International Initiatives

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There are a number of regional and international initiatives for promotion and development of ocean energy.

Table 26.1 Government policy instruments for ocean energy

Policy Instrument


Example Description


Legislated Targets, A s pi rational Targets and Forecasts

United Kingdom

Ireland Portugal

3% of UK electricity from ocean energy by 2020 500 MW by 2020 550 MW by 2020

Government Funding

R&D programs/ grants

United States

US DoE Hydrokinetic Program (capital grants for R & D and market acceleration)

Prototype Deployment Capital Grants

United Kingdom New Zealand

Marine Renewables Proving Fund (MRPF) and Marine Energy Deployment Fund (MEDF)

Project Deployment Capital Grants

United Kingdom

Marine Renewables Deployment Fund (MRDF)

Production Incentives


Guaranteed price (in $/kWh or equivalent) for ocean energy-generated electricity

Ken enables Obligations

United Kingdom

Tradable certificates (in $/MWh or equivalent) for ocean energy-generated electricity



e.g., Sal tire Prize

Infrastructure Developments

National Marine Energy Centres

United States

Two centres established (Oregon/Washington for wave/tidal & Hawaii for OTFC)

Marine Energy Testing Centres

Most W, European and N. American countries

e.g., European Marine Energy Centre; there are c.14 centres under development worldwide

Offshore Hubs

United Kingdom

e.g.. Wave Hub, eonncction infrastructure for devices

Other Regulatory Interventions


United Kingdom

National standards for ocean energy (as well as participation in development of international standards)

Permitting Regimes

United Kingdom

Crown Estate competitive lender for Pentland Firth licences

Space/resource allocation regimes

United States

FERC/MMS permitting regime in US Outer Continental Shelf Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement (OES-IA)

The OES-IA is an inter-governmental initiative under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) in Paris. It presently has 16 member governments, who send representatives to the Executive Committee (ExCo). Australia joined the OES-IA in 2009 and Korea, South Africa and France are due to join early in 2010.

The OES-IA ExCo meets twice a year to lead work programs, which will promote and accelerate the uptake of ocean energy. The Committee commissions Annexes, which are separate optional work programs, in which national governments can choose to participate, on specific issues. Presently, there are Annexes on:

1. Open-sea testing protocols

2. Grid connection of marine energy converters

3. Environmental impacts of marine energy converters

The OES-IA publishes newsletters and annual reports as well as technical reports based the Annex work programs. These are all publicly available at http://www. IEC's Technical Committee 114

The International Electrotechnical Commission, based in Geneva, has set standards for electrical, electronic and electromechanical equipment for over 100 years (

In 2007 it decided to establish a Technical Committee (TC114) to establish standards for wave, tidal and other water current energy converters. TC114 currently comprises representatives for 16 country governments and is developing technical specifications, the precursors for standards, on the following subjects:

1. Marine energy terminology

2. Wave Device performance

3. Tidal stream device performance

4. Design criteria for marine energy converters

5. Wave and tidal energy resource characterization and assessment

The first of these technical specifications is likely to be published in mid-late 2012.

26.7.4 European Initiatives EquiMar and Predecessors

The Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact (EquMar) is a European Commission-funded consortium program with 22 partners, ranging from device developers to university researchers ( The program is led by the University of Edinburgh. The purpose of EquiMar is to deliver a series of highlevel and detailed protocols for the equitable evaluation of marine energy converters. The project was commissioned in April 2008 and draft protocols are presently available. The project will run for three years and is on track to deliver final outputs by April 2011.

EquiMar follows early European Commission-funded research projects, like the Co-ordinated Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE; htm) and WAVETRAIN, an initiative to train postgraduate students in ocean energy ( Waveplam

The WAVe Energy PLAnning and Marketing project (Waveplam) is another European Commission-funded consortium program with eight partners developing tools, methods and standards to speed up the introduction of ocean energy into the renewable energy market ( The project consortium includes European research organizers and device developers, who aim to address non-technological barriers to the establishment of ocean energy.

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