Contents

Preface page xi

1 Preliminary information 1

1.1 Definition of the climatic system 1

1.2 Scales of temporal variability and its mechanisms 5

1.3 Predictability and non-uniqueness 11

1.4 Methods of experimental research 20

1.4.1 Ground-based measurements 20

1.4.2 Satellite measurements 30

2 Present state of the climatic system 45

2.1 Initial information 45

2.2 Mass budget 46

2.3 Heat budget 49

2.4 Moisture budget 61

2.5 Energy budget 70

2.6 Angular momentum budget 86

2.7 Carbon budget 92

3 Small-scale ocean-atmosphere interaction 107

3.1 Surface atmospheric layer 107

3.2 Vertical distribution of the mean velocity over an 109

immovable smooth surface: viscous sublayer; logarithmic boundary layer

3.3 Vertical distribution of the mean velocity over an immovable 112 rough surface: roughness parameter; hydrodynamic classification of underlying surfaces

3.4 Hydrodynamic properties of the sea surface 116

3.5 Wind-wave interaction 123

3.6 Vertical distribution of the temperature and passive 131

admixture over an immovable surface

3.7 Coefficients of resistance, heat exchange and 133

evaporation for the sea surface

3.8 The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory 135

3.9 Transformation of the thermal regime of the surface 143

atmospheric layer in the presence of wind-wave interaction

3.10 Methods for estimating surface fluxes of momentum, 147

heat and humidity

3.11 Methods for estimating C02 flux at the ocean-atmosphere 154

interface

3.12 Features of small-scale ocean-atmosphere interaction under 160

storm conditions

4 Mesoscale ocean-atmosphere interaction 165

4.1 The planetary boundary layer 165

4.2 Problem of closure 168

4.2.1 First-order closure 170

4.2.2 Second-order closure 173

4.3 Laws of resistance and heat and humidity exchange 179

4.4 System of planetary boundary layers of the ocean 183

and atmosphere

4.4.1 Theoretical models using a priori information on the 186

magnitude and profile of the eddy viscosity coefficient

4.4.2 Simplest closed models 189

4.4.3 Semiempirical models not using a priori information 193

on the magnitude and profile of the eddy viscosity coefficient

5 Large-scale ocean-atmosphere interaction 201

5.1 Classification of climatic system models 201

5.2 Similarity theory for global ocean-atmosphere interaction 203

5.3 Zero-dimensional models 209

5.4 One-dimensional models 213

5.5 0.5-dimensional (box) models 219

5.6 1.5-dimensional models 239

5.7 Two-dimensional (zonal) models 244

5.8 Three-dimensional models 251

5.9 ENSO as a manifestation of the inter-annual variability 281 of the ocean-atmosphere system

6 Response of the ocean-atmosphere system to external forcing 292

6.1 Sensitivity of the climatic system: mathematical methods 292

of analysis

6.2 Equilibrium response to a change in ocean-land area ratio 304

6.3 Equilibrium response to a change in the concentration of 308

atmospheric C02

6.4 Equilibrium response to a change in land surface albedo 322

6.5 Equilibrium response to a change in soil moisture content 328

6.6 Equilibrium response to a change in vegetative cover 331

6.7 Transient response to a change in the concentration of 337

atmospheric C02

References 358

Index 373

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