The Role of Morphology on Aerosol Particle Reactivity

Eva R. Garland1, Elias P. Rosen1, and Tomas Baer1'*

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599

Reaction rates of aerosol particles with gas-phase species can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on the morphology of the particle. The ozonlolysis of oleic acid in mixed particles represents a system in which morphology plays a significant role in reactivity. Particularly important is the particles' surface structure, including phase and molecular arrangement. We have investigated the ozonolysis of oleic acid adsorbed onto PSL and silica substrates, and we find that the rate of ozonolysis is dependent on the composition of the core particle. Further, we find that the oleic acid does not deposit evenly onto the core particles, instead forming islands of approximately 100 nm diameter and 20 Angstroms height for our coating conditions.

© 2009 American Chemical Society

Introduction

Many key atmospheric compounds, such high molecular weight polar organic compounds, partition preferentially into the condensed phase in the form of aerosol particles. In order to assess the atmospheric fate of these compounds, it is necessary to determine their reactivity under atmospherically relevant conditions. However, describing the reactivity of species in particles is significantly more complex than assessing gas-phase reactivity because the local environment of the particle can strongly influence reaction rates. Moreover, particles are usually complex mixtures of species that cannot be easily reduced to model systems.

The reactive uptake of a gas by a particle-phase reactant may be expressed in terms of a resistor model that depends on gas phase diffusion, particle phase diffusion, mass accomodation coefficient, and bulk and surface reactions within the particle (/). All of these terms except for gas phase diffusion can be heavily influenced by particle morphology. For example, a frozen particle would inhibit both diffusion of the condensed phase molecule to the surface of the particle and of the gas phase reactant into the bulk of the particle. Particularly important is the surface structure of the particle, since the gas phase reactant must be accomodated by the surface in order for a reaction to occur on the surface, and the gaseous reactant must penetrate the surface in order for reaction to occur in the bulk.

We focus here on the role of morphology in the ozonolysis of oleic acid particles, as this has served as a model system in the atmospheric science community for studying reactive uptake by organic aerosols. Oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid) is released into the atmosphere from meat cooking, and its dominant loss process is expected to be reaction of its double bond with ozone. Laboratory studies found that the uptake of ozone by pure oleic acid particles results in an atmospheric lifetime that is substantially shorter than observed in ambient particles (2,3). A possible explanation for this discrepancy is that oleic acid does not typically exist in pure particles in the atmosphere, and that other particulate components may influence the reactivity of oleic acid. In particular, oleic acid is one of many compounds that are simultaneously released into the atmosphere from meat cooking. This mixture of compounds contains several low volatility species that will preferentially partition into the condensed phase, either as mixed homogeneously nucleated particles or by absorption/adsorbtion onto preexisting particles.

Here, we examine how morphologies of internally mixed particles impact the rate of uptake of ozone by oleic acid. We first review studies on mixed oleic acid particles possessing a diverse range of morphologies. Then, we discuss recent experiments in our laboratory on the kinetis and morphology of oleic acid adsorbed onto core inorganic particles.

Internally Mixed Oleic Acid Particles

Mixtures of oleic acid with C12-C18 alkanoic acids represent a good model for studying the effect of morphology on oleic acid reactivity since saturated fatty acids and the monounsaturated oleic acid are structurally similar and miscible. Additionally, long chain saturated fatty acids are released along with oleic acid in meat cooking processes, and so investigations of these mixed particles represent a first step toward studying more atmospherically relevant systems. The phase and morphologies of mixed oleic acid/saturated fatty acid systems vary depending on the relative amounts of the components, and the microstructure of the mixture can also depend on sample preparation. Interestingly, multiple studies reveal that the reactivity of oleic acid is very sensitive to both the composition and method of preparation of the mixed particles.

Oleic Acid + Myristic Acid

The phase diagram of myristic acid (n-tetradecanoic acid) and oleic acid (Figure 1) indicates that at room temperature, the mixture is liquid for concentrations of myristic acid below XMa ~ 0.1, and at higher concentrations, solid myristic acid exists in equilibrium with liquid myristic acid and liquid oleic acid. The right panel of Fig. 1 shows the results of studies by Nash et al. (4) on the uptake of ozone by mixed myristic acid/oleic acid particles prepared by nebulizing a solution of myristic acid and oleic acid in isopropanol. When XMa exceeds 0.1, there is a dramatic drop in the uptake coefficient (y, defined as the fraction of collisions of ozone with oleic acid that result in a reaction). At this composition, there is only a -2% solid phase of myristic acid. In order to explain these results, Nash et al. propose that the solid myristic acid arranges itself to form a solid layer around the liquid droplet, thereby reducing the diffusion rate of ozone into the particle. This hypothesis is supported by SEM images which suggest that the particle surface is crystalline for XMa >0.1.

In a complimentary study, Knopf et. al (5) used a flow-tube reactor to simulate the reaction of mixed oleic acid/myristic acid particles. Their results are similar to those of Nash et al., showing that the uptake coefficient decreases significantly as XMA increases to the point where solid myristic acid forms. Knopf et al. also note that the method of film preparation affected the reaction rate. Films were prepared by melting and dispersing the mixture inside a glass tube and then cooling to room temperature. Films that were cooled more slowly resulted in larger crystals, and these films reacted more slowly with ozone, possibly due to their enhanced ability to trap oleic acid in the crystals. Additionally, aged films resulted in lower uptake coefficients, perhaps due to an increase in connections of the solid network over time.

liquid

Myristic Acid [wt%]

330

4.0

320 310

o

3.0

300

2.0

290

1.0

280

270

0.0

260

1 *

-

crystallization

Figure 1. Left: Phase diagram of oleic acid and myristic acid. Right: Dependence of uptake coefficient of ozone by oleic acid as a function ofXm. (Reproduced from Reference 4 by permission of the PCCP Owner Societies.)

Hearn and Smith (6) prepared mixed oleic acid/myristic acid particles by homogeneous nucleation of the vapors at temperatures of 100-150 °C, and then cooling the particles to room temperature. For XMA < 0.87, the uptake coefficient for ozone was similar to that of the pure oleic acid particles, in contrast to the results of Nash et al. However, when the particles were further cooled prior to reaction, the uptake coefficient decreased by of a factor of 12. Hearn and Smith proposed the interesting explanation that particles were initially prepared in a supercooled (liquid) state, and further cooling allowed for crystallization to occur. Infrared analysis confirmed that the supercooled particles were liquid and that the "precooled" particles were solid. Hearn and Smith note that their results are atmospherically relevant since meat cooking is generally performed at elevated temperatures.

Other Binary Oleic Acid Mixed Systems

Katrib et al. (7) investigated the ozonolysis of mixed oleic acid/stearic acid (n-octadecanoic acid) particles. They used TEM images to observe the solidification of the stearic acid into needle-like structures. As the solid phase formed, there was a significant drop in the oleic acid ozonolysis rate, which the authors attribute to oleic acid being locked into place by the stearic acid crystal structure, and thus inaccessible to the ozone.

Ziemann (8) investigated a series of mixed particles of oleic acid with dioctyl sebacate, hexadecanoic acid, and heptadecanoic acid. The liquid oleic acid/dioctyl sebacate particles reacted at a similar rate as the pure oleic acid particles. Both the oleic acid/hexadecanoic acid and oleic acid/heptadecanoic acid paricles contained solid components. The reaction of these particles with ozone was initially fast, but then slowed significantly as the reaction progressed. Ziemann attributed these slow and fast regimes to the presence of two phases: the fast regime represents the reaction of oleic acid that is accessible to the ozone, and the slow regime represents the reaction of oleic acid that is trapped in the solid microstructure.

A detailed investigation by Hearn and Smith (9) of the oleic acid/n-docosane system revealed that even transient metastable phases can significantly affect particle morphology and reactivity. They found that after a small amount of oleic acid in the mixed particles had reacted, a metastable "rotator" phase of the n-docosane formed at the surface of the particles. This highly ordered structure decreased the rate of reaction of ozone with the oleic acid by inhibiting diffusion of ozone into the particle. When particles were first cooled to 0 °C and then reheated to room temperature, cracks formed in the surface structure, and so the particles did not display such a reduced reactivity. As the concentration of docosane increased from X(docosane)=0 to X(docosane)=0.28, the presence of the rotator phase led to a consistent decrease in reactivity with increasing X(docosane) as the surface coverage of the rotator phase of docosane increased. However, when X(docosane) exceeded 0.28, the paricles existed as an external mixture with the docosane in either the rotator or triclinic phase. Diffusion of ozone through the triclinic phase is more efficient than through the rotator phase due to cracks in the triclinic phase. Thus, the reactivity of the particles reached a minimum at X(docosane)~0.28, and increased at higher mole fractions of docosane.

Multicomponent Mixtures of Oleic Acid and Other Molecules Emitted from Meat-Cooking

While studies of binary mixed systems are important for developing a fundamental understanding of how morphological factors affect reaction rates, it is also useful to investigate more atmospherically realistic systems in order to assess whether information obtained from the binary studies can be extrapoated to atmospherically relevant situations. Both Knopf et al. (10) and Hearn and Smith (//) have studied complex mixtures of compounds that are released in meat cooking. For both of these studies, the phase of the mixture was not known, but was expected to contain both solid and liquid components.

Knopf et al. used a coated flow tube to investigate the uptake of ozone by various mixtures containing up to 15 molecules released from meat cooking. They report uptake coefficients ranging from 1.6xl0"5 to 6.9x10"5, as compared to 7.9x10"4 for pure oleic acid. Hearn and Smith (11) reacted ozone with aerosol particles released from pan frying hamburger meat. The oleic acid in these particles initially reacted quickly with the ozone, but approximately 1530% of the oleic acid remained unreacted on the timescale of the experiment (5 sec with 100 ppm 03). This suggests some of the oleic acid is readily accessible to ozone, while a small amount remains trapped and therefore has a longer atmospheric lifetime.

These studies, of both binary mixtures and of more complex mixtures of oleic acid with other molecules, have demonstrated the important role of morphology in the reactivity of oleic acid particles. In particular, it has been shown in several different systems that the phase of the particle can alter the uptake coefficient of ozone by more than an order of magnitude. Even a small amount of solid in the reaction matrix can effectively trap significant amounts of the liquid oleic acid and thereby slow the reaction rate.

Oleic Acid Coatings on Inorganic Particles

In addition to forming mixed particles with other organic compounds released from meat cooking, oleic acid may condense onto dry inorganic substrates (such as dust or soot) in the atmosphere. Solid particles such as soot and dust represent a large fraction of the available surface area in the boundary layer on which low volatility organic species may condense. Despite the potential atmospheric relevance, few studies have examined the adsorption of organic species onto solid inorganic particles. Katrib et al. coated oleic acid onto polystyrene latex spheres, and monitored the change in aerodynamic diameter and density of the particles as they reacted with ozone (12). A recent study by Kwamena and Abbatt showed that the rate of PAH oxidation by ozone is faster when the PAH is bound to azaleic acid aerosols compared to phenylsiloxane oil aerosols (13).

We have investigated the reactivity and morphology of oleic acid coatings on silica and polystyrene particles. We find that both the structure of the substrate and the nature of the oleic acid coating influence the rate of ozonolysis of the oleic acid.

Experimental

Sample preparation

The core particles used in this study consisted of nonporous silica particles and polystyrene latex spheres of 1.6 micron diameter (Duke Scientific). The particles were suspended in a 50/50 water/methanol solution, and atomized with a commercial atomizer (TSI). The atomized stream passed through a heated tube and a diffusion dryer to remove the solvent. For coating experiments, particles were sent through an oven containing heated oleic acid (14).

In order to assess quantitatively the structure of the coating, we used a combination of AFM, ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry. Due to the requirement of the measurement techniques, these experiments were performed using flat substrate surfaces. A flat substrate is a good approximation for the micron-sized particles used in this study since the particles1 radius of curvature is large compared to the size of an oleic acid molecule. The similarity in our AFM results on flat surfaces and our SEM results on particles (see Results) further support this assumption. Additionally, we found that SEM images of oleic acid coatings on the flat substrates were similar to those of the coated particles.

Flat silica substrates were prepared by treating a silicon(lOO) wafer with UV-03 in a commercial instrument followed by washing with de-ionized water. Ellipsometry measurements indicate that the native Si02 coating on the silicon wafer was ~10"15 A thick after this cleaning procedure. A flat polystyrene surface was prepared by spin-coating polystyrene dissolved in toluene on a silica substrate followed by annealing for 12-24 hours at 130 °C (15).

Oleic acid was deposited on the silica and polystyrene surfaces via vapor deposition in an oven at 70 °C. The oleic acid vapor pressure at 70 °C is 3-4 x 10"5 Torr.(/4,/<5) The oleic acid was pre-heated for several minutes, and then the substrate was placed upside down on top of a beaker containing a reservoir of liquid oleic acid. A second larger inverted beaker covered the setup in order to contain the oleic acid vapor.

Kinetics Studies with Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

Particle-bound oleic acid and ozone reacted in a flow tube, and the oleic acid was monitored using an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS). Details of the set-up have been presented elsewhere (4). Briefly, coated particles were introduced into a lm long by 1.5" ID glass flow tube. Ozone, produced by an ozone generator (Pacific Ozone Technology), was injected through a V" glass tube that could be moved over the length of the flow tube to vary the interaction time between the ozone and oleic acid. Flow rates of ozone and aerosol were velocity matched to ensure laminar flow through the flow tube with stable mixing.

After traversing the flow tube, the particles entered the ATOFMS through an aerodynamic lens, which focused the particles into a narrow beam. The focused aerosol then passed through the incident beams of two 532 nm diode lasers where the vacuum aerodynamic diameter of each particle was measured. Upon arrival in the center of the instrument, a particle was first volatilized by a C02 laser (X=9.3-10^m) and subsequently ionized by a 118.5-nm pulsed VUV laser beam. This two-step laser desorption/ionization process was used to maximize the amount of organic coating vaporized and to minimize the fragmentation of the oleic acid. The resulting ions were focused into a 1 m long drift tube terminated by a multichannel electron multiplier for mass analysis.

The rate of reaction of oleic acid with ozone was calculated by monitoring the change in the integrated signal of the oleic acid molecular ion (M+ , m/z=282) as a function of ozone exposure, which is the product of the ozone concentration in the flow tube and the time of interaction between the ozone and aerosol. Prior to data collection, laser powers and temporal separation between IR and VUV firing were adjusted to maximize the intensity of the M+ peak. The molecular ion signal intensity on both core types correlated positively with the temperature of the oven containing oleic acid, indicating that the volume of oleic acid on the particle increased with increasing oleic acid vapor pressure in the oven, as expected.

Surface characterization

SEM images were taken with a Hitachi S-4700 scanning electron microscope. For the images presented here, particles were sputter-coated with 2 nm of gold prior to analysis. Images were also taken without sputter-coating, and similar surface structure was observed as for the sputter-coated samples. However, charging effects decreased the quality of the non-sputter coated images.

AFM measurements were taken with a Thermomicroscopes Autoprobe M5 AFM. Tips had a force constant of 5 N/m and a reported radius of curvature of 40 nm. Image backgrounds were flattened with AutoProbe Image software. A Visual Basic Program was written to determine the number of islands and peak heights at a variety of deposition times. This program selected for islands that were a minimum of 10 A above the background signal.

Ellipsometry data was taken with a Rudolph Research Auto EL null ellipsometer. Ellipsometry provides a measurement of the average thickness of a film based on the change in polarization of grazing incidence light, assuming the index of refraction of the coating is known. An index of refraction of 1.46 was used for all measurements. Conveniently, this is the index of refraction for both silica and for oleic acid. The index of refraction for bulk polystyrene is 1.58, and is a sharp function of orientation of the polymer chains and of film thickness (17). Since we were only concerned with the approximate thickness of the polystyrene layer, no effort was made to correct for its index of refraction.

Contact angle goniometry was performed by pipetting a drop of water onto a bare or coated silica surface. A picture of the water droplet on the surface was taken, and the angle between the surface and the droplet was measured with image analysis software.

Kinetics Results

Extensive kinetic analysis of pure oleic acid ozonolysis indicates that the reaction takes place predominately at or near the surface of the particle. Under the formalism of the resistor model for this case, the concentration of oleic acid decays exponentially with respect to its initial value (18):

where SA is the oleic acid surface area, V is the oleic acid volume, k2 is the rate constant for reaction at the suface, H is the Henry's law solubility constant for 03 in oleic acid, PQ3 is the partial pressure of ozone, and t is the elapsed reaction time. All experiments were conducted with ozone in excess, so that fitting an

exponential function to the observed decay of oleic acid signal intensity with ozone exposure yielded a pseudo-first-order rate constant, k, for the reaction of oleic acid and ozone on each inorganic core under the different coating conditions, where k=(SA/V) k2H and has the units [1/atms].

Figure 2 shows a summary of pseudo-first-order rate constants for all oleic acid ozonolysis experiments conducted on spherical polystyrene latex and silica aerosol particles (19). The averaged rate constants are clearly stratified by inorganic core type, with the reaction on polystyrene latex proceeding approximately 40% faster than on silica particles. Reaction between ozone and the inorganic cores proceeds orders of magnitude slower than the reaction with oleic acid. Therefore, we believe that the observed difference in rate constants is due to the different chemical characteristics of the two core types. Silica, possessing terminal OH groups, is hydrophilic in nature, while the polystyrene latex is hydrophobic. These disparate polarities may result in different strengths and geometries of the oleic acid/substrate interaction on the two surfaces. In particular, self-coordination between oleic acid molecules that has been hypothesized to influence its reactivity with ozone (18), and interactions with the core particle surface may disrupt this self-coordination.

Oleic Acid Vapor Pressure (Pa x 10 )

Figure 2. Psedo-first-order rate constants for oleic acid ozonolysis on coated silica (filled squares) and polystyrene latex particles (open squares). Each data point is an average of 2-6 experiments.

Interestingly, the rate constants do not change perceptibly as a function of oleic acid vapor pressure. As noted, mass spectral information indicated that more oleic acid was present on the inorganic cores as the vapor pressure of oleic acid increased in the coating oven, and Equation 1 suggests that the rate constant should vary with SA/V. Furthermore, an evenly coated particle would be expected to have a larger da than the core particle. However, velocimetry measurements showed that the aerosol aerodynamic diameter (da) did not change as the amount of coating increased. We note that da is related to the volume-equivalent diameter (d) by the formula da=d(pa/px)1/2, where pa is the density of the particle, p is unit density, and x is the shape factor, defined as the ratio of resistance drag of the particle to that of a sphere having the same volume (20). X is 1 for a spherical particle, and is greater than one for a nonspherical particle. Thus, an increase in % would result in a lower da (12). An alternate explanation for a decrease in da with increased coating would be a decrease in pa. Since the density of oleic acid is lower than the density of the two cores employed in this study, it is possible that a lower pa could be contributing to our observed decrease in da. However, our calculations suggest that the decrease in da cannot be explained by a decrease in pa alone. Although d can be calculated directly if the mobility diameter (dm) is known, standard mobility particle sizers are limited to particles smaller than those used in our study.

Coating Morphology

To examine the possible role of the shape factor and to better understand our kinetic data, we imaged both polar (silica) and nonpolar (polystyrene) particles coated with oleic acid using SEM (21). We further investigated the structure of oleic acid coated on flat surfaces of silica and polystyrene with a combination of analytical tools including AFM, ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry. We find that oleic acid forms islands on both polar silica substrates and on nonpolar polystyrene substrates.

Oleic acid coatings on particles

SEM images of 1.6 micron PSL particles both uncoated and coated with oleic acid are shown in Figure 3. The coated particles show the oleic acid covering the surface unevenly, in the form of islands. We also took SEM images of uncoated and coated silica particles, but the rough surface of the uncoated particles made it more difficult to distinguish differences in morphology between the coated and uncoated silica particles.

Figure 3. SEM images of 1.6 fjm polystyrene latex spheres uncoated (left) and coated with oleic acid (right). (Reproduced from Reference 21 by permission of the PCCP Owner Societies.)

The SEM results motivated us to investigate further the morphology of oleic acid coatings on polar (silica) and nonpolar (polystyrene) surfaces. In order to take advantage of a variety of analytical techniques, and to better quantitate the results, we performed the remainder of the experiments using flat substrates with a surface layer of Si02 or polystyrene (see Experimental).

Oleic acid coatings on silica surfaces

Ellipsometry was used to measure the average thickness of the oleic acid coating as a function of deposition time on silica substrates, and the results are shown in Figure 4. Also plotted is the contact angle of a water drop on the surface, as obtained with contact angle goniometry. We note that the thickness of the oleic acid layer increases rapidly at first and then more slowly at longer times. This is consistent with a growth model reported by Kubono et al. (22) for films involving cluster formation. Furthermore, the contact angle measurements scale with the amount of coating, indicating that the surface is becoming more hydrophobic.

AFM images of the silica substrates exposed to different amount of oleic acid are shown in Figure 5. Both images show that oleic acid forms islands on the silica surface rather than coating the surface evenly. The diameter of these islands is approximately 100 nm, a value that is an upper limit because the resolution may be limited by the tip curvature radius.

We further examined formation of islands as a function of deposition time by comparing the number of islands and peak heights at a variety of deposition

20 30

time (minutes)

Figure 4. Deposition of oleic acid on silica measured with ellipsometry (solid circles) and contact angle goniometry (open squares). All error bars represent one standard deviation of the measurements. (Reproducedfrom Reference 21 by permission of the PCCP Owner Societies.)

20 30

time (minutes)

Figure 4. Deposition of oleic acid on silica measured with ellipsometry (solid circles) and contact angle goniometry (open squares). All error bars represent one standard deviation of the measurements. (Reproducedfrom Reference 21 by permission of the PCCP Owner Societies.)

2 9 nm/div

2 9 nm/div

2 A nm/drv

2 A nm/drv

Figure 5. AFM images of oleic acid on a silica surface at a short deposition time (left) and a longer deposition time (right). The number of islands increases with deposition time, but their peak heights are similar in both images. (Reproducedfrom Reference 21 by permission of the PCCP Owner Societies.)

times. For all deposition times, the mean height of the islands is approximately 28 Â. The observed island heights using AFM of approximately 28 Â are consistent with the measured length of the oleic acid molecule, and the roughness of the silica surface may account for the small difference in values. Therefore, it is likely that the observed islands consist of a single monolayer of oleic acid molecules oriented such that their long axis is perpendicular to the substrate surface.

Oleic acid coatings on polystyrene surfaces

AFM images of the bare polystyrene surface (deposited on silica) and of oleic acid vapor-deposited on the surface are shown in Figure 6. As with the silica substrate, the AFM images show that the oleic acid is forming islands on the surface. Thus, we conclude that oleic acid forms islands when vapor-deposited onto both polar (silica) and nonpolar (polystyrene) surfaces.

Figure 6. Polystyrene spin-coated on silica (left) and oleic acid deposited on spin-coated polystyrene (right). (Reproduced from Reference 21 by permission of the PCCP Owner Societies.)

Ellipsometry measurements of oleic acid deposition on the polystyrene showed that oleic acid thickness increases with deposition time, similar to the results obtained on silica. The contact angle of water on the bare polystyrene surface is approximately 45°, which is similar to the contact angle for the highest oleic acid coating on the silica surface. As the coating of oleic acid increases on the polystyrene surface, we observe no change in the contact angle. This result demonstrates that the hydrophobicity of polystyrene and of the oleic acid islands is similar.

Discussion

Our discovery that oleic acid forms islands on both silica and polystyrene surfaces resolves both of the unexpected results mentioned in the Kinetics Section. 1) Constant kinetics over a range of coatings. As the amount of coating increases, the number of islands increases, but the surface area to volume ratio of the oleic acid coating remains constant. Thus, the kinetics should remain constant. 2) Decrease in aerodynamic diameter with increased coating. Formation of islands results in an increase in x> and so although the average diameter of the particles is increasing with coating, the aerodynamic diameter is not changing significantly.

Our results are relevant to conditions that exist in the atmosphere. It is likely that oleic acid in the atmosphere condenses onto mineral dust or soot, and the oleic acid may arrange itself in islands on these surfaces. It is also possible that surface structure of the oleic acid would be different when it is part of a large mixture of compounds present under typical atmospheric conditions, and so further studies on the morphology of more complex systems would be useful.

Several studies of oleic acid particles with widely varying chemical composition and morphologies have contributed significantly to fundamental understanding of factors that affect aerosol reactivity. It is clear from our results and those of other investigators that different particle morphologies can result in orders of magnitude difference in particle reactivity. Thus, particle morphology, in addition to chemical composition, must be considered when evaluating particle reactivity.

References

1. Worsnop, D. R.; Morris, J. W.; Shi, Q.; Davidovits, P.; Kolb, C. E. A chemical kinetic model for reactive transformations of aerosol particles. Geophysical Research Letters 2002, 29 (20).

2. Morris, J. W.; Davidovits, P.; Jayne, J. T.; Jimenez, J. L.; Shi, Q.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Barney, W. S.; Cass, G. Kinetics of submicron oleic acid aerosols with ozone: A novel aerosol mass spectrometric technique. Geophysical Research Letters 2002, 29 (9).

3. Smith, G. D.; Woods, E.; DeForest, C. L.; Baer, T.; Miller, R. E. Reactive uptake of ozone by oleic acid aerosol particles: Application of single-particle mass spectrometry to heterogeneous reaction kinetics. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2002, 106 (35), 8085-8095.

4. Nash, D. G.; Tolocka, M. P.; Baer, T. The uptake of 0-3 by myristic acid-oleic acid mixed particles: evidence for solid surface layers. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2006, 8 (38), 4468-4475.

5. Knopf, D. A.; Anthony, L. M; Bertram, A. K. Reactive uptake of 0-3 by multicomponent and multiphase mixtures containing oleic acid. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2005,109 (25), 5579-5589.

6. Hearn, J. D.; Smith, G. D. Measuring rates of reaction in supercooled organic particles with implications for atmospheric aerosol. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2005, 7(13), 2549-2551.

7. Katrib, Y.; Biskos, G.; Buseck, P. R.; Davidovits, P.; Jayne, J. T.; Mochida, M.; Wise, M. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Martin, S. T. Ozonolysis of mixed oleic-acid/stearic-acid particles: Reaction kinetics and chemical morphology. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2005, /09(48), 10910-10919.

8. Ziemann, P. J. Aerosol products, mechanisms, and kinetics of heterogeneous reactions of ozone with oleic acid in pure and mixed particles. Faraday Discussions 2005, 130, 469-490.

9. Hearn, J. D.; Smith, G. A. Ozonolysis of mixed oleic acid/n-docosane particles: The roles of phase, morphology, and metastable states. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2007, 111 (43), 11059-11065.

10. Knopf, D. A.; Anthony, L. M.; Bertram, A. K. Reactive uptake of 0-3 by multicomponent and multiphase mixtures containing oleic acid. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2005,109 (25), 5579-5589.

11. Hearn, J. D.; Smith, G. D. Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 2006, 255(1-3), 95-103.

12. Katrib, Y.; Martin, S. T.; Rudich, Y.; Davidovits, P.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R. Density changes of aerosol particles as a result of chemical reaction. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2005, 5, 275-291.

13. Kwamena, N. O. A.; Abbatt, J. P. Kinetic and product studies of the heterogeneous ozonation reactions of surface-bound polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 2006, 231.

14. Tang, I. N.; Munkelwitz, H. R. Determination of Vapor-Pressure from Droplet Evaporation Kinetics. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 1991,141 {1), 109-118.

15. Mykhaylyk, T. A.; Dmitruk, N. L.; Evans, S. D.; Hamley, I. W.; Henderson, J. R. Comparative characterisation by atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry of soft and solid thin films. Surface and Interface Analysis 2007, 39 (7), 575-581.

16. Rader, D. J.; Mcmurry, P. H.; Smith, S. Evaporation Rates of Monodisperse Organic Aerosols in the 0.02-Mu-M-Diameter to 0.2-Mu-M-Diameter Range. Aerosol Science and Technology 1987, 6 (3), 247-260.

17. Hu, X. S.; Shin, K.; Rafailovich, M.; Sokolov, J.; Stein, R.; Chan, Y.; Williams, K.; Wu, W. L.; Kolb, R. Anomalies in the optical index of refraction of spun cast polystyrene thin films. High Performance Polymers 2000,12 (4), 621-629.

18. Hearn, J. D.; Lovett, A. J.; Smith, G. D. Ozonolysis of oleic acid particles: evidence for a surface reaction and secondary reactions involving Criegee intermediates. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2005, 7 (3), 501-511.

19. Rosen, E. P.; Garland, E. R.; Baer, T. Unpublished Work, 2008.

20. Hinds, W. C. Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles; 2nd ed.; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1999.

21. Garland, E. R.; Rosen, E. P.; Baer, T. Physcial Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2008, in press.

22. Kubono, A.; Yuasa, N.; Shao, H. L.; Umemoto, S.; Okui, N. Adsorption characteristics of organic long chain molecules during physical vapor deposition. Applied Surface Science 2002, 193 (1-4), 195-203.

Chapter 3

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • Gerald
    How morphology of particuate matter affect reactivity?
    2 years ago

Post a comment