Job Vacancies in the Oil Industry

How To Get A Job On The Rigs

In this ebook you'll learn: Exactly what the oil rig jobs myth really is. This knowledge alone, should you choose to believe it, will put you ahead of all the people you have ever heard say I tried to get a job on the rigs and its almost impossible A little known fact that will expand your options. I am continually suprised about how many people dont realise this option is available to them. How to put yourself ahead of the pack. Including a detailed explanation of the following 5 points. Job training requirements and possible courses you could do. Previous experience that you could use to your advantage. An Insiders tip that will give you an advantage that no other applicants would think to do. When is the best time to apply. And where to look to find entry level jobs. What to expect. Including everything from your first day, to sleeping patterns, to how to position yourself for promotion and even an overview of the rig process. Other areas of opportunity that you may not have been aware of and where to look for them. Women on the rigs. And last but not least the #1 place for opportunity in the industry today!

How To Get A Job On The Rigs Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Matt Cinnamond
Price: $37.00

My How To Get A Job On The Rigs Review

Highly Recommended

The very first point I want to make certain that How To Get A Job On The Rigs definitely offers the greatest results.

Purchasing this e-book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Download Now

Background 2 t Definition

In defining natural gas hydrate, it is useful to clarify the term natural which has two meanings. First, the term natural is used to indicate gas hydrate occurring naturally on Earth rather than being synthesized in the laboratory or inadvertently created during industrial transportation of petroleum gas. Second, the term natural indicates hydrate containing natural gas, defined in the oil industry as the gaseous phase of petroleum (Hunt, 1996), but which really includes all gases derived from naturally occurring chemical and biochemical processes. Typically, natural gas is composed of methane often accompanied by higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases and by non-hydrocarbon gases. The

An Inconvenient Truth

The film concludes with the explanation of its title, when Gore shows how many people who deny climate change, sometimes identified as the so-called skeptics, often raise doubts with feeble arguments, sometimes because they are influenced by powerful lobbies, either oil companies or energy producers. Gore compares them to scientists who used to serve in totalitarian regimes or communist countries, who could not enjoy free speech in presenting scientific opinions. In other words, their scientific conclusions were in contradiction with the official discourse and dominant ideologies, and therefore, raised more questions than answers, and had to be silenced.

Future energy crises Peak oil

For several years, a small group of ex-oil industry geologists has forecast an imminent peak and subsequent terminal decline in the global production of conventional oil (Bentley, 2002 Campbell, 2004). This peak is expected by some to cause massive economic dislocation, with alternative and non-conventional sources being unable, at least in the short term, to 'fill the gap' (Campbell, 2004 Deffeyes, 2005 Strahan, 2007). This issue, known as 'peak oil', would have serious implications for lifestyles in wealthy countries, compounding popular fears about wider dependence on fossil fuels associated with climate change. Until recently, however, the growing public debate on peak oil has had relatively little influence on conventional policy discourse. For example, the possibility of such a peak was not even mentioned in the UK government's 2006 Energy Review (DTI, 2006c). International oil companies are frequently dismissive of the idea, while environmental non-government organisations...

What Exactly Is Global Warming

Fact Companies worldwide that are already reducing their carbon emissions are finding that cutting pollution can be economically beneficial. For example, utility companies switching to wind power are creating new jobs, boosting their economies. Using skills and ingenuity can start new industries geared toward carbon-free technology and production. Even the world's major oil companies are currently getting involved in developing renewable energy resources.

Site Field Investigation

Following completion of each boring, the borehole was sealed to the surface using a cement bentonite grout. The split-spoon sampler was cleaned after collection of each sample using a soapy water bath followed by a clean water rinse. Between boreholes, and prior to leaving the site, the drilling rig, hollow-stem augers, drilling rods, and associated drilling tools were steam-cleaned at the on-site decontamination area. The cuttings from the drilling operations were contained on site in roll off boxes for eventual treatment or disposal.

Types of Olive Mill Extraction ByProducts

The olive oil industry produces large amounts of by-products. It is estimated that for every 100 kg of treated olives 35 kg of solid waste (olive cake) and from 55 to 2001 liquid waste are produced depending on the oil extraction process. Leaves represent 5 of the weight of olives in oil extraction.

What needs to be done Policy measures to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and to encourage diversification of energy

The oil industry of the world has a particular responsibility for assisting the transition to a lower carbon economy. It needs to continue to improve the oil industry's own carbon performance in its operations use the oil industry's massive resources of skills and financial power to help other aspects of the transition, and the earliest possible development and deployment of carbon capture and storage and Governments should initiate an intensive dialogue with the global oil industry to try to develop a common understanding of the trajectory for declining oil usage that needs to be established, and to provide appropriate incentives to encourage (or, if necessary, compel) the industry to move in these key directions. Taxation of oil products already produces major income for governments, and this may increase further when carbon permits are auctioned more extensively. Part of these proceeds should be directed to supporting the development of the new energy technologies that are...

Carbon sinks and sequestration

Shore Sleipner facility, which is run by Statoil, the oil company owned and run by Norway. Statoil strips excess CO2 from gas and injects it into an aquifer 2,625 feet (800 m) below the seabed. Operational since 1996, they have injected at least 1 million tons of CO2 a year at a low cost. This offers hope for the future.

Clinton Administration

First year of his term, President Bill Clinton promised to bring justice to the practice of environmental racism as well as to work to resolve the tension regarding management of the Pacific Northwest federal forests, and yet throughout his term he would be known as the president who gave tax breaks to oil companies in the Gulf of Mexico, who no longer banned tuna that was not dolphin-safe, and who increased logging in the Tongass National Forest of Alaska.

Politics of oil conflicts

The wedlock between the industry and keepers of ill-gotten wealth is so rampant as to deserve no special treatment here. It is enough to say that states such as the US and Switzerland have become strategic recipients of slush funds from corrupt politicians and other crooks. The Iraqi situation has also shown how companies involved in the production or use of arms, as well as those engaged in the oil industry, benefit directly from systems that completely suspend even minimum concerns about basic standards of competitive bidding or any recourse to transparency. What this shows is that oil and power corrupt absolutely. It should be instructive that at a time when oil fields have become hotbeds of conflicts and insurgency, it is precisely then that oil companies make record-breaking profits. Those involved in weapons trade, deconstruction The conflicts generated by the oil sector are sometimes played out of sight in some remote oil field, away from the media glare, and are thus allowed...

The Arctics existing oil supplies

Alaska is one Arctic region where oil has been flowing for some considerable time. Although Inuits had noticed oil seepages for thousands of years, the first proper oil exploration operations got underway here only in the early years of the twentieth century and the first producing wells had begun to operate at full capacity in 1911. It was not until much later, however, that the region really caught the eye of the big oil companies. In July 1957, a Californian exploration company struck an underground reservoir that flowed at a daily rate of 900 barrels, Both the central government and the state of Alaska have also drawn very considerable tax revenues from the local oil industry. In 2005, taxes and royalties from oil production accounted for 87 per cent of the revenues that flowed into the state's general financial fund, subsidizing the provision of basic services ranging from schools to roads and enabling all Alaskans to avoid paying state income tax. The US central government also...

Diving into the deep blue sea

While both the government and oil companies are the beneficiaries of the crisis raging in the oil fields, enjoying huge profits and windfalls, both are equally vulnerable to the challenge of access to oilfields. One Nigerian activist (in private conversation) posited that the Nigerian government is a victim of disaster capitalism. The new government is caught in the web of supremacist gangs, engaged in the kidnappings of oil workers and the abductions of children and parents of politicians. Unless they take steps to look away from short-term profits and to work for the security of the environment, livelihoods and the rights of the people to live in a way that is favourable to their development (according to the 2008 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, Article 24), oil companies and governments are unlikely to continue to enjoy ongoing oil revenues. One factor that makes offshore drilling and platforms so attractive is their perceived security and the lack of accountability...

Future sources of oil

Although the most oil-rich areas of the Arctic are widely considered to be in Russia and Greenland, there are others that are also thought to be full of promise. In particular, very positive signs of oil have been discovered in an area, known as Derki, which lies on Iceland's Jan Mayen Ridge. In the summer of 2008, an Icelandic oceanographic research ship, the Arni Fridgeirsson, returned from the region after mapping around 15,000 square miles of ocean with the latest scanning technology, and found strong indications of oil in an underwater terrain that appeared to strongly resemble the North Sea. At the same time the Icelandic government has been working hard to attract investment in this region from some of the world's biggest oil companies, and in early 2009 had started to finalize the terms for its first offshore licences. Several British groups and Statoil were among those that were said to be interesting in bidding for about 100 exploration licences.

Research into Different Restoration Methods in Malaysia

Some palm oil companies along the Kin-abatangan River in Sabah, Borneo, have agreed to set aside land for restoration. Initial trials showed limited success. Starting in 2004, in an effort to identify the most successful techniques for restoration, tests began using different methods on a small plot of land. These are the methods proposed (during a field visit by the author)

An Arctic resource war

Something that plagues the entire oil industry is the sheer unreliability of statistics. What this means is that no government can be quite sure that the Arctic has reserves that could justify entering a fight. Instead it is equally likely that a small and misleading number of big discoveries, such as Goliath and Shtokman, have created a false impression about what the rest of the region offers and hugely inflated many people's expectations. Adding significantly to the costs of drilling in such a difficult environment would be the imposition of massive insurance premiums. As a later chapter points out, extracting oil in an ice-laden environment could easily lead to disaster there is a real risk that a drifting block of ice could collide with an oil rig or pipeline, inflicting serious damage on the infrastructure and causing a spillage on a massive scale.43

Unleashing global finance

The second shift is in the power of different parts of business. In the Bretton Woods period finance was tamed through direct controls on the movement of money around the world, and the major corporations in the global economy were those associated with manufacturing, in particular oil companies and car manufacturers. The regulatory rules were designed to enable manufacturers to flourish - for example the fixed exchange rate system that removed a key source of uncertainty for investors. Neoliberalism aimed to set finance free and stimulated an extraordinary expansion of global financial markets. Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, followed by other governments in response, deregulated financial markets, removing controls on the movement of money as well as on who can operate in different types of financial markets. This has had well-known consequences in terms of global volatility - the various currency crises induced by speculation, for example in Brazil, Russia and East Asia - and...

Introduction Inventory Of Bsrs Distribution Off Antarctica

And this probably has contributed to attract the interest of some commercial oil companies (the French Institute Fran aise du Petrole, the Brazilian Petrobras, the Japanese National Oil Corporation, among others) in the extensive exploration of the continental shelves around Antarctica during the early 80's. Nowadays, there is a general consensus among Antarctic researchers that petroleum likely occurs in some of the sedimentary basins both onshore and offshore, but politics has always inhibited active exploration and in particular exploitation, as recently reaffirmed at the Madrid's Conference for the Preservation of the Antarctic Environment in 1995.

What is geological storage

By the late 1990s, a number of publicly and privately funded research programmes were under way in the United States, Canada, Japan, Europe and Australia. Throughout this time, though less publicly, a number of oil companies became increasingly interested in geological storage as a mitigation option, particularly for gas fields with a high natural CO2 content such as Natuna in Indonesia, In Salah in Algeria and Gorgon in Australia. More recently, coal mining companies and electricity-generation companies have started to investigate geological storage as a mitigation option of relevance to their industry. Subsurface geological storage is possible both onshore and offshore, with offshore sites accessed through pipelines from the shore or from offshore platforms. The continental shelf and some adjacent deep-marine sedimentary basins are potential offshore storage sites, but the majority of sediments of the abyssal deep ocean floor are too thin and impermeable to be suitable for...

Search For Life In The Ice Below Vostok Station

The housing for the microbiological deep-core drilling at Vostok Station (adapted from Abizov, 2001) I - drilling section, II - microbiological section, III - entry, IV - washing space, 1 - the mouth of the borehole, 2 - the winch, 3 - drilling control, 4 - foundations of the drilling rig, 5 - table, 6 - storage box for sterile extraction of ice core samples, 7 - box for sterile ice sample analyses, 8 - working table, 9 - thermostat, 10 - hot steam pot, and 11 -water tank. Figure 7.7. The housing for the microbiological deep-core drilling at Vostok Station (adapted from Abizov, 2001) I - drilling section, II - microbiological section, III - entry, IV - washing space, 1 - the mouth of the borehole, 2 - the winch, 3 - drilling control, 4 - foundations of the drilling rig, 5 - table, 6 - storage box for sterile extraction of ice core samples, 7 - box for sterile ice sample analyses, 8 - working table, 9 - thermostat, 10 - hot steam pot, and 11 -water tank.

Drilling in the Beaufort

In recent years the environmental lobby has fought particularly hard to stop offshore drilling on Alaska's North Slope and by the end of 2008 had managed to win its battle, although some international oil companies have promised to keep fighting the wider war and continue pressing their case.

The impact of tar sands

Environmentalists have won a temporary victory in their campaign to keep oil companies out of the Beaufort Sea but they are still struggling to protect Canada's Arctic mainland. One such risk emanates from a region that lies south of the Arctic Circle, close to Lake Athabasca in Alberta.

Pipeline controversies

The most usual power source for this task is natural gas, and the oil companies that are developing Alberta know where an excellent source is to be found. Lying northwards, above the Arctic Circle, is the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, which is home to vast deposits of natural gas that could be tapped and then piped southwards to feed the energy-hungry project at Athabasca. With the exception of local gas production from the onshore Ikhil field near Inuvik, none of these deposits has as yet been developed, but there are lots of other places that energy companies have been watching with a rapacious eye, even if Shell's drive to exploit the Beaufort Sea has been temporarily checked.

Injection well technology and field operations

As pointed out earlier in this chapter, many of the technologies required for large-scale geological storage of CO2 already exist. Drilling and completion technology for injection wells in the oil and gas industry has evolved to a highly sophisticated state, such that it is now possible to drill and complete vertical and extended reach wells (including horizontal wells) in deep formations, wells with multiple completions and wells able to handle corrosive fluids. On the basis of extensive oil industry experience, the technologies for drilling, injection, stimulations and completions for CO2 injection wells exist and are being

Figure 10 Proposed integrated palm oil production and POME wastewater treatment system from

Wastes generated from the palm oil mill contain a high percentage of degradable organic material and can be converted into value-added products and chemicals. It is expected that changes in the technologies in POME treatment could lead to a substantial reduction in terms of waste discharged. On the other hand, the palm oil industry will experience a sustainable growth by addressing the excessive pollution issue through development of biowastes as alternative sources of renewable energy and valued chemicals. This in turn shall generate additional revenue for the industry. Finally, better-integrated waste management is associated with other environmental benefits such as reduction of surface waterbody and groundwater contamination, less waste of land and resources, lower air pollution, and a reduction of accelerating climate changes.

Combating climate change

The people who have most to lose from a move away from fossil fuels are the employees of the industries that profit from them. Accordingly in the 1990s, several oil companies formed theGlobal Climate Coalitionto obstruct action to combat climate change. But the evidence is now so strong that some oil companies such as BP are funding research into alternative energy, as symbolized by this flower logo.

New data on Lake Vostok

Petersburg was intended to invite as many of the scientists from AARI as possible, some of whom had been involved in studies of the Vostok Station area for 41 years, since 1957. Scientists from St. Petersburg's State Mining Institute were also invited. That institute had been in charge of deep-core drilling through the ice sheet at Vostok Station for 26 years since 1971. It was this drill, operating at a depth of 3,623 m from a drilling rig at Vostok Station, that reached a depth only 130 m from the lake itself on the opening day of the workshop. Other Russian scientific institutions involved in the studies of Vostok ice cores and the lake itself were also present. One was the Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, represented by Dr. Abizov, who identified micro-organisms deep in the ice sheet below Vostok Station and who had been involved in its study for more than 20 years. St. Petersburg's Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition had...

The impact of climate change

One such risk is that an iceberg could move at unstoppable speed towards an oil rig or any other offshore installation. As the Arctic's waters get warmer, icebergs are melting and splintering into smaller, floating segments that could collide with rigs and ships and cause immense damage. And any drilling operations that take place too close to the Arctic ice pack could also suffer the same brutal fate as the ships of some of the region's early explorers. Constantly shifting, but in a direction that is difficult to predict, these often vast ice sheets This means that many of the offshore rigs that international oil companies hope to construct in Arctic waters are at least as vulnerable to the challenges of the local climate as tankers like the Exxon Valdez. In a worst-case scenario, any collision could damage the drilling equipment and cause a spillage that would have a disastrous impact on the environment, quite apart from having serious economic repercussions. This nearly happened at...

Russias energy challenge

Russia's problem is not the size of its existing reserves, but its ability to exploit them. It is true that for many years the dramatic, even stunning, rise of Russia's oil industry seemed to pay fitting testimony to the country's potential as a key global producer. Badly neglected during the political turmoil of the early 1990s, as the Soviet Union crumbled and fell apart, and then suffering badly from the depressed barrel price of the mid-1990s, the oil sector recovered sharply in 1999 and production taxes - then industry insiders complain that the state is taking as much as 92 per cent of profits made by international ventures such as TNK-BP. So the output from TNK-BP's fields in Russia, for example, accounts for one-fifth of BP's overall global production, but only one-tenth of its profits, and its officials have long argued that the oil industry is confronted by rising costs that will make many investments in Russia quite unprofitable unless the tax regime is drastically changed....


Most of the natural gas produced is trapped in rock formations that are millions of years old and at depths much deeper than the shallow-biogenic type. The market for natural gas has developed recently, relative to the history of the oil industry. For many years, it was regarded as a nuisance because necessary pipelines did not exist and could not be justified financially. Therefore, discoveries of gas in the search for oil were abandoned, and when gas was produced as a co-product from oil wells, it was ignited and flared for safety reasons. Natural gas is now regarded as a valuable commodity and only minor amounts are flared or lost to the atmosphere. Markets have developed and demand is strong and growing. The primary transportation of natural gas is by pipeline, and because of higher prices, smaller deposits of gas can justify drilling and laying a pipeline. In addition, a rapidly-developing transportation mode for natural gas is by tanker in liquefied form. Large volumes can be...

A conflict over resources

Nonetheless, if Russia does succeed in carving out a stake in the Arctic's High North and then claiming any natural resources as its own, then its new prize would completely fail to meet the challenges that confront its energy sector. The country does not currently lack the large reserves that the Arctic might perhaps have to offer. But it does totally lack the skills and expertise to extract oil and gas from its existing offshore wells and would also be highly dependent on foreign oil companies to develop any large-scale discoveries in the Arctic region and elsewhere. Acquiring more resources in the Arctic or anywhere else would not necessarily take Russia any further forward than it stands at present. The Russians have good reason to fear the exodus of foreign investors not just in their wider economy, but also in their energy sector in particular. This is partly because their own energy companies have built up massive debts, largely by lavish spending on new pipelines and railway...

Notforprofit agencies

And natural processes across Australia. These include the use of Wilderness Action Groups, volunteering, policy development, political advocacy, committee work, election campaign work, letter-writing, postcard campaigns, protests and actions, and media work. Some NGOs, such as Greenpeace, employ spectacular and unilateral actions to get their message across. A good example is Greenpeace's call for a boycott of the Shell Oil Company, in order to pressure the company to halt its proposed dumping of an oil platform into the North Sea.

Environmental controversies

Lobby groups argue that the number and gravity of spillages in the region has been seriously underreported. 'The oil industry's claim that it can prevent any negative environmental impact from their activities is false', says one campaigner. 'Since 1990 there have been more than 2,500 acute oil spills on the Norwegian shelf. Searching, drilling and transporting oil is inherently risky and the consequences for people and nature are likely to be disastrous.'51

Sources of methane emissions from natural gas and oil infrastructure

Natural gas and oil infrastructure accounts for over 20 per cent of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Methane gas emissions occur in all sectors of the natural gas and oil industries, from drilling and production, through to processing and transmission, to distribution and even end use as a fuel. The natural gas infrastructure is composed of five major segments production, processing, transmission, storage and distribution. The oil industry CH4 emissions occur primarily from field production operations, such as venting gas from oil wells, oil storage tanks and production-related equipment. Table 13.1 provides a summary of country-specific CH4 emissions from oil and gas for 1990 and 2000 and expected emissions for 2010 for some of the largest producers.

Recent Advances in Stormwater Management and Treatment

There are many new developments in the area of stormwater management and treatment 44,45,52-61 . A useful guide for dealing with the stormwater management permit program has been developed by Barron 53 . Coppes and LeMire 54 suggest many solutions to stormwater management by combining both technology and regulations. Treatment of stormwater at airport terminals is reported by the editor of Public Works 55 , while treatment of combined stormwater and wastewater at oil company is reported by Wang 52,60 .

The lure of the Arctic

Ratification of the Convention would enhance US 'energy security' because it would grant the oil industry much greater freedom and opportunity to explore and develop the resources of American Arctic waters. This is not because the Convention necessarily bestows the United States with sovereign rights over a bigger area of continental shelf than it would otherwise enjoy Washington remains a signatory party to the 1958 Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, which potentially bestows sovereign rights over an even bigger area than the 1982 Convention. In order to claim sovereignty under the 1958 deal, a signatory state has to provide geological evidence of the reach of its continental shelf and demonstrate that the 'depth of the waters admits of the exploitation of the natural resources'.23 So in one sense, it might conceivably be in American interests to remain a member of the 1958 Convention, because rapid technological advance could bestow sovereign rights over areas of sea that...

Royal Dutchshell group

The royal dutch shell group is a major contributor to the release of greenhouse gases, and has been among the leading oil companies to publicly embrace the need for sustainable development, including the need to address climate change. It is by most measures the world's second largest oil company, with over 100,000 employees, operations in over 130 countries, 2006 production of nearly 3.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, and proven reserves of nearly 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell's 2006 income was 26.3 billion on revenue of 318 billion. Shell Transport began in 1833 with a British shopkeeper importing oriental shells, leading to an export import business importing oil. Royal Dutch Petroleum Company began producing petroleum in the Dutch East Indies. A partnership was formed in 1907, expanded rapidly, and was the main fuel supplier to the British in World War I, and the world's leading oil company by 1930. During this period, it also began That fall, Shell...

Geological Formation Sequestration

Many of the technologies required for large-scale geological storage of CO2 already exist. Because of extensive oil industry experience, the technologies for drilling, injection, stimulations, and completions for CO2 injection wells exist and are being patterned after current CO2 projects. In fact, the design of a CO2 injection well is very similar to that of a gas injection well in an oil field or natural gas storage project. Capture and storage of CO2 in geological formations provides a way to eliminate the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere by capturing it from large stationary sources, transporting it (usually by pipeline), and injecting it Geologic storage is feasible in several types of sedimentary basins such as oil fields, depleted gas fields, deep coal seams, and saline formations. Formations can also be located both on and offshore. Offshore sites are accessed through pipelines from the shore or from offshore platforms. The continental shelf and some adjacent deep-marine...

Carbon capture and storage

CCS means removing CO2 from power station flue gases and storing it in depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline aquifers or unmineable coal seams. Technically the processes of CO2 capture, transport and storage in geological structures are known to be feasible, and are already used in the oil industry to enhance oil recovery from depleted onshore fields. Scaling these up and integrating them so as to remove CO2 from large power stations (and to sequester it) appears possible, and could make a very significant contribution to cutting emissions from electricity generation. CCS significantly increases the cost and lowers the efficiency of generation, however, and the economic barriers to investment are considerable (NERA, 2004). There are also technical and legal issues to be resolved. Public funding is required so that the various kinds of CCS technology can be demonstrated at scale as quickly as possible. This will not only show if CCS is a contender for large-scale cuts in emissions,...

Drilling Technologies

Rotary drilling employs a stabilized assembly allowing control of well path inclination but no horizontal directional capability. The drilling rig must be large enough to provide rotating, push, and pull forces. The technique is used for oil and gas recovery and for installing utility lines under rivers. Low drilling fluid flow rates are used in utility line installation, where the fluid serves only to carry cuttings through the hole wall to keep it open and to lubricate the soil. High fluid flow rates are used in hydrocarbon recovery to remove cuttings from the wellbore and thereby preserve formation permeability. A large radius of curvature is required in rotary drilling to prevent failure of tubulars. The larger the tubular diameters, the larger the curve radius required to prevent failure of tubulars. Surveying tools are similar to those used for magnetic and gravitational orientation surveys. These tools work at any depth, but only in the absence of magnetic interference.

Methane emissions by oil and natural gas extraction

Production, processing, transmission, and distribution of oil and natural gas are the second largest anthropogenic methane source globally. About 88 billion m3 are released annually. In Russia and Ukraine, in 2000 an equivalent of 69.1 and 16.4 Mio t CO2, respectively, was set free. In the U.S. oil industry by petroleum systems in 2005 methane emissions were about 28 Mio t CO2-eq. (EPA, 2007b).

Does a war comparison sound dramatic

Addressed at the triple crunch of the credit crisis, high oil prices and global warming, the basics of the plan are to rein in reckless financial institutions and employ a range of fiscal tools, new measures and reforms to the tax system, such as a windfall tax on oil companies. The resources raised are then to be invested in a massive environmental transformation programme that could insulate the economy from recession, create countless new jobs and allow those countries to play their part in meeting the climate challenge. the oil companies. These companies list their fossil fuel reserves as 'proven' or 'probable'. A new category of 'un-burnable' should be introduced to fundamentally change the balance of power in the City. Instead of using vast sums of public money to bail out banks because they are considered 'too big to fail', they should be reduced in size until they are small enough to fail without hurting anyone. It is only a climate system capable of supporting human...

What futures for climate capitalism

Have to live with aspects of the management of the economy that they may be distinctly uneasy with. But the coalition more or less holds together, seeing off opposition both from more radical environmentalists who oppose the commodification of the atmosphere, as well as those with strong interests in the carboniferous form that capitalism currently takes - the coal manufacturers and some trade unions and the oil companies, in particular. companies, who retreat into modes of crisis management rather than proactive prevention. As has been the approach of some oil companies to climate change, they act on the maxim that 'the spouting whale gets harpooned', as one Exxon official put it.3 As companies that make strong claims for CSR or for carbon neutrality get more easily attacked for failing to live up to that claim, companies learn to simply keep their mouths shut.

Questions and Comments

Von Goerne The run for more and more oil causes a lot of problems, e.g. in the Middle East. We need to pull away from oil as soon as possible not only for safety concerns but also because of climate change reasons. The oil industry, making a big profit out of oil, should compensate for their contribution to climate change and its increasing impacts.

Coproduct recovery in vegetable oil processing

As stated before, vegetable wastewater can be considered as an important source of valuable products, i.e. carbohydrates, phenols, lecithin, vitamin E, sterols and proteins. Visioli et al. (1999), in view of the need for upgrading by-products at all stages of the olive oil industry, investigated different procedures for the recovery of the active components of OMWW and compared the antioxidant and biological activities of various extracts.

Examples of phytochemical extracts from plant food wastes

Different extracts obtained from wastes are already in the market or are potential candidates to be in the market soon. From the olive-oil industry wastes, extracts enriched in the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol are already prepared and marketed, as antioxidants for food preservation or as ingredients for functional foods or nutraceuticals (Fernandez-Bolanos et al., 2002). Pomegranate tannins from fruit husks (a mixture of punicalagins and other ellagitannins) can be easily prepared and introduced to the market due to the nutraceutical properties of these metabolites (Gil et al., 2000). Anthocyanin-rich extracts are prepared from grape residues produced in the wine industries. Alternatively, extracts from press-cake residues from the berry-juice industries are also being marketed and these extracts provide, in addition to pigments, an excellent source of flavonols and other phenolics ( virtual maxfun). Procyanidin extracts from grape seeds are already available in the market,...

Methods of amelioration of frozen ground for foundations

A method of thawing with water involves thawing of permafrost through boreholes into which the water is injected (Fig. 18.7a) The boreholes are spaced at intervals of 3-5 m depending on the ground percolation capacity. They are placed into the ground with the help of drilling rigs. It is advisable to use this method for ground with a percolation coefficient of more than 0.01 m day1. This method is rather expensive, but it enables preconstruc-tion thawing to be carried out within 10-12 days to a depth of more than 10 m (up to 25 m) when the construction is on rudaceous soils, especially in warm permafrost.

Nationalism in Greenland

However, there are some parts of the Arctic region, such as Greenland, Russia, and northern Canada, where Chinese oil companies would be in a position to search for and exploit any deposits. They could either bid directly to buy a stake in a field in the same way that in early 2009 Sinochem, the country's fourth-largest oil group, paid Soco International 465 million for a stake in a field in Yemen. Or they could even buy whole oil companies outright, thereby seizing in a single move all the reserves that belong to them, just as in 2004 the American company Unocal was the target of a takeover bid by a state-owned Chinese company.33 The Chinese oil industry had been quiet in 2007, but activity picked up again the following year when Sinopec, the second-biggest listed oil company on Beijing's stock exchange, purchased Tanganyika Oil, a Canadian company operating in Syria, and was said to be hunting around for more commercial bargains. Sinopec was also rumoured to be in talks with Urals...

Table 2 Environmental Regulations for Watercourse Discharge for Palm Oil Mill Effluent POME

The ponding system is comprised of a series of anaerobic, facultative, and algae (aerobic) ponds. These systems require less energy due to the absence of mechanical mixing, operation control, or monitoring. Mixing is very limited and achieved through the bubbling of gases generally this is confined to anaerobic ponds and partly facultative ponds. On the other hand, the ponding system requires a vast area to accommodate a series of ponds in order to achieve the desired characteristics for discharge. For example, in the Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill, the total length of the wastewater treatment system is about 2 km, with each pond about the size of a soccer field (Fig. 4). Only a clay lining of the ponds is needed, and they are constructed by excavating the earth. Hence, the ponding system is widely favored by the palm oil industry due to its marginal cost.

Volume Of Emissions In Carbon Black Processes

Worldwide more than 90 percent of acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) is made by way of direct ammoxidation of propylene with ammonia (NH3) and oxygen over a catalyst. This process is referred to as the SOHIO process, after the Standard Oil Company of Ohio (SOHIO). Acrylonitrile can also be manufactured by ammoxidation of propane or directly from reaction of propane with hydrogen peroxide. The propane-peroxide direct process has recently been commercialised by British Petroleum (BP) and other manufacturers. (DOE, 2000) However, process data were not readily available for production of acrylonitrile from propane feedstocks. Therefore no emission estimation methodology is provided for this process. An example of a feedstock to product process flow diagram for acrylonitrile production from propylene is provided in an Annex to Section 3.9 (Annex 3.9A). Process descriptions for acrylonitrile production are provided in Box 3.12 below.

Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act Anilca

Despite the title of ANCSA, Alaska Natives were not the only or primary beneficiaries of the legislation. Under the terms of the settlement, Alaska Native regional and village corporations received approximately 962 million dollars and 44 million acres of land. In exchange, claims over the remaining 330 million acres of land and aboriginal rights to hunt and fish were extinguished. A consortium of oil companies was permitted to build the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, which led to the development of the largest oil fields in the United States, enormous profits for the industry, and substantial revenues and royalties for the state of Alaska. The President and Congress were able to achieve what they wanted most a domestic source of oil that would counter earlier price increases for fuel and heating oil. Finally, the dreams of environmental groups for protected public lands were realized through the requirement that the Secretary of the Interior withdraw up to 80 million acres for inclusion into...

Basins Of The Campbell Plateau

Campbell Plateau

The marine mudstones and non-marine shales associated with the reservoir sands would provide a good sealing cap rock for the structures. From the studies carried out by the oil industry, maturation levels for the generation of hydrocarbons would be reached at around 2,800-3,600 m.

History Of Oil Consumption

World War II proved an immense boon to the oil industry, both American and foreign. Thousands of new engineers received on-the-job training during the war, and governments as different as those of Nazi Germany and the United Kingdom perceived the need for more oil, something made evident by the dramatic success of Blitzkrieg, the German method of lightning warfare made possible by use of the combustion engine. The Age of Oil began sometime in the 1940s, and shows no sign of retreating today.

Basis and Organization of the Effort to Identify Methane Hydrate Adjacent to Japan

To promote this program, in 1995, a Methane Hydrate Development Promotion Committee was established within JNOC. This body consisted of researchers and engineers from universities, national research institutes, oil companies, and gas companies. JNOC's Technical Research Center (TRC) has conducted collaborative studies on methane hydrate with ten private companies in Japan since 1995. In order to carry out initial drilling of at least a stratigraphic exploratory well in 1999 and to examine the possibility of the development of methane hydrate in the future, a research-industrial consortium was established. The group consists of four Japanese oil exploration companies, two service companies, three gas companies and one electric power development company. The TRC research and development project includes examination of at least six practical fields such as basic properties of methane hydrate, geotechnical modeling and logging technology, seismic survey and processing technology, drilling...

Biodiesel and bioethanol

More attention has recently been placed on electric vehicles. Depending upon the way in which the electricity to run them is produced they may well be in the longer run the most promising option for motorized vehicles. However, in a future electricity mix a considerable part will be produced from biomass, so even for electric vehicles there will be a substantial bioenergy component. A shift to both biogas and electric vehicles will have enormous economic and political consequences because such a shift will take the powerful oil companies completely out of fuel production and perhaps even out of fuel distribution. It is also not the optimal choice of most automobile companies who have all invested in other options. The biogas option would mean a dramatically increased role of farmers and natural gas companies, at the expense of the oil companies. The shift to electric vehicles would leave no role for oil companies at all. Don't be surprised if there is a substantial resistance from...

Climate for business from threat to opportunity

From the mid 1990s onwards, however, a fascinating transformation took place. Though a handful of companies continue vociferously to resist tougher forms of action, many started to sense that regulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) was on its way, and that they were better off preparing themselves to compete and survive in this new business environment. Some then learned what a smaller number of companies had already worked out - that beyond just being a question of risk management, there were in fact many good business opportunities in a carbon-constrained economy. There was a strong 'business case' for action on climate change. The US Climate Action Partnership, for example, an organisation that is 'committed to a pathway that will slow, stop and reverse the growth of US emissions while expanding the US economy'1 includes among its members companies like Alcoa, British Petroleum, Ford, General Electric and Shell, all of which were previously among the ranks of the industry lobbies...

Work In The Petroleum Industry

By the end of World War I Holmes had written three books but was still only a demonstrator at Imperial College. In 1918 the Holmeses had their first child, Norman, and a demonstrator's income was not sufficient to support the family. The Yomah Oil Company hired Holmes as chief geologist with the promise of a much larger salary. His family moved to Burma in November 1920 and settled in Yenangyaung, where Holmes spent two years frantically searching for new oil finds to save the struggling company. Loyalty to the company kept him working long after the then bankrupt company stopped paying him, and before they finally returned to England in late 1922, Norman died from severe dysentery.

Implications for the Oil and Gas Industries

The purpose of this panel is to identify implications of the papers and discussions of the past two days on the oil and gas industry. We heard that oil is being produced by unstable countries that cannot assure security of supply for a strategic commodity, and that it causes environmental degradation. However, the public needs a more balanced picture when the question of future energy supplies is being discussed. The world oil industry is meeting a huge task today. It produces around 82 million barrels a day (mn b d), with a large part of it serving the transportation sector. There are today more than 500mn vehicles on the road worldwide. Replacing oil, or substituting other sources of energy in its place, will need more than what today's technologies can provide, and at much lower cost. Gas-to-Liquids (GTL), for example, is not forecast to grow more than 500,000 b d by the end of decade. Moreover, demand for oil is not static. It is, in fact, rising by 1.5-2.0 annually. Global demand...

Implications for international shipping

Governments and businessmen have long been aware of just how much an Arctic Bridge might have to offer them. In 1957, they had watched with great interest as three icebreakers of the US coast guard became the first ships to cross the Northwest Passage, covering 4,500 miles of semi-charted water in 64 days. Twelve years later a number of Western oil companies sent a specially reinforced super tanker, the Manhattan, through the Passage to get a more accurate idea of whether it was a viable route for moving Alaskan oil from one side of the world to another. The purpose of the mission, as one of the organizers argued, was 'to gather scientific and engineering data for guidance in building a fleet of super tanker icebreakers that may turn these desert waters into teeming sea lanes'.

Mobilising the power of investors

Jeremy Leggett, with Greenpeace International at the time, was one of the first to realise this potential, and decided to focus his energies on insurance companies. His idea was to persuade them to think of climate as a serious risk, but one which they could use their financial muscle to mitigate. Insurance at that point was a 1.3 trillion industry, roughly the same size financially as the oil industry, but capable in principle of influencing many others through their investments.

Millions of Years Ago

By the 1980s, a ship funded by an international scientific consortium had begun applying techniques borrowed from the oil industry to drill sediment sequences penetrating thousands of feet into the sea floor and millions of years back in time. From these long sequences came the first complete record of the history of glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere. Several methods were used to date these much longer sequences. One technique relied on magnetic signatures carried by tiny, iron-rich minerals present both in ocean-sediment layers and in layers of basaltic rock formed from cooling lava. The magnetic patterns were initially found in the rock layers and were dated using radioactive decay methods. Then the dating scheme from the rocks on land was directly transferred to similar patterns found in the ocean sediments, providing a time scale for the glacial variations.

Nuclear power and the environment

Like the oil industry, the nuclear industry is highly subsidized. This was reinforced in the U.S. Energy Act of 2005, which allocated 13 billion in subsidies. One of the rationales given is that nuclear-generated electricity will wean Americans from dependence on oil and strengthen national security. Looking at electricity generating statistics published by the Department of Energy (DOE) refutes this fallacy. In 2005, petroleum products fueled only 3 percent of electrical consumption. The bulk of the nation's petroleum is used for transportation, not for the production of electric power. In this energy-hungry sector, gas-elec

Liquid Waste Treatment Methods

Industries that generate nonbiodegradable wastewater showing high concentrations of refractory substances (chiefly phenol-type compounds) include the pharmaceutical industry, refineries, coal-processing plants, and food-stuff manufacturing. The olive oil industry (a common activity in Mediterranean countries), in particular, generates highly contaminated effluents during different stages of mill olive oil production (washing and vegetation waters). Regarding the olive oil industry, it should always be considered that complicated treatment methods that lack profitable use of the final product are not useful, and all methods should have a control system for the material flows 38 .


The arid countryside and resulting low level of agricultural production has been highlighted as a serious problem for Afghanistan, with the rising global temperature likely to lead to further declines in farming. Since fighting began in 1978, Afghanistan has lost over 70 percent of its forests, leading to soil erosion, a decline in soil fertility, and a rise in salinization. In addition, a dramatic fall in water tables has affected the electricity production in the country, 64 percent of which comes from hydropower, with the remaining 36 percent from fossil fuels. One important hydroelectric plant is located at Sarobi on the Kabul River, and provides much of the power for the capital. Prior to the use of hydropower, there was heavy reliance on wind power, with horizontal windmills located on the tops of buildings between Herat and the Iranian frontier from as early as the 7th century c.E. These windmills were primarily used to grind grain. The sulfur industry operates around the city...


Reserves, producible at a rate equal to about 20 of existing US oil production. This discovery dramatically raised the stakes of the bargaining game for all parties. Although Native Alaskans never asserted title to the oil field itself, the oil required transportation across 700 miles of contested federal lands to reach the icefree port of Valdez. With a daily production of two million barrels at stake, the discovery would produce revenues of about 6 million per day. Because the field was located on state land, it promised billions of dollars in royalties as well as oil company profits.

WiND PowEr In ActioN

These numbers are projected to increase. Major oil companies, including BP and Shell, are investing hundreds of millions in renewable energy. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind Powering America Initiative intends, by the year 2020, to have 5 percent of the nation's electricity generated through wind power. The European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) has developed a program, Wind Force 12, to produce 12 percent of the world's electricity by wind for the year 2020. Some countries may expect wind to contribute to larger percentages of their total energy by 2010.

Turning up the heat

Many climate scientists dismiss the skeptics with a wave of the hand and return to their computer models. Most skeptics, they note, fall into one of three categories political scientists, journalists, and economists with little knowledge of climate science retired experts who are aggrieved to find their old teachings disturbed and salaried scientists with overbearing bosses to serve, such as oil companies or the governments in hock to them. If the skeptics are to be believed, the evidence for global warming and even the basic physics of the greenhouse effect are full of holes. The apparent scientific consensus exists only, they say, because it is enforced by a scientific establishment riding the gravy train, aided and abetted by politicians keen to


I have restricted the focus of this chapter to climate-related attributes of snow and ice. Many other physical properties of snow and ice are of interest, including their mechanical, electrical, hydrological, and microstructural characteristics. Important examples include bonding and shear-failure modes within mountain snowpacks, which need to be understood for avalanche mechanics, and the engineering properties of permafrost and sea ice. The mechanical strength of sea ice under compression and flexure are important design criteria for construction of marine structures (e.g., bridges, oil rigs) at high latitudes, for instance. A tremendous collection of technical reports from the U.S. Cold Regions Research

To Response

As a consequence, the attempt to decarbonise the global economy presents a huge and unprecedented challenge. The transformations involved are not easy to pursue, will not be smooth and most likely unpopular. There are plenty who would lose out from such a transformation - coal companies, miners, oil companies and exporting countries, those addicted to their cars, flying round the world or other aspects of high-consumption lifestyles, in particular. They can be expected to resist, and have already done so vociferously.

Border disputes

Gas, which it argues will be inside its territorial waters. But other countries, including Britain, take a different view. In 1986, the Foreign Office in London claimed that 'in our view Svalbard has its own continental shelf, to which the Treaty of Paris (Svalbard Treaty) applies. The extent of this shelf has not been determined'.46 London also sparked a minor diplomatic row in the summer of 2006 when it failed to invite Norway to a meeting with the United States, Russia and other member states of the European Union to discuss the future of the islands. The UK and other countries wanted their own oil companies to have equal access to Svalbard's waters in the event that the Norwegian government opened up these areas to tender.47

Black Gold

In the summer of 2008, a leading scientific research organization, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), published a report, formally known as the 'Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal', which had taken 4 years to complete and whose conclusions had been eagerly awaited, not only in the scientific world but also by many groups. The matter had once been academic, but since the late 1990s, it has started to become important for one simple reason the ice is retreating and opening the way for underwater exploration, and exploitation of resources. Although this has always promised to be an immensely complicated task, the contemporary oil industry has considerable technological expertise at its disposal. 'For a variety of reasons, the possibility of oil and gas exploration in the Arctic has become much

Oil and governments

Some experts argue that one way of meeting the threat of such price spikes is to acquire ownership of the world's remaining oil reserves if the global price of oil shoots up, then a government can arrange for a nationalized upstream company to pump oil at a faster rate, or for a distribution and marketing company to divert crude from refineries abroad to those at home. In practice this presents all sorts of problems in the Western world, governments have no direct means of making private oil companies toe the line unless they nationalize them. But this may seem a minor objection to a government that is deeply concerned about achieving 'security of supply'.

Floating City

Because the structures are constructed from recycled floating structures like oil-rigs and ships the settlement introduces a new REUSE-industry to the area. A special feature is the so-called Clockbank restaurant (Fig. 3.49), which is only accessible during low tide. The special adventure is that a visit might take a little longer than expected.


Indiana is urban, but the iron, steel, and oil companies that swell the economy of the state tend to be located in smaller cities. Indiana ranks 15th in the United States in population. The combination of a large urban population and heavy industry means that much of the state faces major challenges to protecting the environment from global warming and climate change. Educating the public is the major environmental focus. Government actions include emission reduction programs designed to reduce smog, soot, dust, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead. Air quality monitors have been placed throughout Indiana. Improving waste management is also a priority, and Indiana is concentrating on cleaning up contaminated sites, leaking underground storage tanks, spills, landfills, and open dumps. Environmental activists are pressuring the government to initiate policies promoting sustainable energy and to withdraw support for new coal-fired power plants in the state.

Environmental damage

To appease pressure groups and public opinion, most international oil companies are generally keen to minimize the environmental damage they cause when they lift oil or natural gas from the ground. Companies like British Petroleum and Royal Dutch Shell, for example, have invested huge sums of money in high-profile media campaigns that are designed to project exactly such an environmentally friendly image. Sometimes they succeed at living up to their promises because modern technology allows them to use minimal infrastructure to extract huge quantities of oil and natural gas while the surrounding countryside looks barely any different the Snow White complex at Hammerfest in Norway has been built almost entirely underwater, and most of its production facilities have been hidden from the mainland. British firms, in particular, are currently pioneering the development of 'subsea' technology that allows the exploitation of oil and gas not from above the surface, using rigs and platforms,...

The review

Another assessment chapter that generated controversy was the summary, when lead authors of other chapters did not want to allow new material, which they had not included in their respective chapters, to be added to the summary. This debate continued at an Assessment Integration Team meeting half a year later.82 A specific issue was a table of economic impacts on industrial development. The lead author of the summary chapter expressed a clear wish to see these issues treated in the assessment and similar requests were voiced about lessons from the oil industry and the military. However, this was not covered in the relevant assessment chapter where they could have been brought up, i.e. the chapter on infrastructure, which created problems when the summary lead author wanted to bring them into the summary. This discussion illustrates the tension between the wish for credibility, based on the scientific independence of lead authors, and the wish of assessment leaders to cover aspects...

Future Trends

From the preceding section, several potential and emerging technologies for POME wastewater treatment system can be integrated into the palm oil mill operation (Fig. 10). The strategy is to combine the existing wastewater treatment system with the production of appropriate bioproducts, towards zero discharge for the palm oil industry 17 . In anaerobic treatment, methanogenic activity will be suppressed or inhibited in order to extract the organic acids produced. This in turn shall lower the greenhouse gases (methane and carbon dioxide) emissions from the anaerobic digestion, thus reducing the effects of global warming. Further separation and purification processes are needed before organic acids can be utilized as a substrate for

State initiatives

Public private partnerships, such as the California Fuel Cell Partnership, currently provide input about both vehicle and infrastructure development to the Hydrogen Highway Project. Partnership members include many major domestic and international auto manufacturers, energy and oil companies, and energy and environmental agencies (CAFP, 2005). This collaboration between the automotive industry, energy suppliers and government agencies has already borne fruit currently there are 22 hydrogen-fueling stations in operation and 143 fuel-cell vehicles in California (CHH, 2004). The encouraging results of this cooperation illustrate that business and environmental goals can be fulfilled simultaneously.

Progress in Iceland

At that time, the prevailing view in my country was that we could only use geothermal resources for heating houses where we saw white steam coming up from the ground and, perhaps in some fortunate places, build a few swimming pools to create a leisure area for the people. Now we are drilling as deep as 3 km, and have recently enacted policy that calls for drilling down to 5 km one of the fortuitous benefits that we have obtained from the oil industry is part of the drilling process that will enable this. Developing and demonstrating the capability to drill down to 5 km will completely transform the potential for geothermal energy all around the world.


Relatively underdeveloped, and with large parts of the country having only irregular use of electricity, if at all, Myanmar has a very low rate of carbon dioxide emissions per capita, at 0.1 metric tons per person in 1990, and rising gradually to 0.21 metric tons per person in 2004. This is in spite of the tropical climate, and the heavy use of air conditioners in the cities. Myanmar has its own oil industry, with petrol and gas used to generate electricity. Approximately 83.3 percent of the country's electricity comes from fossil fuels, with the remainder from hydropower. As a result, liquid fuels make up 57 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, and gaseous fuels make up another 39 percent. The remainder comes from solid fuels and from the manufacture of cement. About 36 percent of the carbon dioxide emissions in the country come from transportation, 30 percent from the generation of electricity, and 15 percent from manufacturing and construction.


Few, except those who for political or economic reasons (such as representatives of the big oil companies and the politicians that they have bought off ), dispute that humanity is rapidly changing the composition of the atmosphere (although there is still great debate about whether those changes are causing a rise in mean global temperature, also known as global warming). The carbon dioxide is largely coming from automobiles and human industry. These anthropogenic, or human-induced, sources of gas go beyond carbon dioxide There are also methane, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, the levels of which have been rising dramatically since the Indus

The real danger

The strength of American fears over the possibility of political manipulation by Beijing became clear in 2004, when the Chinese National Overseas Oil Company made a bid to buy the American organization, Unocal. This met with stiff opposition in Congress, where the Californian Representative Richard Pombo stated quite simply that the Chinese bid would have 'disastrous consequences for our economy and national security'.31 The same fears have been voiced by Brad Setzer of the United States Council for Foreign Relations, who claimed in November 2007 that 'the rise of sovereign wealth funds represents a shift in power from the US to a group of countries that aren't transparent, aren't democracies and aren't necessarily allies'.32 There was similar unease in Britain in the summer of 2008, when Chinese investors bought a 3 per cent stake in Barclays Bank.33 February, the state-owned China Development Bank agreed to lend 10 billion to the Brazilian energy giant Petrobras in exchange for a...

Wireline logging

During the last thirty years, in situ measurements made in drill holes have been increasingly used for scientific applications in marine geology and geophysics, particularly in deep sea applications. Used mostly by the oil industry to map promising formations for exploration and production of hydrocarbons, a variety of instruments have been developed that can be lowered down drill holes to extract information about the subsurface geology. They are essential for measurements like temperature, for example, that must be made in situ. During the previous decade, this class of measurements using sophisticated electronic instruments has become common and is generally referred to as downhole logging. With this technique, an instrument is lowered down a hole relatively soon after it is drilled and information taken from inside the hole is sent to the surface along a high-speed communications cable or wireline. A major advantage of logging methods is that they collect data continuously over...

National pride

This was not the first time that the two countries had clashed over the question of who ruled Arctic waters. In the late summer of 1969, the American ship, the SS Manhattan, completed a journey through the Northwest Passage, moving at a slow, even agonizing pace from the Beaufort Sea to Davis Strait.7 Because this was the first time anyone had sailed the whole way down the Passage since the end of the Second World War, and because only ten such voyages had in any case ever been previously made, the crew were doubtlessly overjoyed at their achievement, even if their sponsors, a number of American oil companies, were disappointed by the amount of time, effort and money the journey had taken.8 But the passage of the SS Manhattan infuriated and outraged many Canadians. Two Inuit hunters even tried to ram home the message by driving their dogsleds into the path of the passing ship, forcing it to make a sudden halt before they were forcibly removed and the Manhattan could continue its...

Case study

Oil companies were not required to plan to withstand storm surges that resulted from Hurricane Katrina. However, in 2007, a buyout program to create a buffer around the facility was approved to minimize the threat of future spills. In August 2009, the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality determined that the area's shallow groundwater was unaffected by the spill and concluded that the area impacted by the spill had been remediated to acceptable levels.

The Exxon Valdez

The initial response to the spill was impeded by a lack of preparation, as well as communication and coordination problems. The Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, the consortium of seven oil companies that built the Alaska pipeline, had responsibility for first response to the spill. Later analysis indicates, however, that Alyeska employees were poorly trained and lacked sufficient equipment to respond to a spill of this magnitude. Contrary to Alyeska's own planning documents, the company had little equipment on hand to handle even a modest spill. Over 14 h elapsed before any containment or cleanup efforts began, and even 18 h after the accident no boom had been placed around the ship to contain the spill. A barge that was supposed

Concluding Remarks

Despite some optimistic forecasts produced by authoritative European experts, there is currently little evidence that fuel economy improvements will persist after 2009. As climate change is now an important issue worldwide, one can reasonably expect that some autonomous improvements will take place, but they will not be remarkable under business as usual conditions. To accomplish further progress will probably require a combination of regulations (for the automotive and oil industry to be legally committed) and economic instruments (for consumers to prefer more

The Problem

What about global warming If the government fails to do anything about global warming, what am I supposed to do about it There are lots of ways for me as an individual to fight global warming. I can protest against bad government policies and vote for candidates who will make the government fulfill its moral obligations. I can support private organizations that fight global warming, such as the Pew Foundation,11 or boycott companies that contribute too much to global warming, such as most oil companies. Each of these cases is interesting, but they all differ. To simplify our discussion, we need to pick one act as our focus.

The Gasbased Economy

A number of states in the United States, principally California, New York, and Wisconsin, have already enacted legislation requiring some external costs to be taken into account when proposing new energy generating activities. Fuller external accounting that include costs to society, economies, transportation infrastructure, environment, health, etc., rather than the bottomline oil company accounting, all tend to favor gas over oil-based fuels. Bringing market prices in line with energy's hidden costs will be one of the great challenges of the coming decades.

Energy Units

The basic energy unit is the erg, defined as the work done by a force of 1 dyne moving a distance of 1 cm. The dyne is the force which, acting on a mass of 1 gram produce an acceleration of 1 cm per sec. A joule (J) is 10 ergs, and is also defined as the kinetic energy of a mass of 1 kg moving at 1 metre per second. Since this is very small for practical purposes, large multiples of the joule are frequently used, particularly the megajoule (MJ) (10(6)J), the gigajoule (GJ) (10(9)J), the pentajoule (10(15)J) and the exajoule (EJ) (10 (18) J). In the oil industry, the unit is the tonne of oil equivalent (TOE). A tonne is 1000 kg. 1 EJ 22.7 TOE, or 1 TOE 44 GJ. Also, 7.3 barrels 12 tonnes of oil. One barrel of oil per day is 50 TOE per year. Rates of heat production are measured in watts. A watt is the rate of working of one joule per second, so the watt has 'per second' built into it. A kilowatt (kW) is 1000 watts, a megawatt (MW) is 10 (6) watts, a gigawatt (GW) is 10 (9) watts and a...

World Bank

The GGFR partnership, a World Bank-led initiative, facilitates and supports national efforts to use currently flared gas by promoting effective regulatory frameworks and tackling the constraints on gas utilization, such as insufficient infrastructure and poor access to local and international energy markets, particularly in developing countries. Launched at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in August 2002, GGFR brings around the table representatives of governments of oil-producing countries, state-owned companies, and major international oil companies, so that together they can overcome the barriers to reducing gas flaring by sharing global best practices and implementing country-specific programs.

LAND usE Alteration

The oil industry has worked to reduce and eliminate traces of crude oil in the sea from offshore production facilities. The oil industry has worked to reduce and eliminate traces of crude oil in the sea from offshore production facilities. Oil is transported for refining by truck, pipeline, and tanker. Tankers can be of enormous size, holding over 2 million barrels of oil. As a comparison, an onshore discovery of one million barrels would be considered respectable today in the United States onshore setting. Albeit small, it might require 20 years to deplete. Although the threat of a supertanker breakup is very low, if such an event were to occur, it would be a concern in the climate change debate. The ocean's plankton create oxygen and its destruction through toxicity or smothering from the oil will kill the plankton. Although a supertanker spill would be a huge scale environmental catastrophe, many can argue that the ocean's massive volumes and surface area reduce such an event to a...

Climate Change

New raw materials, often only to be found outside Europe, therefore acquired a significance which was only to become evident in the later period of imperialism. Thus oil already attracted the attention of indigenous Yankees as a convenient fuel for lamps, but rapidly acquired new uses with chemical processing. In 1859 a mere two thousand barrels had been produced, but by 1874 almost 11 million barrels (mostly from Pennsylvania and New York) were already enabling John D. Rockefeller to establish a stranglehold over the new industry by the control of its transport through his Standard Oil Company.


Residents who blamed oil, chemical, and utility companies for global warming and damage to the states' wetlands that occurred in the wake of Hurricane Katrina filed a class-action lawsuit in Mississippi and Louisiana in 2005. Plaintiffs accused the companies, which included Columbia Gulf Transmission, Shell Pipeline, and Exxon Mobil Oil of precipitating global warming by destroying the natural protection that wetlands would have provided, had the companies not dredged pipeline canals in the area. An additional suit charged oil companies with responsibility for increasing the area's vulnerability to global warming and destroying property as a result of hazardous emissions released during the storm.

Correlation of rocks

Most sedimentary rocks lie buried beneath the surface layer on the Earth, and geologists and oil companies interested in correlating different rock units have to rely on data taken from tiny drill holes. The oil companies in particular have developed many clever ways of correlating rocks with distinctive (oil rich) properties. one common method is to use well logs, where the electrical and physical properties of the rocks on the side of the drill hole are measured, and distinctive patterns between different wells are correlated. This helps the oil companies in relocating specific horizons that may be petroleum-rich.

The Energy Crisis

This is satisfied by a source such as water, the fuel for fusion reactors, that is so plentiful compared with our needs that it will never be exhausted, and also to a lesser extent uranium. Coal and oil are non-renewable because there are limited amounts present in the earth. However the reserves of oil and coal are not like the gold in the Bank of England, where the number of bars can be counted. The amount we can extract depends on the price we are prepared to pay for it. Oilfields, for example, have very different extraction costs. In the Middle East, oil gushes out freely and is cheap and readily available. It is much more expensive to extract it from the North Sea, as oil rigs have to be built in deep water. This consideration applies even more strongly to minerals such as those containing uranium. Rich ores are relatively rare, while poorer ones are very widespread. It is even possible to extract uranium from sea water.

Signs of Progress

Democrats achieved one of their major climate and energy goals with the passage of the Energy Independence and Security Act in December 2007. Among its major provisions, the act sets higher fuel economy standards for vehicles in the United States for the first time in twenty-two years, requires a fivefold increase in production of renewable fuels by 2022, and establishes new efficiency requirements for household appliances and government buildings, seeking to phase out the incandescent light bulb within the next decade. Nevertheless, in order to pass in the Senate and avoid a presidential veto, the bill was watered down, losing its initial 13 billion tax increase on oil companies designed to subsidize solar, wind, and geothermal energy projects as well as requirements for greater use of renewable resources in national power generation.

Beaten by all sides

One other way for oil companies to attempt to douse energy conflicts is by ensuring local ownership of (or buying off) the local community. However, the provision of school blocks and clinics has not been effective in resolving conflicts. One community activist made a poignant remark when he said that he would rather stay healthy than endure pollution and stay sick in a well-equipped hospital. Communities affected by oil extraction in Africa, Asia, Latin America and elsewhere across the world are asking questions. A web of resistance is building up. A movement is growing demanding that crude oil be left in the ground as a technology-free, direct and effective means of carbon sequestration and as a real contribution towards fighting climate chaos. They want to know why oil should still be drilled in their land when the process and the resource are poisoning their lands, waters and atmosphere. They want to know why they must live with the oil spills, gas flares and the moral, economic...

Environmental Issues

The extraction of nonrenewable resources from Arctic sites has created localized and widespread problems. Concern for migratory caribou has been central to conservation issues and oil and gas exploration in Alaska and the Western Canadian Arctic. Seismic exploration surveys, the building of winter haul roads, the installation of exploratory drilling rigs, and the opening of oil and gas fields cannot but have adverse effects on Arctic wildlife, probably in that order of relative importance. In some instances, environmental damage has been exaggerated, as for the unsightly effects of exploratory oil rigs on tundra vegetation and the permafrost. In other situations, occurrences and predictions of environmental catastrophes must not be ignored (e.g., a burst oil pipeline near a major river). Even though mining has been carried out in the Arctic for decades, it has been highly localized until recently. Now, huge diamond mines have been established in Arctic Canada, and the effects of the...


Alleyne, Our Bubbling Budding Oil Industry, Bajan and South Caribbean (v.358, 1983) Arthur Lobbies for Smaller States, Jamaica Gleaner (September 26, 2007) Tony Best, Arthur Cut Greenhouse Gas, Nation Bridgetown (September 25, 2007) Climate Caution, Nation Bridgetown (July 18, 2007) CTO to Examine Climate Change, Nation Bridgetown (September 17, 2007) R.B. Potter, Industrial Development and Urban Planning in Barbados, Geography (v.66 3, 1981).