Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

Miracle Farm Blueprint is a step by step guide for the small-scale farming whose major aim of facilitating individuals in their attempts to have sufficient water supply and pure organic foods. It is a product of Michael, a guy only known by one name. The author teaches the best way of structuring a mini-farm though efficient. The farm will be self-sufficient, something that can help individuals along with their families to manage unforeseen circumstances such as disasters or any kind of emergency. Following this guide will help save thousands of dollars that would otherwise be incurred on groceries. Additionally, it will help you come up with a survival mechanism. The author is of the opinion that the blueprint the program is kind of a miracle and probably the best than any other one in the market. The program is easy and applicable to all individuals. Besides, you will only be required to have simple tools, apart from a reduced total expenditure. Thousands of individuals reap maximum benefits every day. All you need to do is to give it a try and be among them. Read more...

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Allelopathy and Organic Farming

Abstract Allelopathy is a biological process including interactions between two plants through the production of chemical compounds (allelochemicals) that are released by leaching, volatilization, decomposition, or root exudation. Hence, allelopathy together with competition is a promising environment-friendly tool for weed management. However, detailed knowledge of this phenomenon is necessary for its successful application due to still limited available knowledge. Suitable use of allelopathic crops in agriculture could reduce the pesticide application and thereby reduce the environmental and food pollution, decrease costs in agriculture, improve food security in poor regions and soil productivity, and increase biodiversity and sustainability in the agro-ecosystem. Weed management in organic agriculture is one of the most difficult aspects of organic farming and uses especially preventive methods that include ways such as cover crops, mulches, green manure, intercropping in which...

Importance of Indigenous Soil Knowledge in Developing Sustainable Agriculture

Weelia Cylindrica

The farming system is a foundation in agriculture. A sustainable farming system is recognized as a system that maintains the resource base upon which it depends, relies on minimum of synthetic inputs, manages pests and diseases through internal regulating processes, and can recover from the human disturbance caused by agricultural practices, i.e., cultivation and harvest (Edwards et al. 1990 Altieri 1995). Sustainable agriculture is farming systems that are maintaining their productivity and benefit to society indefinitely (Appleby 2005 Lichtfouse et al. 2009). Gleissman (2001) describes that the components of sustainable agriculture begin with two types of existing systems natural ecosystems and traditional farming systems (Table 11.1). Both have a test of time to maintain land productivity and provide a different kind of knowledge. Natural ecosystems offer a reference point for better understanding of the ecological process of sustainability while traditional farming systems provide...

Sustainable Agriculture to Reduce Environmental Impact Soil Organic Matter as a Source and Key Factor of Greenhouse

The main concern of the altered global C cycle is the large imbalance between carbon release to the atmosphere and carbon uptake by other compartments, that leads to a continued increase in atmospheric CO2 to a rate of 4.1 x 109 tons of carbon per year (IPCC 2007a, b). CO2 is considered the main GHG, affecting the phenomenon for more than 50 (IPCC 1996). The terrestrial carbon cycle is supposedly a sink of about 25 of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Running 2008). On the other end, over the past few 100 years, the expansion of agricultural land has released substantial carbon to the atmosphere, due to soil carbon depletion by agriculture through removal of photosynthate carbon toward the market system and conventional tillage (CT) practices, which increase SOM mineralization rate (Schlesinger 1984). Thus, it is raising a new concern of industrialized agriculture toward a more environmentally sustainable system. Literature in sustainable agriculture identifies two core aspects (1) the...

Definition and Global Situation of Organic Agriculture

Organic agriculture has a long history with guidelines developed in 1924 to formalize an alternative to conventional production systems (Hovi et al. 2003). This was associated with Rudolf Steiner and the development of biodynamic farming and agriculture, which has unique features in addition to those of organic farming in general, and a certification scheme established in 1928. This still operates today and is identified by the Demeter and Biodyn labels on foods (Lampkin 1999). Organic farming can be defined as a method of production, which places the highest emphasis on protecting and enhancing the environment and minimizing pollution (Liebhardt 2003). Organic farming systems focus on soil fertility as the key to successful production and reduction of external inputs by refraining from the use of chemosynthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead, natural resources and processes are relied upon to manage soil nutrient status and pests, diseases and weeds and hence to...

Sociology of Sustainable Agriculture

Abstract Sustainability is the core element of government policies, university research projects, and extension organizations worldwide. Yet, the results of several decades of attempt to achieve sustainable agriculture have not been satisfactory. Despite some improvement conventional agriculture is still the dominant paradigm. Pollution of water, soil, and air, degradation of environmental resources, and loss of biodiversity are still the by-product of agricultural systems. In light of these crises, based on review of current literature, it is argued that in promoting sustainable agriculture our perception should shift from a technocratic approach to a social negotiation process that reflects the social circumstances and the power conditions. Agriculture should be regarded as an activity of human therefore, it is social as much as it is agronomic and ecological. Therefore, here we explore the contribution of sociology toward achieving agricultural sustainability. The review reveals...

Attitudes Behaviors and Sustainable Agriculture

Trying to achieve good practice on their farms, balance environmental, physical, and commercial factors in their decisions about their farming system. Clark (1989) suggested that farmers' decisions about whether to take advice about conservation were affected by three distinct dimensions the policy environment facing farmers, the advisory structures in place, and the personality of the farmer. There is consistent evidence in the literature indicating a relationship between farmers' attitudes toward environment and their farming practices (Fairweather and Fig. 2.1 Theoretical framework of factors influencing farmers' sustainable agricultural attitudes and behaviors (From Karami and Mansoorabadi 2008). According to this theoretical framework, farmers' action is guided by two kinds of considerations attitude toward sustainable agriculture and presence of factors that may further or hinder performance of the behavior Attitude toward sustainable agriculture Religious and spiritual values,...

Organic Agriculture and Food Production Ecological Environmental Food Safety and Nutritional Quality Issues

Abstract Conventional agricultural systems should not only produce much greater amounts of food, feed, fibre and energy to meet the global needs, but also challenge problems to improve health and social well-being of man, reduce dependence on fossil fuels, adapt to climate change and extreme weather, reduce environmental degradation and decline in the quality of soil, water, air and land resources throughout the world as well. The present one-dimensional physical and chemical production systems should be replaced by an agricultural paradigm that rely more on biology, ecology and sociology, and meet global food needs based on the soil, water, land and fertility resources without compromising the capacity of future generations in meeting their environmental, food and resource needs. Organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional systems of food production should contain features of agricultural systems that promote the environmentally, socially and economically sound production...

Indigenous Soil Knowledge for Sustainable Agriculture

Abstract Indigenous soil knowledge, a foundation of traditional farming systems, plays an important role in developing agricultural and environmental sustainability, especially in developing countries where most farmers have limited access to soil analysis and extension services. Recently, indigenous soil knowledge has been recognized as a vital source for most scientists to be used to change and improve natural resource management without neglecting the social and cultural values of the local environment. However, the transfer of the knowledge from generation to generation, farmer to farmer, farmers to scientists, and scientists to farmers is critical for a better understanding of soil processes, which is a major part in developing sustainable agriculture. This chapter reviews indigenous soil knowledge and its application and how scientists respond to the value of indigenous soil knowledge and integrating it into agricultural activities. Case studies from various countries in Africa,...

Agricultural Sciences Use of Mathematical Models

The science of agriculture depends on research activities for (i) the acquisition of knowledge (ii) the ordering of knowledge and the development of understanding on that knowledge, and (iii) the application of the knowledge and or understanding to the solution of practical problems (Rimmington and Charles-Edwards 1987). The mathematical models can be used in different ways within each one of these three activities. Basically a simplified description of a system, a mathematical model can help us to better understand the operation of a real system and the interactions of its main components. Thus, they are excellent forecast mechanisms. The important uses of mathematical models in agricultural sciences can be (i) analysis of observed responses in plant growth as a function of certain factors, to increase our understanding of the crop growth and to provide direction in our research (ii) simulation of plant growth by models consisting of many interacting components and levels, as an aid...

Future themes of sustainable agriculture in relation to N2O emissions

In Japan, the focus of sustainable agriculture is on crop production practices, such as low input of chemical fertilizer for carrot to conserve groundwater quality (Kagamihara City Groundwater Study, 1989). Japanese laws on the agroenvironment and sustainability refer to livestock husbandry only in terms of manure application for soil fertility and soil health and livestock excreta management. The primary aim of these regulations is to preserve water quality in the environment and to reduce the direct effects on people (e.g., preventing excreta odors). However, the contribution of agricultural practices to global warming is a

Striving for a Sustainable Agriculture

The discussion above leads to the following considerations (1) today's agriculture has achieved the scientific and technical ability to provide food for a steadily increasing world population, but the price paid to achieve this success, in terms of environmental decay and quality of life, cannot be accepted and there is ample reason to fear an irreversible decay of agro-ecosystems in the future (2) strategies for a sustainable agriculture are urgently needed and an arsenal of sometimes contrasting ways to achieve sustainability is available, but sustainability is an elusive concept widely varying with the various farms and agricultural systems (3) progress towards sustainability can be achieved provided that prejudice-free, flexible system approaches are adopted, apt to the diverse circumstances and objectively supported by appropriate indicators. In the following part a necessarily incomplete review will be exposed of the possible impacts of the principal farming practices that must...

Change in cultural practices or improved farming practices

Ttis coping measure consists of changes in farming practices to increase adaptive capacity through improved soil, crop and environmental quality. It includes adjustments in agricultural inputs such as the use of hybrids, flexible calendar of farming activities such as changes in timing of operations to address changes in temperature moisture conditions, integrating crops with trees in a given production area to halt decline of land productivity and the use of farming systems such as organic and precision farming.

Achieving Sustainable Agriculture Role of Sociology

Sociologists and other social scientists have played a significant role in the emergence, institutionalization, and design of sustainable agriculture. Sociologists and other social scientists have done particularly significant research on the adoption of resource-conserving practices. They have also made major contributions through their research into identifying user needs and implementation strategies relating to sustainable agriculture technology (Buttel 1993). For many scholars, sustainable agriculture lies at the heart of a new social contract between agriculture and society (Gafsi et al. 2006). Despite the diversity in conceptualizing sustainable agriculture, there is a consensus on three basic features of sustainable agriculture (i) maintenance of environmental quality, (ii) stable plant and animal productivity, and (iii) social acceptability. Consistent with this, Yunlong and Smith (1994) have also suggested that agricultural sustainability should be assessed from ecological...

Main Characteristics Of Farming Systems In Drylands

Drylands have particular characteristics that will affect their capacity to sequester carbon. Drylands often experience high temperatures, low and erratic rainfall, minimal cloud cover, and small amounts of plant residues to act as surface cover to minimize radiation impact. As a result, soils in the drylands are, generally, both inherently low in organic matter and nutrients and rapidly lose large proportions of those small quantities as CO2 when exposed by tillage and other conventional practices. Exposed and loosened soils are also highly prone to soil erosion, particularly rainfall patterns that include intense, storm precipitation after long dry periods. The key issue in drylands is therefore to maximize the capture, infiltration, and storage of rainfall water into soils by promoting conditions that accumulate organic matter and increase soil biodiversity. Drylands are particularly prone to soil degradation and desertification, with 70 of the agricultural land degraded. This...

National Agricultural Research System

The National Agricultural Research System of India is one of the largest in the world, with over 30,000 highly qualified scientists. The Central and State Governments provide most of the funds. The private sector in recent years has started to invest in agricultural research, mainly in seed improvement and production. Its share is expected to increase further with the existing and emerging congenial public policies, including appreciation for Intellectual Property Protection. Although the history of agricultural research in India goes back to the early years of the century, much of the present growth of the system has taken place in the past four decades. A significant part of it can be traced to the reorganization of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in 1966 when, as the main executive agency, it was given responsibility and considerable autonomy to plan and coordinate research and to be the main funding body. ICAR has been described as the research arm of the Ministry of...

Past Changes In Agricultural Land Use And Production

Data from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO, 2003) indicate that the agricultural area of Europe (EU-15 member countries) declined by about 14 between 1961 and 2000 (Figure 3.1a). During the same period, population increased by nearly 20 and the economic power expressed in GDP per capita almost tripled (World Bank, 2002). Thus, agricultural production from a decreasing area of agricultural land had to satisfy the growing demand for food that resulted from increasing population and economic wealth. At the beginning of the 1960s productivity of important crops in Europe increased significantly mainly due to advances in agricultural technology, known as the Green Revolution. For instance, yields of cereals in the EU 15 countries increased by about 150 in the last four decades (Figure 3.1b). Rates of yield increase were higher than increases in demand and production exceeded demand in the mid eighties (Figure 3.1c). Further, increases in crop productivity resulted in substantial...

Society Issues Painkiller Solutions Dependence and Sustainable Agriculture

Abstract Here I tackle three major issues, climate change, financial crisis and national security, to disclose the weak points of current remedies and propose sustainable solutions. Global warming and the unexpected 2008 financial crisis will undoubtedly impact all nations. Treating those two critical issues solely by painkiller solutions will fail because only adverse consequences are healed, not their causes. Therefore, all sources of issues must be treated at the same time by enhancing collaboration between politicians and scientists. Furthermore, the adverse consequences of globalisation of markets for energy, food and other goods have been overlooked, thus deeply weakening the security of society structures in the event of major breakdowns. Therefore, dependence among people, organisations and nations must be redesigned and adapted to take into account ecological, social and security impacts. Solving climate, financial and security issues can be done by using tools and principles...

Sustainable Versus Organic Agriculture

Abstract Awareness and concern for problems related to environmental quality are growing at a steady pace climate change, biodiversity, soil fertility decay and above all food quality and pollution are everyday subjects for debates and discussions. The complexity of the problems and the uncertainty about many basic data quite often make discussions inconclusive even indications issued by scientific authorities are sometimes misleading, and the problems are exacerbated by the frequent influence of ideological positions. In an endeavour to contribute to clarify agriculture-related environmental issues, a review is made here of the principles of sustainable agriculture and of the ways to deal with them. The need is emphasized for a system approach which is able to reconcile economic-productive, environmental and social aspects, the three 'pillars' of sustainability, permitting to consider simultaneously the numerous factors concurring to determine the most appropriate production...

Soil Functions and Diversity in Organic and Conventional Farming

Abstract Intensification of modern agriculture is one of the greatest threats worldwide and it has led to growing concern about conserving biodiversity and its role in maintaining functional biosphere. It is now clear that agricultural intensification can have negative local consequences, such as increased erosion, lower soil fertility, and reduced biodiversity negative regional consequences, such as pollution of ground water and eutrophication of rivers and lakes and negative global consequences, including impacts on atmospheric constituents and climate. Concerns about the ability to maintain long-term intensive agriculture are also growing. Organic farming is now seen by many as a potential solution to this continued loss of biodiversity due to recycling of natural resources and no negative impact of synthetics. Though almost all soil processes are regulated by soil microbes, the link between micro-bial diversity and soil function is not well understood. This review article assesses...

Social Impact Assessment and Sustainable Agriculture

In line with the triple bottom-line approach from sustainable development (Vanclay 2004), the social impact assessment is of particular importance in considering the social sustainability of agriculture. There is no doubt that the social impact assessment is as important, in some cases even more important than the assessments of biophysical and economic dimensions of sustainable agriculture (Pisani and Sandham 2006). There have been many agricultural development projects in developing countries focusing on rural area in arid and semiarid lands in the past 3 decades. These have faced numerous social challenges such as a growing sense of rural households' dissatisfaction, negative attitudes, and conflicts with the project and as a result unsustainability (Ahmadvand and Karami 2009). The three main goals of sustainable agriculture are economic efficiency, environmental quality, and social responsibility (Fairweather and Campbell 2003). Certainly, social sustainability is a core dimension...

Indigenous Soil Knowledge and Sustainable Agriculture 1121 What Is Indigenous Soil Knowledge

The World Conservation Union (IUCN 1986) recognizes that indigenous soil knowledge gives benefits to the environmental applications, new biological insights, environmental assessment, commodity development, sustainable agriculture, natural resource management, development and planning, and environmental education. It also plays an important role in monitoring ecological changes by providing early warning signs of change. The collection of it will bring wisdom to sustainable development (Handayani et al. 2006 Handayani and Prawito 2008 Williams and Baines 1993).

Gender and Sustainable Agriculture

Women have learned to manage these resources in order to preserve them for future generations (Atmis et al. 2007). Although, the impact of attitude and behavior of rural men on sustainability of agriculture is often acknowledged, the importance of women's attitude in shaping agriculture is ignored (Karami and Mansoorabadi 2008). Because women's different and important contributions to the farm and family are not institutionally recognized and addressed by the sustainable agriculture movement, the movement's goals, vision, and activities are gender-specific, dominated by men's participation and contributions (Meares 1997 Karami and Mansoorabadi 2008). Government and institutional policies often fail to recognize the importance of women's access to natural resources. While research has shown that agricultural productivity increases significantly when female farmers have access to land and Some of the issues that have been addressed by sociologists with regard to women's impact on...

Setting Priorities for Agricultural Research Theory and Experience

The close of the 20th century has brought new and daunting challenges to the agricultural and biological sciences. Confronted with population growth and the continual emergence of new diseases, pests, and environmental problems, researchers face pressure to develop improved technologies at an ever-increasing rate. Agricultural researchers are charged with the responsibility of producing more food and fiber, lowering the costs of production, and protecting the natural environment. They are urged to design plant varieties that benefit the poor and remedy social injustice they are encouraged to create technologies that meet the needs of women and they are asked to target marginal environments in which producers use few inputs. For those who manage research organizations or allocate funding for agricultural research, this portfolio of responsibilities can be overwhelming. An increase in funding levels would always help, but the allocation problems remain. Should resources be spread across...

Agriculture Economic Policy Change And Food Security

These farmers enter the 21st century at a considerable disadvantage. They tend to have been subject to considerable past state intervention and protectionism. In many countries, smallholders were also unable to benefit directly from the technological advances of the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, and since that period have often been ignored in national agricultural research and development programs in favor of more modern farming subsectors. However, to be adaptive a system needs to be flexible, and in order to respond proactively, it also needs to have a certain amount of stability. Instability and volatility tend to inhibit capacities for future planning. Perhaps most important, adaptation depends on having access to resources financial, human, social, physical, natural in order to accommodate changing demands on land's productive capacity. Although many smallholders are capable of finding niches in today's more open markets, they do not have access to investments in...

Sources of Diversity in Genepools

An important feature of genetic diversity within traditional farming systems is that it allows for geneflow between crops and their wild relatives. One way of conceptualizing the geneflow within a crop genepool is as a plant genetic resources (PGR) system with interactions and flows between the three sources of genetic variation. Each of the three sources of diversity, wild relatives, landraces and formal breeding, are characterized by an increasing degree of human control over the process of exchange of genes, and by the reduction of complex environmental factors in the selection process.

Optimization offarm technologies and crop resources

Crop and whole farm system modeling can help farmers significantly in decisionmaking for crop management options and related farm technologies, provided it is used properly and infrastructural support of the standard in developed countries is available. An example is presented by Keating et al., (2003) applying the APSIM model for farming system simulation in Australia. Examples have also been presented for tropical regions such as Asia, where related user-friendly software has been developed (Aggarwal et al. 2006a,b). Crop response to environmental conditions is a complex problem. Beside the seasonal weather, crop characteristics and management, crop yield is influenced by soil and terrain properties, fertilization (especially nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), pests and diseases pressure as well as soil cultivation. All these factors can alter with time and changing production systems and interact with farm technologies. For example, in the emerging farming systems with lower than...

Future Considerations

The USDA UVMRP is constantly reviewing its research goals and evaluating the needs expressed by the stakeholders in USDA research. Although fiscal years 2007, 2008 and 2009 saw budget reductions, the activities at UVMRP are ongoing in a manner as to consistently respond to the needs of the agricultural research community in the best possible manner.

Information demands of different income levels in poor areas of China

For technological and market information in agriculture, farmers and extension services are the basic receivers or target groups. Two bodies of the Ministry of Agriculture of China, the Department of Market Information and the Center for Agricultural and Rural Research, launched a sample survey by using their established long-term rural observation stations (Ministry of Agriculture of China 2000). tte survey focused on the current situation of farmers' markets and the technological information they receive and use. It involved 31 provinces (including Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing, the four cities under the direct jurisdiction of the central governance) and autonomous regions, tte results from this survey showed that farmers are mostly concerned with two kinds of information, i.e. (i) information on practical technology with low investment and instant profits and (ii) information on market demands for agricultural products. In 2001, the Institute for Technological...

Dealing with Potential Flooding

In general, the UK Environment Agency defines four major focal points in adapting the country to climate change (Environment Agency, 2007a). The first point is to increase the investments in flood defences. Secondly, a more strategic approach to manage the coastline is required. Organisations that are involved along the coast need to work together to take sensible, long-term decisions about the way the coasts are used. The protection of the coast from future flooding and the risk of storm surge, as well as realignment, and possibly relocating people and homes or abandoning agricultural land needs to be reconsidered. The third objective is to use water more efficiently, because due to climate change it is expected that the amount of available water will decrease. Finally, conservations and habitats need to be protected. Existing nature conservations are to be made resilient to climate change and the movement of species needs to be encouraged by managing habitats at a landscape scale.

Sources of further information and advice

Group of Professor Ruihong Zhang, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, California. Advice on the recovery of valuable products from food processing wastes can be obtained from the research group of Drs Tara H. McHugh and Zhongli Pan, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany, California).

Valuing NTFPs in Rural Development

Quantifying in economic terms the value of NTFPs and the income they can provide rural families is an important step forward for understanding the prevalent role of forest resources in rural subsistence. If NTFPs were appropriately valued, this could provide a powerful argument to governments and the private sector to alter or reverse wrong spatial planning decisions in forest landscapes of outstanding biodiversity. When planning the conversion of forests into agricultural land for subsistence reasons, it is necessary to estimate the real eco

Overview on Agriculture and Climate Interaction

How much its five main GHG sources contribute to the total of modern agriculture emissions through CH4 and N2O in the global mean as well as in a highly developed agriculture (in the case of the USA) is given in table 11.1 in relative numbers. For the USA the percentage is based on a national total of about 540 Mio t CO2-eq. in 2005 (EPA, 2007b).

The layout of green space

Developments like emancipation, individualization, multicultural society and the ageing of the population bring about changes in spatial use and the different interests involved in the layout of green space. The area covered by forest and natural environments in the Netherlands is once again on the increase, while agricultural land use is under pressure due to the demand for land for other purposes. The land based character of dairy farming is coming under pressure as a result of demands made on behalf of the abovementioned other land-use purposes. The establishment of agro-production in industrial zones is being considered as a possibility in order to be able to reduce the amount of space taken up by agriculture. This could also limit transport flows. Water management may take up more and more space during the coming years, potentially resulting in a considerable area of land being used for water storage, coupled with extensive operational management. The aim of this is to combine...

Conclusions implications for sustainable development

The fraction of total plant growth or the net primary production appropriated by humans (HANPP) is a measure widely used to assess the 'human domination of Earth's ecosystems' (Haberl et al., 2002). Currently, HANPP in western Europe (WE) amounts to 2.86 tonnes carbon capita yr, which is 72.2 of its terrestrial net primary production. This exceeds, by far, the global average of 20 (Imhoff et al., 2004). The 'ecological footprint' (EF) is an estimate of the territory required to provide resources consumed by a given population (Wackernagel et al., 2002). In 2001, the EF of central and eastern Europe (CEE) was 3.8 ha capita, and of WE 5.1 ha capita (WWF, 2004). These values also far exceed the global average of 2.2 ha capita (WWF, 2004). WE is one of the largest 'importers' of land, an expression of the net trade balance for agricultural products (van Vuuren and Bouwman, 2005). Globally, by 2050 the total EF is very likely to increase by between 70 (B2 scenario) and 300 (A1B scenario),...

Acquisition of a Comprehensive Data Set 511 Experimental Site

An experimental study has been conducted in agricultural fields at the National Agricultural Research Center (Tsukuba, Japan 36 010N, 140 070E, 25 m above sea level) from 1995 to 2002. Two flat and uniform 4-ha fields were used, which were surrounded by the similar type of cropped fields under different management conditions. The soil was a humic volcanic ash soil Andisol, which belongs to the Hydric Hapludands and is the major cultivated soil for upland crops in Japan. The field capacity and wilting point for the top 20-cm layer were estimated to be 0.44 m3 m 3 (-6kPa) and 0.275 m3m 3 ( 1.5 MPa), respectively. The mean carbon and nitrogen contents of the top-soil (0-5 cm) were estimated to be 3.7 and 0.31 , respectively. Each field has been used with the cropping pattern (soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.)-rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)-forage corn (Zea mays L.)-wheat (Triticum spp.)) for every 2 year. We mainly used the data set from 1996 to 1998 for this particular analysis. The annual...

Impact Of Climate Change

Nebraska's substantial agricultural resources are sensitive to changes in climate. Increased heat could push temperatures above the tolerance level for crops like corn, causing a decline in yields. Strained water systems could pose a significant problem for state agriculture. Most run

Options to reduce CH4 emissions

Another reduction route involves feed composition. More digestible feed and addition of extra fats to the feed are potential options to reduce the CH4 emissions due to enteric fermentation (Veen, 2001). However, for a proper functioning digestive system about 20 of the feed should consist of roughage (Veen, 2001, CVB, 2003). In the intensive dairy farming systems in the Netherlands, the percentage of roughage is very near to this percentage, so that not much room for improvement can be found here. The addition of extra fats to the feed also shows some complications. Since the BSE-crisis, animal fats are no longer allowed in feed and the addition of vegetable fats to the feed has been found to have negative effects on milk quality (protein and fat concentrations). This implies that not De Boer (2003) did a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts associated with conventional versus organic milk production systems. She showed that the impacts on acidification and eutrophication...

Penn state university

The concept of the Penn State Institutes of the Environment arose from intense interactions between Penn State's administration and faculty and remains a novel partnership between the two. It is organized under the Office of the Vice President for Research (OVPR) and is designed to position the environmental faculty to compete vigorously in this new interdisciplinary environmental science and engineering prototype. It facilitates environmental research, teaching, and outreach across eight colleges, including the University Park colleges of Agricultural Sciences, Earth and Mineral Sciences, Engineering, Health and Human Development, and the Liberal Arts, plus the Hershey College of Medicine and Harrisburg Capital College. The PSIEE promotes Penn State's interdisciplinary environmental enterprise through a wide variety of activities.

Conservation Agriculture

Techniques used to apply the principles of CA will be very different in different situations, and will vary with biophysical and system management conditions and farmer circumstances. Therefore, there are various forms of CA. Specific and compatible management components (pest and weed control tactics, nutrient management strategies, rotation crops, appropriately scaled implements, etc.) will need to be identified through adaptive research with active farmer involvement. Applying CA essentially means altering literally generations of traditional farming practices and implement use. As such, the movement towards CA-based technologies normally comprises a sequence of step-wise changes in cropping system management to improve productivity and sustainability.

Summary and concluding remarks

In summarizing all these findings, we can say that any particular type of land-use or management change does not always lead to the same result in terms of N2O emissions and that the result may change with the time horizon. Also, it strongly depends on the specific soil conditions, in particular on the balance between factors limiting and factors promoting N2O emission, and how this balance is shifted by the land-use or management change. Motivations for changing land use or farming practices are diverse, involving decisions by settlers, farmers, regulators, institutions and others, often with contrasting interests. As a consequence, arguments are plentiful. One of them should be about the effect on parameters affecting N2O emissions, especially where land-use or management change is promoted as a way of mitigating climate change by increasing CO2 sequestration.

SK Datta Introduction

Rice is one of the most important food crops of the world, feeding nearly 2.5 billion people. By the year 2020, the number of rice consumers will be almost double. It is estimated that 60 more rice needs to be produced with less land, less water, and less labor. Attacks by insect pests, sheath blight and bacterial blight, and abiotic stresses can cause yield losses in rice equivalent to 200 million tons (Table 22.1).1,2 Crop protection plays a vital and integral role in sustainable rice production. Pesticide applications worldwide are now estimated to cost approximately US 8.1 billion per annum and Japan tops the list of pesticide users (Tables 22.2 and 22.3).3 This tremendous use of pesticides has reduced the effective life span of some compounds. It has also led to serious environmental consequences and concerns for human health.4 In addition to integrated pest management (IPM), crop rotation and resistant crops through genetically engineered rice varieties would appear to be the...

Building Rural Livelihoods That Are More Resilient

As climate change has an impact on ecosystems, the livelihoods and well-being of those reliant on the functioning of those systems is clearly threatened. This vulnerability is particularly worrying because 75 percent of the 1.2 billion people who survive on less than 1 per day live and work in rural areas of developing countries. They lack the institutional and financial capacity to cope with the impacts of climate change, and they already suffer problems associated with subsistence production, such as isolated location, small farm size, informal land tenure, low levels of technology, and narrow employment options, in addition to unpredictable and uneven exposure to world markets.15 Many autonomous adaptations to climate change are already occurring in rural areas, where livelihood systems experience a number of interlocking stressors other than climate change and where the most appropriate strategies will incorporate local knowledge and take a livelihoods-first approach. These...

Meaning and Interpretation of HANPP

HANPP has been developed in the context of the debate on global ecological changes caused by humans and their activities (Vitousek et al. 1986, 1997), and it has been linked to the issue of human influence on biodiversity (Wright 1990). It has been used in ecological economics as a biophysical indicator of strong sustainability (Mar-tinez-Alier 1998 Sagoff 1995), although the initial idea that HANPP was a straightforward indicator for ecological limits (Costanza et al. 1998 Meadows et al. 1992) was proven wrong because biomass harvest can be increased without increasing HANPP (Davidson 2000 Krausmann 2001), and neither GDP nor population size is directly constrained by HANPP (Haberl and Krausmann 2001). Such decoupling of HANPP and biomass harvest requires fossil energy input into agroecosystems (Krausmann et al. 2003 Pimentel et al. 1990) and may be associated with environmentally detrimental impacts (e.g., pesticides, nitrogen leaching, and soil deterioration). Economic growth,...

Plant Growth and UV Irradiation

Soybean seeds (Glycine max L., cultivars Clark and Clark-magenta) were planted in plots (4.5 m x 2.5 m) at the USDA Agricultural Research Center (ARS), South Farm, Beltsville, MD, with a spacing between rows of 0.4 m, and a density of 35 seeds m-1. One row (4.5 m) of Clark seed was planted next to one row of Clark-magenta seed, and bordered by additional rows of soybeans to simulate field-crowding conditions and to create even sunlight exposure and shading. After germination, plants were thinned to 25 plants m-1 (see (Teramura et al., 1990) for additional information regarding the field sites). In order to reduce water or nutrient stress that can mask the response to UV-B radiation, the plants were watered daily when natural precipitation did not occur, and the plots were fertilized before planting according to recommendations from the Maryland Soil Testing Laboratory.

Some Considerations When Breeding Crops Other than Wheat

Plant breeders working in the world's rainfed environments have made steady incremental gains in yield under stress. Over the past 10 years the research investment in plant response to drought and heat has increased significantly, largely driven by improvements in technology, and an increasing awareness of the impending impacts of climate change and reduced water availability on agriculture. Much of this investment has been driven by the private sector in high value crops such as maize (Braun and Brettell 2009). Nevertheless, the investment in wheat and rice, while considerably smaller, has also increased. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of the plant stress response has gone hand-in-hand with improved understanding of the physiological response. International centers such as CIMMYT, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Drier Areas (ICARDA) and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) have extensive breeding and research programs targeting...

Land Use Climate Change And Biomass

Figure 15.4 Change in agricultural land area 1990-92 to 1991-2001 Source FAO database. Figure 15.4 Change in agricultural land area 1990-92 to 1991-2001 Source FAO database. Where did the retired agricultural land go Figure 15.5 shows the uses to which it was put in selected OECD countries. Forests, wetlands and built-land accounted for major uses of converted agricultural land, but the shares vary considerably among the OECD countries shown. 1990s (as of total agricultural land converted) Source OECD, Agri-Environmental Indicator database. 1990s (as of total agricultural land converted) Source OECD, Agri-Environmental Indicator database. With regard to biomass, there is increasing interest in OECD countries to find alternative, sustainable forms of energy as well as alternative and diverse sources of income for farmers. Projections to 2030 (by the Paris-based International Energy Agency) show that growth rates in bioenergy and materials from agriculture have been higher than for...

Informative Model Of Biological Process Of Soybean Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

The research of the efficiency of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation was conducted on the crops of the soybean of the Crimean Scientific Industrial Society Elite , Selection and Genetics Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and of some farms in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Odesa region. These soybean seeds were processed with rhizotorfin produced on the basis of tuberous bacteria cultures 629a, 634b, 646. While studying the issues of influence of climatic factors and soybean genotype on nitrogen fixation efficiency, 122 collection soybean sorts both from home collection and produced in the USA, Canada, China and countries of Eastern and Western Europe, were taken. The study of the efficiency of the pre-sowing processing of soybeans was conducted on the harvests of the primary crops as well as post hay crops and reaping crops.

Logged Over Forests and Logging Impacts

Cient number of trees to reach maturity, and then to remove these alone. Compared with monocyclic logging, fewer trees and a lower volume of timber is harvested, but the intervals between harvests are shorter. In some polycyclic systems, such as the CELOS (Centre for Agricultural Research in Surinam) system developed for Surinam, or the Tebang Pilih system advocated in Indonesia, this interval may be as short as 20 to 25 years. Volumes of wood removed are typically 20 to 30m3 hectare per coupe.

Global Results Versus Regional Projections

From Tables 12.4 and 12.5 it can be concluded that total production generally exceeds the increase in yields. This means that more land will be harvested (either due to expansion of agricultural land or due to an increase in cropping intensity). Only in the case of the Rhine Basin, the yield increase is higher than the increase in production, which implies that agricultural land will be taken out of production. This is not surprising, since the pressure of other sectors on agriculture in this part of the world is very high and the population is practically not growing anymore.

Role and Applications of GIS

Globally, GIS is applied to disciplines ranging from managing utility networks to health, archaeology and ecology. Increasingly, it is a common component of climate change assessments. The geographic aspect of GIS makes it an interesting option for application to agricultural problems and priority setting because so many of the environmental and socio-economic factors that impact agriculture or agricultural research vary greatly over regions (e.g. Benson, 1996). Typical examples would include rainfall patterns, soil variability, disease and pest distribution, market locations, crop distributions, land-use patterns and human demographics (Table 13.1).

Societal Impacts Of Sealevel Rise

Each of the five countries sharing the coasts of the Caspian Sea has suffered losses, and those losses increased until the mid-1990s. They suffer from the different impacts of sea-level rise because the territory along its coastline is neither uniformly settled nor uniformly developed economically. Economic losses in the big cities and villages have been higher than in the rural areas. More specifically, in Astrakhan Oblast (equivalent to an American state), about 10 of its agricultural land was out of production by 1995 because of sea-level rise. The coastline of the Republic of Dagestan (also part of Russia) was affected by the flooding of at least 40 factories in its cities of Makhachkala, Kaspiysk, Derbent, and Sulak. Nearly 150,000 hectares (370,000 acres) of land have been inundated, with a loss of livestock production and breeding facilities. Much of the 650-km (390-mile) Caspian coastline of Turkmenistan is made up of low-lying sandy beaches and dunes that are vulnerable to...

Individual Indicators

The concept of environmental space has been promoted by Friends of the Earth in Europe as a way of measuring sustainability and quantifying the inequity in environmental impact between the North and the South. In practical terms, environmental space is the total amount of energy, nonrenewable resources, agricultural land, and forests that each person in a given population can use without causing irreversible environmental damage or depriving future generations of the resources they will need. The total amount of environmental space therefore is limited by the carrying capacity of the earth. The concept of a fair share in environmental space is based on the premise that all people have a right to an equitable share in the earth's resources and therefore is used to highlight the discrepancy in consumption patterns between different countries, communities, and lifestyle choices (Spangenberg 1995). The Natural Capital Index (NCI) was developed as an assessment tool for the Convention on...

Communication Education and Training

There is also a requirement to form a network for filling the gap between state-of-art development and operational use in agrometeorological services. This can be done by the establishment of a Regional Meteorological Training Centre (RMTC) where agrometeorologists can enhance their information technology skills because of increasing demands on climate and agronomic data for climate analysis at the regional scale, the inevitable use of computer technologies such as simulation models and GIS, and the need for agrometeorological information sharing among countries for sustainable agriculture.

Future Trends and Issues Facing World Agriculture

Behind these different views of future world food security are different views about three broad forces that affect the world's food situation. These are (i) demand growth due to rising populations and incomes (ii) natural resource (land, water) availability and degradation of these resources and (iii) the continuing ability of agricultural research to boost productivity and yields. The extent of shifts in the aggregate consumption among agricultural products depends on how income increases are distributed among income classes. Growth in income of the poorest will mean greater demand for basic foods such as grains, pulses and potatoes as they increase their basic calorie intake. Income growth concentrated among the wealthier segments of the populations in developing countries could generate more of a shift toward Other assumptions of carrying-capacity calculations are also open to question. Typically the estimates assume that many areas that currently achieve low yields and production...

Methodological issues

The Tier 2 method follows the same method as Tier 1 but allows for incorporation of a country specific emission factor and country specific activity data. For example, a specific emission factor for a prominent treatment system based on field measurements could be incorporated under this method. The amount of sludge removed for incineration, landfills, and agricultural land should be taken into consideration.

Estimating NPP at an Ecosystem Scale based on fAPAR from Remotely Sensed Information A Case Study

An experimental study was conducted in agricultural fields at the National Agricultural Research Center (Tsukuba, Japan 36 010N, 140 070E, 25 m above sea level) and surrounding farmland areas. The size of the whole area was approximately 60 km2, where a wide range of crop fields (rice, soybean, corn, peanut, etc.) and natural vegetation areas (tree, turf grass, bush, etc.) were included.

Early Agriculture And Civilization

Other agricultural regions were making similar advances. Between 9,000 and 8,000 years ago, the distinctive package of Fertile Crescent crops arrived in the Indus River valley of western India, and locally domesticated crops like cucumbers and sesame were added to the mix. Rice-farming techniques from Southeast Asia reached the Ganges Delta region of east-central India by about 3,000 years ago. Other people elsewhere in the world were also independently discovering agriculture. In the Americas, squash was grown almost 10,000 years ago, and avocados, beans, and corn by 9,000 to 7,500 years ago. Potatoes and tomatoes were also domesticated in the Americas. In the Americas, a relatively early start in agriculture led to gradual but impressive progress. The domestication of corn (maize) was a strikingly successful example of slow plant selection by humans. Teosinte, corn's predecessor plant in the wild, had tiny ears (cobs) about an inch (2 3 cm) long. Slowly, over several thousand years,...

Globalclimatenotes.info

Dale, V.H., Houghton, R.A., Grainger, A., Lugo, A.E., and Brown, S., 1993, Emissions of greenhouse gases from tropical deforestation and subsequent uses of the land, in Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics, National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Murali, K.S. and Bhat, D.M., 2005, Biomass estimation equations for tropical deciduous and evergreen forests, International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology. 4 81-92.

Need for Savings in Environmentally Relevant Resources 551 Fertilisers

General from 100 to 200 kg ha-1 year-1, for P2O5 from 50 to 110 kg ha-1 year-1, and for K2O from 90 to 380 kg ha-1 year-1 (KTBL 2005a). For energy crop species these recommendations are only partially correct, because (e.g. in the case of whole crop cereals) not only the grain (with a high N demand) but the whole plant is also used, because the energy efficiency of the cultivation may be higher with lower fertilising rates, and because some unconventional species such as SRCs need less or even no fertiliser (Fig. 5.4). Thus, the efficient use of fertilisers in energy crop production is an ongoing object of agricultural research.

Diversity of Microbes

Several studies have investigated microbial communities under organic and conventional systems. Overall, reports on differences in bacterial communities between organic and conventional systems are not so limited (Foissner 1992 Wander et al. 1995 Yeates et al. 1997 Shannon et al. 2002 Girvan et al. 2003 Hole et al. 2005 van Diepeningen et al. 2006), but differences in fungal communities are scanty (Shannon et al. 2002 Sekiguchi et al. 2007). However, there is evidence of a general trend towards elevated bacterial (Fraser et al. 1988 Scow et al. 1994 Mader et al. 1995 Bossio et al. 1998 Gunapala and Scow 1998 Widmer et al. 2006 Melero et al. 2006 Marinari et al. 2006 Elfstrand et al. 2007 Stark et al. 2007) and fungal (Fraser et al. 1988 Yeates et al. 1997 Shannon et al. 2002 Elfstrand et al. 2007) range and abundance under organic farming systems. In a meta-analysis, Bengtsson et al. (2005) reported 30 higher species richness in organic farming. Peacock et al. (2001) reported 30-42...

Authors and Review Editors

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development China Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service USA Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service World Agroforestry Centre, ICRAF Philippines National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Magda Aparecida de Lima Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Retired) USA Consultant, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) Chile G ran St hl Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) Sweden

Reference Soil Solarization

And Phytophthora cinnamomi in South Africa. Plant Dis 70 945-950 Barbour EK, Husseini SA, Farran MT, Itani DA, Houalla RH, Hamadeh SK (2002) Soil solarization a sustainable agriculture approach to reduce microorganisms in chicken manure-treated soil. J Sustain Agric 19 95-104 Basallote-Ureba MJ, Melero-Vara JM (1993) Control of garlic white rot by soil solarization. Crop Francis CA, Poincelot RP, Bird GW (eds) (2006) Developing and extending sustainable agriculture a new social contract. Haworth Food and Agric. Prod., New York, USA, pp xxii, 367 Frank ZR, Katan J, Ben-Yephet Y (1986) Synergistic effect of metham and solarization in controlling delimited shell spots of peanut-pods. Crop Prot 5 199-202. doi 10.1016 0261-2194(86)90102-X management and sustainable agriculture. Bioprocess Solid Waste Sludge 1(1) Nasr Esfahani M (2GG7) Integration of solar-heating and soil-amendment, as effective control Nico AI, Jim nez-D az RM, Castillo P (2GG3) Solarization of soil in piles for the...

Soil Solarization and Integrated Pest Management

Soil Solarization

Integrated pest management, i.e., the combined use of multiple control methods to maintain pest damage below an economic threshold, is one of the fundaments of sustainable agriculture, as choice of pest management tactics specifically addressed to cropping systems and technical conditions optimizes performances of existing tactics and eliminates unnecessary pesticide applications (Mullen et al. 1997 Perrin 1997 Martin 2003). Soil solarization demonstrated a large suitability for integrated pest management strategies, as adaptable to most cropping systems and compatible or synergistic with a large number of chemical, biological, and cultural control methods (Stapleton and DeVay 1995 Katan 2000 Stapleton 2000). General achievement of integrated pest management and need for large spectrum control strategies led a number of researchers to investigate effects and mechanisms of the combination of solarization with almost all the available alternative tactics for the control of soilborne...

Strategic Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food Industry

Energy resources are closely linked with the development of agriculture sector. Therefore, energy is a particularly significant input in the so-called 'industrial' food and farming systems, with farm systems based on synthetic external inputs and producing for the processing or global markets (i.e., several manufacturing stages and long transport distances) (Ziesemer, 2007). Agriculture and food processing systems play an important role to increase the fossil fuel consumption and climate change because of their significant energy use and agriculture's potential to serve as a sink for the negative externalities of energy use. In food industry, energy is used not only in planting, cultivating, and harvesting the agricultural products, but also in manufacturing and transporting the inputs, such as pesticides, fertilizers, and machinery and in processing, packaging, and distribution of final products. In terms of energy consumption, the food supply chain including production, processing,...

Reference Of G N Agrios In Case Of Soil Solarization

Plant pathogens - an overview of the mechanisms involved. Mycorrhiza 6 457-4764 Badgley C, Moghtader J, Quintero E, Zakem E, Jahi-Chappell M, Aviles-Vazquez K, Samulon A, Perfecto I (2007) Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable Agric Food Syst 22 86-108 across England and Wales 1978-2003. Nature 437 S245-S248 Berry PM, Stockdale EA, Sylvester-Bradley R, Philipps L, Smith KA, Lord EI, Watson CA, Fortune S (2003) N, P and K budgets for crop rotations on nine organic farms in the UK. Soil Use Manage 19 112-118 Boer IJM (2003) Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production. enzyme activity effect of fertilization and cropping practices. Soil Biol Biochem 17 297-302 Brandt K (2007) Organic agriculture and food utilization. Proceedings of the International Conference on Organic Agriculture and Food Security, 3-5 May 2007, FAO, Italy, pp 2-30 Brandt K, M0lgaard JP (2001) Organic agriculture does it enhance or reduce the nutritional value versus...

Features of Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub Humid Tropics

Agriculture is very important for most countries in the humid and the sub-humid tropics. Take tropical Asia as an example. In tropical Asia, agriculture is a key economic sector. In 1993, ithad employed more than half of the labor force, accounting for 10-63 of the GDP in most countries of the region (IPCC, 1998). Substantial foreign exchange earnings also are derived from exports of agricultural products. Climate-sensitive crops - such as rice, other grains and cereals, vegetables, and spices - are particularly important in this region. Rice is the most important cereal crop. About 88.5 of the world's rain-fed lowland rice is cultivated in South and Southeast Asia. In almost all the countries, rice constitutes over 80 (even 98 individually) of total cereal production. Maize and wheat are the second important cereals (IPCC, 1998). In the wet equatorial climate zone, commercial agriculture is largely based on perennials, such as rubber, oil palm, bananas, liberica coffee and, to a...

Choice of emission factors

5 For example, biodiesel made from coal methanol with animal feedstocks has a non-zero fossil fuel fraction and is therefore not fully carbon neutral. Ethanol from the fermentation of agricultural products will generally be purely biogenic (carbon neutral), except in some cases, such as fossil-fuel derived methanol. Products which have undergone further chemical transformation may contain substantial amounts of fossil carbon ranging from about 5-10 percent in the fossil methanol used for biodiesel production upwards to 46 percent in ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) from fossil isobutene (ADEME DIREM, 2002). Some processes may generate biogenic by-products such as glycol or glycerine, which may then be used elsewhere.

Discovering Ecological Wisdom in Ancient Texts

Hindus, encouraged by Toynbee's praise, cite ancient Vedic prayers to Earth and Sun, Wind and Water as testimony to their tradition's ecological awareness. O. P. Dwivedi (1990), a Hindu scholar who has published extensively on this subject, quotes the ancient Laws of Manu prohibiting the pollution of lakes and rivers and threatening severe punishment to offenders. The planting of trees is commended as a religiously meritorious act in the Puranas, the Bibles of popular Hinduism. Krishishastra, India's traditional agricultural science contains practical advice on agriculture within a religious framework, linking sowing and harvesting with moon-phases and planetary movements as well as the popular Hindu festivals.

Soil Organic Matter Soil Carbon and Carbon Sequestration in Zambia

Diagram Tieridging

Soils under almost all farming systems in Zambia are low in N, P, and SOM (Stromgaard, 1984). It has been easy to detect and demonstrate evidence of N deficiency in cropped soils, but declines in SOM have been rather difficult to identify and quantify (Lungu, 1987). On the other hand, when crop residues are returned to the soil and legume cover crops are grown, they lead to increased organic C content and improved water retention. Figure 25.3 Relationship between integrated nutrient management, soil carbon sequestration, and improved farming systems. density, compared to burned or cleared land (Araki, 1993). The relationship between bulk density and C content of both infield (burned) and outfield (cleared) soils of the miombo woodland were negatively correlated. Infield soils had less and higher values of bulk density than outfield soils. The range of sequential changes in the chitemene practice fluctuated between 0.5 and 2.5 for C, and between 0.9 and 1.4 for bulk density. The C...

Major developments in agriculture

At the beginning of the twentieth century the Russian Empire was largely an agrarian peasant country. In around 1910, the urban population made up 20 percent of the total and required only 7 to 8 percent of the sown crop area to support it. Private farms with a cultivation area of more than 50 hectares provided only 5 percent of the total agricultural production of the country. More than 89 percent of agricultural land belonged to the Russian peasants (Chelintsev, 1928). The majority of the Russian population depended directly on the efficiency of their farming. The economy of the Russian Empire could be identified as The main agricultural products of the Russian Empire were cereals, which accounted for about 90 percent of the total agricultural land of the country. Among the cereal crops rye and wheat dominated, totaling more than 60 percent of the total cereal crop area. Rye was cultivated mainly for the Russian peasants' own consumption, as they preferred to eat bread made from rye...

Scaling Up Innovative Concepts into Agricultural Field Experiments

Hydrophobic protection by humified mature compost. The general beneficial effects of humified compost on farm productivity (increase of soil fertility status and structural stability) were evaluated in combination with its potential to sequester the hydrophilic organic compounds released in soil during crop growth (microbial activity and plant exudates) into the humified hydrophobic superstructures of compost. While compost is progressively applied to agricultural soils within organic farming practices, very few data are present in the literature up to now on its capacity for a net sequestration of organic carbon in soil. Soils under maize were treated with two rates of mature compost (10 and 20 ton ha-1 year-1) and their carbon sequestration capacity compared with that of traditional and minimum tillage practices. Efficient organic farming by recycling biomass into mature compost

Policies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation REDD

If deforestation remains unchecked it is likely to increase steadily due to the demands for agricultural products by growing local and global populations (Figure 8.3). Tropical developing countries are unlikely to accede to caps on their emissions and they will therefore lack a built-in incentive to reduce deforestation. Therefore special measures must be designed for REDD.

Thesis On Soil Solarization With The References 2016

FSES (Farming Systems and Environmental Studies) (1999) Fact searching and intervention, sponsored by intercooperation (mandated by SDC, Embassy of Switzerland), Bangladesh Hussain MJ, Miah MG (2004) Homestead agroforestry production and management manual. The small farmers and agroforestry development programme (SADP), GTZ and DAE, Rangpur, Bangladesh Evidences from a farming system research site. J Rural Develop XIX(1) 51-68 Miah MG, Rahman MA, Haque MM (1999) Performance of onion under reduced light levels for

The Mesopotamians Southwest Asia 3700 bce to 1600 bce

Ownership of agricultural land was divided among private individuals, temples, and the state.54 Typically, peasants rented land from a temple, which controlled it on behalf of the gods. Land under temple or state ownership was cultivated, and a portion of the produce was provided as remuneration to the different classes of state personnel.55 An important later development in Mesopotamian city-states was the extension of the concept of ownership to apply not only to land, material objects, and animals but also to other humans. The practice of slavery was pervasive. Most slaves were captured during raids into the hills flanking the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, but others were taken in the frequent scuffles between the cities.56 The concept of ownership even came to apply to the members of a married man's family. In Ur, for example, a man could avoid bankruptcy - that is, he could avoid being sold into slavery - by selling his wife or children in order to pay off his debts.57

Introduction climate and agriculture in Russia

Busting Out Brick Wall Clip Art

When analyzing the development of Soviet agriculture it should be borne in mind that Russia is comparatively poorly endowed in terms of agricultural land and climate and that, under any system of farming, agricultural productivity would be appreciably lower than, for example, that of the United States or Western Europe. Russian farming is characterized by its extreme northerly location. The center of Russia lies at roughly the same latitude as Hudson Bay, and St. Petersburg is actually at the same latitude as southern Alaska. Western European countries, although at the same latitude as some parts of Russia, have an unusually temperate climate for their latitude due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The localization of the wheat crop in the steppe and wooded steppe zones of Russia resulted in a strong division of the country into two groups of regions consumption and productive. These were officially distinguished for administrative purposes in Russia from the late nineteenth...

Ecocide And Modern Warfare

A nineteenth-century antecedent of ecocide by a warring army is exemplified in the systematic destruction of buffalo herds by the US army in order to obliterate the subsistence base of the resisting indigenous inhabitants of the region, the native North American Plains Indians. Defoliation in Vietnam, damage to marine life in the 1991 Gulf War, and destruction of agricultural land in the Horn of Africa during the Cold War, are the most prominent twentieth-century examples of the impact of the depredations of modern international industrial warfare-based conflicts with nature.24 Encouraged by state official fixations on technological solutions, deliberate, large-scale spraying of eco-toxins in Vietnam had commenced soon after the beginning of the war in the early 1960s. According to Thompson, a total of 18.8 million gallons of pesticides were sprayed over 20 per cent of the forests of South Vietnam. In one decade, 990,000 acres of prime agricultural lands were poisoned. Agent Orange,...

Global Distribution of Reservoirs

Stone Fish World Distribution

Water in irrigation reservoirs is generally not used for drinking. Thirty to forty percent of the 271 million ha of agricultural land irrigated worldwide rely on reservoirs. In other cases, water is extracted directly from rivers or from groundwater systems.

Linkages Between Agricultural And Urban Components Of The Landscape

Neuman System Model

Figure 3 The development of an agro-urban sustainable (P R 1) landscape. The town marketplace historically was closely linked to the agricultural landscape. Sustain-ability in the modern agro-urban landscape increasingly must be based on the management of suburban areas (ecotones) as natural linkages between urban and agricultural systems. Figure 3 The development of an agro-urban sustainable (P R 1) landscape. The town marketplace historically was closely linked to the agricultural landscape. Sustain-ability in the modern agro-urban landscape increasingly must be based on the management of suburban areas (ecotones) as natural linkages between urban and agricultural systems. More recently, suburban expansion has led to increased pressure on rural land used for agriculture (Lockeretz, 1988). A result of urban sprawl has been an increase in the proportion of the agrolandscape occupied by heterotrophic systems. This has serious implications regarding the conservation of biodiversity from...

Domestication of halophytes

Australia to provide fodder for sheep (Barrett-Lennard et al., 2003). Although these plants will withstand salt concentrations of more than seawater salinity in the root zone (Aslam et al., 1986), their optimal growth in the field occurs more in the 'moderately saline' to 'highly saline' range (ECe values 4-16 dS m E.G. Barrett-Lennard and M. Altman, unpublished results, 2008). Recent surveys suggest that more than 245,000 ha of salinized agricultural land are now managed in farming systems based around the use of these plants (Trewin, 2002).

Evolution Of The Global Strategy

Growing awareness of the urgency and importance of addressing the problem of biodiversity erosion on an international scale. While interventions ultimately must be at the country level, farming systems and domestic animal breeds, and the threats to their diversity and interest in accessing them, often cross national boundaries. Further, an international approach to the management of this natural capital also offers many opportunities for economies, for understanding and sharing the task, and for the development and application of methodologies. Achieving Food for All will require sustainable intensification of agriculture in many production environments. The genetic makeup of an animal is the key to how it will respond to different aspects of the total production environment, particularly those aspects related to the uses demanded of the animal, to climate, feed and water, exposure to disease, and to type of husbandry. This tenet must be accepted to achieve and maintain sustainable...

Optimization offarm technologies and water resources

It is well known that on a global scale water is probably the most limited resource for agricultural production and directly sensitive to climate variability. Water resources can therefore vary strongly from year to year and within a single year. Extreme precipitation events and floods can be as devastating as droughts (Rosenzweig et al. 2002 Chang 2002), and these extremes could increase under climate change, depending on the region. Extreme precipitation can further lead to nitrogen leaching on sandy soils, which might be accelerated under increasing climate variability in more humid regions (Wessolek and Asseng 2006) and have implications for agricultural land use and management for groundwater recharge harvesting, for example in northern Germany. As an example of medium- and high-input farming systems, irrigation is being modernised in Spain on a fairly large scale with governmental support (Beceiro, 2003 MAPA, 2005) to replace flooding by sprinkler and by other more efficient...

Surface disposal of biosolids

Agricultural land Forests Agricultural land Forests Agricultural land Forests Agricultural land Forests Human Hazard Quotient (HQ) Values 1 at the 95th Percentile of the HQ Distribution by Pathway for the Agricultural Land Application Scenario Human Hazard Quotient (HQ) Values 1 at the 95th Percentile of the HQ Distribution by Pathway for the Agricultural Land Application Scenario

Example For The Randstad Region Land Use Model

Randstad National Landscape

The model was run for two different scenarios for the period from 1996 to 2015 to explore the potential future changes of land use in the region. Two different scenarios are created based on different spatial policies. Both scenarios use the same claims for the different land use types, based upon the observed trends for the period 1989-1996. The claim for urban land uses (residential, industrial, commercial and recreational areas) increases by about 1.2 per year, while the claims for agricultural land use are expected to decrease 0.7 per year. In the base scenario, the model is run without specification of any spatial policy, which means that a certain land use will be allocated as a result of the 'preference' that the decision makers have for a certain location based on its biophysical, socio-economic, accessibility and other characteristics as well as on the competition between the land use types. The second scenario assumes a strict implementation of spatial policies aimed at the...

Crop Rotation with Allelopathic Crops to Control Weeds

Crop rotation is a system where different plants are grown in a defined sequence. The well-designed crop rotation is the basis of the success in organic farming. Continuous monoculture is unacceptable due to the increased pressure of weeds and pathogens and difficulties with maintaining soil fertility. Diversity of crops in

The Opportunity Costs of Afforestationreforestation

In land-rich countries such as Canada, Australia and the US, existing forests are generally under government control. Increases in afforestation and reforestation therefore need to take place on private land. But the question needs to be asked whether landowners would be willing to afforest or reforest in order to gain carbon credits. A study in western Canada by van Kooten et al. (2002) found that 23 per cent of farmers were not interested in planting trees under any circumstances. Conclusions were that tree planting on agricultural land cannot be justified solely on the basis of carbon uptake benefits. Non-market benefits of scenic diversity, increased wildlife habitat and water and soil conservation have a bearing on uptake (van Kooten and Eagle, 2005).

Opportunities for Increasing Soil C Sequestration

A number of agricultural land management practices have shown potential for increasing C contentin agricultural soils (Desjardins et al., 2001b). Table I summarizes some of the results reported in the literature. These data are either based on measured or modeled values. As shown by Smith et al. (2001), a range of values are associated with most management practices. This range depends on soil texture, soil taxonomy, climatic conditions, and many other factors. The practices in Table I are shown independently, however, some practices are often adopted in unison and may or may not have an additive effect. For example, a reduction in bare fallow is usually accompanied by greater use of fertilizers and sometimes the adoption of conservation tillage. McConkey et al. (1999) discuss how several interacting effects can be calculated for cropping in various soil zones on the Canadian Prairies. There are probably several other practices that have the potential to sequester C in agricultural...

Watcher Security Co Sl

Strategies for Sustaining Crop Germplasm Preservation, Enhancement, and Use. Issues in Agriculture, No. 5. Washington DC Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. 1992 62. 31. Frison EA, Collins WW, Sharrock SL. Global Programs A New Vision in Agricultural Research. Issues in Agriculture, No. 12. Washington DC Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, 1997 29.

Soil Nutrient Balance

In general, organic soils contain superior average and balanced levels of nutrients, which have indirect, beneficial effects for pest, disease and weed management (Lampkin 1999). For example, of the nine farms studied by Berry et al. (2003) seven had a positive N budget, six had a positive P budget and three had a positive K budget on the organic part of the farm compared to the conventional part. Derrick and Dumaresq (1999) found that soil in an organic farm contained higher concentrations of exchangeable potassium, calcium, sodium and lower concentrations of exchangeable molybdenum. Joo et al. (2001) found that available phosphorus values were 986 and 935 mg kg in organic and conventional farm soils, respectively. Average total phosphorus values were 2,973 mg kg in the organic fields and 1,830 mg kg in the conventional fields. Oehl et al. (2002) reported that after 21 years of organic management an adequate level of available phosphorus was maintained. Wells et al. (2000) also...

Ecoactivism Ecology as Religion

Some Neo-Buddhist and Neo-Hindu communities in the West, such as the Green Gulch Farm and the Spirit Rock Meditation Centre in California, or ISKCON, present in many countries, also have a decidedly ecological agenda they practice organic farming, take care to recycle as much as possible, and make reduction of consumption part of their religious routine.

Climate Observations By Radiometryspectrometry

Individual measurements or profiles typically take a second or less to acquire, and can be repeated as the scene changes below, allowing the parameters to be mapped in three dimensions. Satellites in high-inclination orbits cover the whole planet approximately every day, make it possible to study processes at work in large-scale weather systems, the stratospheric ozone layer, pollution in the lower layers of the atmosphere, and the 'greenhouse' gases that drive global warming. Mineralogy, vegetation (including agricultural products and some of the species in the sea), the icy cryosphere, and volcanism and its products are also accessible to sensors in space. Radar and lidar are rapidly being adopted to investigate land and ice topography, sea state, and to infer wind fields.

Factors Determining Food Shortage in the Early 21st Century

Although this reduction in grain stock use ratios and the increase in grain prices are partly caused by short term factors, such as reduced production of rice and coarse grain in the 1995 crop year in America, surplus investment funds flowing into the grain futures market, caused by a general slowdown in the economies of high income countries, and the increased price of feed grain, caused by an increase in the price of American beef due to mad cow disease in the UK. But, basically the ratios are affected by the long term factors, such as transformation in agricultural policies during the late eighties through to the nineties in both Europe and America, limitation in agricultural technology improvement, increasing scarcity in and degradation of natural resources such as soil and water, yield stagnation due to increase of cropping intensity in many developing countries, the world population explosion and the rapid increase in demand for feed grain, caused mainly by the high economic...

Past And Present Concepts Of Marginality

The concept of marginality in relation to land use varies historically. In the modern world, where local economies are affected by the existence of competitors in distant parts of the globe, the successful pursuit of agriculture depends on more than just the fluctuations of local environmental conditions. The concept of marginality in relation to modern land use therefore requires some elaboration. An area that may be marginal for wheat production may not be marginal for other cereals such as oats or barley. In relation to farming marginal is a comparative term and any particular situation can be considered as marginal only where there is a related core area where yields are greater and the risks of crop failure smaller than at the putative margin. This aspect of marginality is particularly relevant when comparing the historical and prehistoric use of land with modern farming practices. The remains of Neolithic settlements in parts of northern Europe, as in northern Norway, the...

Concentric Spheres And Polar Voids Theory Of

One of Symmes's followers, Jeremiah Reynolds, persuaded him to tour the urban areas of the northeastern United States. Despite Symmes's ill health and stage fright, he set off with Reynolds in 1825. Their traveling show, which played to enthusiastic audiences, included a wooden globe with concentric spheres inside, and other gadgets to demonstrate the theory. As Symmes's health deteriorated, Reynolds took on more of the lecturing, but he also started omitting Symmes's hollow earth idea and simply promoted a polar expedition. They parted company, and Symmes's continued alone through New England and into Canada. In 1827, he was forced to call off the tour due to ill health. He spent two years in New Jersey trying to recover, then returned to the family farm in Ohio, where he died.

Global Shore Communities

Salt Marsh Climatic Climac Community

The extent of the area of unvege-tated shore is also crucial to the regeneration of salt marshes. Where areas of reclaimed agricultural land have become reflooded due to sea-wall failure, smaller, sheltered sites have been noted as re-establishing salt marsh more readily, while larger sites more commonly revert to unvegetated tidal flats (French et al., 2000).

Research Agenda And Findings That Support The Model

Ideally, in a sustainable agriculture based on perennial grain mixtures, a significant portion of the available nitrogen should arise from one or more leguminous companion crops. Therefore, an important question is whether or not a perennial polyculture can provide sufficient nitrogen fertility via legume nitrogen fixation to compensate for removal of this nutrient in harvested seed.

Definition of Agriculture

The terms agriculture and agricultural system are used widely to encompass various aspects of the production of plant and animal material of food, fiber, and other uses. For analysts with a narrow vision, these terms are limited to the cultivation of soil and growth of plants. But for others, the terms also include financing, processing, marketing, and distribution of agricultural products farm production supply and service industries and related economic, sociological, political, environmental, and cultural characteristics of the food and fiber system (CAESS 1988). Since agriculture involves economics, technology, politics, sociology, international relations and trade, and environmental problems, in addition to biology it can be concluded that agriculture is social as much as agronomic and ecological. Taking a broad interpretation, agriculture is a system of processes that take place within a threefold environmental framework, biophysical environment, socio-political environment, and...

C sequestration in maize and wheat cropping systems

Farming alters the C cycle and management of cropping systems will determine the amount of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere as well as the potential for C sequestration in the soil. Marland et al. (2003) distinguished four sources of CO2 emissions in agricultural systems (i) plant respiration (ii) the oxidation of organic C in soils and crop residues (iii) the use of fossil fuels in agricultural machinery such as tractors, harvesters and irrigation equipment and (iv) the use of fossil fuels in the production of agricultural inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. Therefore, C sequestration in soil, C storage in crop residues and CO2 emissions from farming activities should be considered, as well as the hidden CO2 costs of energy use and C emissions for primary fuels, electricity, fertilizers, lime, pesticides, irrigation, seed production and farm machinery (Wang and Dalal, 2006), to evaluate the atmospheric CO2 mitigation capacity of different farming practices.

The References Of Climate Variability

L., Asselin, J. M. R., and Grace, B. (eds.) 1998, The Health of Our Air Toward Sustainable Agriculture in Canada, Publication 1981 E Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, pp. 98. According to United Nations estimates, approximately 23 of all forest and agricultural lands were classified as degraded over the period since World War II. Crop and livestock farmers who have sufficient access to capital and technologies should be able to adapt their farming systems to climate change. Substantial changes in their mix of crops and livestock production may be necessary, however, as considerable costs could be involved in this process because investments in learning and gaining experience with different crops or irrigation.

Anthropogenic Biomass Burning

Anthropogenic biomass burning is far more important than natural fires, which are responsible for only 10 of total biomass burning (Levine, this volume). Human-initiated fires can take many forms, including the burning of agricultural wastes, domestic fuelwood, biofuels, prescribed burning and destructive burning. Emphasis in this book has concentrated on forest fires (both natural and anthropogenic), with only a single paper devoted to industrial biofuels and domestic fuels. While much attention has focussed on the burning of forests, savannas, grasslands and agricultural land, it is important to realise that of the of wood used each year

HANPP An Introduction

Productivity on agricultural land by a factor of 2.6 from 1830 to 1995 (Krausmann 2001). Consider, for example, 1 hectare of this cropland According to Vitousek's intermediate definition (also used by Rojstaczer et al. 2001), one would find an increase in HANPP of about 2.6 because of the increase in harvest, although the NPP remaining in the ecosystem stayed near zero, because the increase in the agroecosystem's productivity was compensated for by a similar increase in harvest.

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