretion was larger than that of the GIO (2007), our estimation of N excreta-related N2O emissions was greater than that of the GIO's. Because N volatilization was much higher than GIO, residual N as manure was less than half of GIO....

Man Environment Relations in Halakhic Sources Three Circles

Why is the planting of gardens and orchards in Jerusalem forbidden The Talmudic reason, due to sircha, is explained by the commentator Rashi as noxious odors, which originate either in the weeds thrown out from the gardens or in fertilizer. Thus, the cultivating of gardens and orchards is forbidden to prevent ecological nuisances. However, the modern-day Talmudist Jacob Nahum Epstein used philological comparisons to explain that the Talmudic term actually referred to a Sandfliege (sand fly) - a small fly found especially in gardens.24

Other Face Experiments

Both FACE and closed-chamber experiments show that the greatest benefits from CO fertilization come when the crops arc well supplied with mineral fertilizers, which enable them to construct more tissues using the extra carbon that they fix. This response will probably increase global food production, but it will be concentrated in certain parts of the world. The increased yield is thus likely to favor richer farmers who can already afford plenty of fertilizer to put on their crops, rather than the poorest farmers in the Third World.

Some Properties And Effectiveness Of Nitrogenfixing Rhizobacteria Isolated From Rice Roots

Concern about possible health and environmental consequences of using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides have led to strong interest in alternative strategies to ensure competitive yields and protection of crops. This new approach to farming, often referred as sustainable agriculture, seeks to introduce agricultural practices that are more friendly to the environment and that maintain the long-term ecological balance of the soil ecosystem. The main objective of our study was to isolate strains with high root colonization activity possessing beneficial properties biological nitrogen fixation, biocontrol activity and plant growth promotion. An original method for isolation of rhizobacteria inhabiting roots of rice grown in South Korea and Russia has been used. Among 256 isolated strains, 8 promising strains with high root colonization activity possessing beneficial properties (biological nitrogen fixation, biocontrol activity and plant growth promotion)...

Structural Point Of View

From this figure, it is obvious that the nitrogen cycles originally closed, are very open, because of the consumption of chemical fertilizer and large amount of imported food and feed. Based on international statistics on agriculture, forestry, and fisheries 3 , the United States exports food and feed of 4.2 g N capita day. However Japan imports food and feed at a rate as high as 19.4 g N capita day. The supply of food is 15.2 g capita day in Japan, and 18.0 g capita day in the United States. The ratio of the amount of food to be recycled to farmland vs. chemical fertilizer consumption is 15.5 12 1.3 in Japan, 41.5 116 0.36 in the United States. The consumption of chemical fertilizer on farmland is 121 kg N ha and 59 kg N ha for Japan and for the United States, respectively. Considering these situations, it easy to understand the difficulty of food waste recycling in Japan, which uses more than twice as much foreign farmland overseas as domestic farmland.