Ocean Forecasting in the 21st Century From the Early Days to Tomorrows Challenges

Andreas Schiller

Abstract This article provides a brief introduction to the history of oceanography with a focus on elements that laid the scientific foundation of ocean forecasting, i.e. ocean observations, ocean general circulation models and data assimilation tools. It then describes the scientific achievements of the first phase of internationally coordinated efforts in the development of global and basin-scale operational ocean forecasting systems during the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (19972008). This is followed by a description of the challenges in ocean forecasting in the twenty-first century and a summary and conclusion.

This article represents an introduction to the modelling, data assimilation and observing system topics discussed in more detail in the subsequent chapters of this book.

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