## Dimensional box models

In Section 1.1 we showed that the evolution of the surface air temperature is determined not only by one (inherent to the atmosphere) time scale but depends crucially on the time scales of the upper mixed layer (UML) and deep ocean layer (DOL) interacting with each other and with the atmosphere. This consideration is the basis of the box thermodynamic model suggested by Kagan et al. (1990) and is intended to simulate the seasonal variability of the climatic system of the Northern Hemisphere....

## Heat budget

Figure 2.2 Annual mean zonally averaged net radiation flux (W m2) at the upper atmospheric boundary (a), and its seasonal variability (b). (After Stephens et al, 1981.) Figure 2.2 Annual mean zonally averaged net radiation flux (W m2) at the upper atmospheric boundary (a), and its seasonal variability (b). (After Stephens et al, 1981.) Figure 2.2 shows the time-space variability of zonally averaged net radiation flux at the upper atmospheric boundary. Note three features asymmetry of seasonal...

## Zerodimensional models

The simplest model is a model with one parameter - the temperature T of the outgoing terrestrial emission. It is defined by the condition of radiative equilibrium of the planet characterizing a balance between the absorbed short-wave solar radiation flux na2S0(l ap) and the outgoing long-wave emission flux 4na2faTr4, that is, *S0(1 < *P) f Tt, (5.3.1) where, along with the known symbols, ap is the mean weighted planetary albedo defined by the expression ap j JLj S(x)a(x) dx x sin (p a(x) is...

## ZrWK Mi TOl Wofo

MWTa -2na cos < p( P - ) , (2.4.10) Figure 2.9 Annual mean zonally averaged moisture content (10 kg m2) in the atmosphere (a) and its seasonal variability (b). (After Oort, 1983.) Figure 2.9 Annual mean zonally averaged moisture content (10 kg m2) in the atmosphere (a) and its seasonal variability (b). (After Oort, 1983.) is the meridional transport of fresh water in the atmosphere. The latter is unambiguously related to the meridional transport of water vapour defined by the division of MWTA...

## Scales of temporal variability and its mechanisms

In the atmosphere and weeks in the ocean. Among these are diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations arising from diurnal changes of insolation and the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun. 4. Global variations, with periods ranging from weeks to months. Two-week variations of the circulation index (the mean angular velocity of the atmospheric rotation in temperate latitudes with respect to the Earth's surface) and 30- or 60-day oscillations in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the tropical...