Nuclear Weapons Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more here...

Alive after the Fall Review Summary

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Author: Alexander Cain
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My Alive after the Fall Review Review

Highly Recommended

The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

World War II in the Aleutians

The US Geological Survey specifically for the project in 1946. For by the beginning of World War II, the Aleutian Islands were conceived as strategic location for the US military. In fact, by the war's end, the islands would have hosted over 500,000 troops military presence began in 1940 as part of the defense of Alaska. The Aleutians represented a vulnerable entry into North American soil by both the Japanese and the Soviets, and the military constructed bases at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, concurrently with the bases in Anchorage and Fairbanks. By the end of the war, major military activity took place (from east to west) on Amaknak, Unalaska, Umnak, Atka, Great Sitkin, Adak, Tanaga, Amchitka, Kiska, Shemya, and Attu. Nevertheless, the geography of the Aleutian Islands was troublesome for the military the weather postponed invasions and caused more casualties than actual combat. Windstorms could tear up tents and cause pilots extreme difficulty. The Japanese bombed both Dutch Harbor and...

Nuclear Attack

One of the most popular ideas for deflecting asteroids away from a potential collision with Earth is to fire many nuclear missiles at the asteroid, with the idea that the blast would vaporize the asteroid, eliminating the danger. However, the energy requirements may not be attainable with the world's current arsenal of nuclear weapons, as there are currently no nuclear weapons that release enough energy to destroy an asteroid only a half mile (1 km) in diameter. If enough blasts or a large enough blast could be directed at an incoming asteroid, it is likely that the blasts would simply fragment the asteroid into many pieces, which would then fall to Earth along with the radiation from the nuclear explosions.

Growing international cooperation

After the World War II, there were converging needs from the scientific and political communities. Scientifically, it had become increasingly clear that studies of many geophysical phenomena required international collaborations - the natural world did not pay attention to national borders. Moreover, at least the natural sciences were increasingly fostering an international rather than national identity, with the ICSU as an example. Politically, there was a need to bind people together again. The dangers of national

Advanced Noncarbon Technologies

Nuclear fission is an existing technology that could help stabilize climate. In some countries (e.g., France) nuclear power generates a substantial fraction of electricity, thus displacing CO2 emissions that might otherwise occur. Fission involves generating electricity by splitting heavy atomic nuclei, most commonly U235, into lighter atomic nuclei. Present nuclear reactor technology provides CO2-free electricity while posing unresolved problems of waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. The supply of fissile material, which depends on price, can be extended greatly through the use of breeder reactors however, such reactors could greatly exacerbate nuclear weapons proliferation. Fission can potentially play a large role in providing carbon-free energy, if the issues of safety, waste disposal, weapons proliferation, resource availability, and public acceptance can be adequately addressed.

History of Climatology

The second major impetus for change in climatology in the 20th century was World War II. World War II demonstrated the advantage to modern warfare of predictive meteorology when, for example, it was used to forecast the weather for June 6, 1944, the day of the invasion by the Allies of Nazi-occupied France. These conventional military applications, along with the need to understand weather patterns and climates as they related to the possibility of nuclear war and the expanding agricultural, industrial, communication, and transportation technologies, led to increased funding for training, research, and education in climatology.

Interpretation Of The Data

Though Teisserence deBort began using kites and balloons to gather temperature data in 1899, it was not until the 1940s that radiosones (balloons) began daily measurements of temperature, humidity, and pressure of the upper-air. World War II fighter pilots discovered the jet stream, and later, surplus military radars began to measure precipitation. Doppler radar began replacing conventional radar in the 1990s. The first weather satellite, TIROS I (Television Infrared Observation Satellite), was launched in 1960. change from man-made ozone depleting gases. The United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) responded by creating (in 1988) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and tasking it with studying the hypothesized phenomenon. The IPCC determined that the Earth had warmed over the last 150-year period, and that that warming was due, in part, to human activity. In executive summary of the report, the panel concluded that most of the observed global...

Agricultural intensification

Modern farming systems Field specialisation in food crops, particularly cereals, typifies much of modern (i.e. post-World War II) agriculture in many parts of the world. These systems represent the ultimate reduction in biodiversity the genetically uniform, continuous cultivation of a monocrop. This form of agriculture relies on mechanised (petrol driven) tillage, crop management and harvest. Soil and pest management are chemically regulated, with consequent effects on the biodiversity of microbes and invertebrate animals both above and below ground (Figure 11.1). This level

Postwar International Activities

Following World War II, it was decided to hold an International Geophysical Year (IGY), July 1957-December 1958. Considerable emphasis was placed on Antarctic observations, but in the Arctic some specific programs were carried out. For example, McGill University operated the first station in the interior of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago at Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island (Jackson, 1959), whereas the permanent weather stations in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago were all at coastal sites. Ice Station Alpha in the Arctic Ocean was the first US drifting station with a large, multidisciplinary research program. Russian scientific expeditions were mounted to study the glacial meteorology of the ice caps of Franz Josef Land (Krenke, 1961).

S Wayne Rosenbaum Recontek

Hie First World War resulted in American economic dominance in extracting metallurgy and refining also provided pyronetadlurgy with a dominant market position over the carpeting hydranetallurgical techniques. This was primarily due to America's abundant sources of cheap fossil fuels.

Major developments in agriculture

In 1912-1913, total cereal production in the Russian Empire reached 70.9 million tons, including 50.5 million tons of grain produced in European Russia (Popov, 1925). By way of comparison, the same amount was produced 40 years later in the Soviet Union. In 1912-1913, about 16 percent of grain production in the country was exported to the world market. Cereal exports increased throughout the period between 1899 and 1903 the country exported 7.9 million tons between 1904 and 1908 exports reached 9.0 million tons and between 1909 and 1913 the figure was 11.6 million tons. At this time Russia and the United States emerged as the major suppliers of grain to the rest of the world. The marketability of Russian grain production was 26 percent of total output, and, taking into account the domestic peasant market, reached 31.5 percent before World War I (ibid.). The marketability of grain was the key problems of Russian farming. Firstly, progress in yields was too slow in comparison with the...

Ecocide And Modern Warfare

World War II contains further examples. In addition to the two Japanese cities obliterated by atomic weapons, scores of pristine Pacific atolls were blasted, burned, and pulverized under intensive air and naval bombard-ments.27 More than 450,000 acres of Libyan farmland were riddled with 5 million land mines. Nazi troops flooded 17 per cent of Dutch farmlands -200,000 hectares (494,000 acres) - with sea water. European bison were slaughtered to near-extinction to supply the mess kitchens of German and Soviet troops in eastern Poland.28 German civilian administrators with the occupying forces in Poland excessively exploited the Polish forests for timber, greatly diminishing the resource base of Poland.29 Soviet armed forces carried out retaliatory deforestation in the wake of World War II in occupied It was not until the US-Vietnam conflict, however, that an offensive army utilized deliberate large-scale ecologically destructive technologies.30 Carrying 20 tons of bombs into the...

Impact of Breeder Reactor on Fuel Supply

Another concern is the large amount of plutonium that is produced in a breeder. Since the plutonium may be separated from the uranium using chemical processes, there is concern that the large quantities of plutonium 239 produced in a breeder might lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The plutonium 239 produced in a breeder although not weapons grade may, like uranium 235, be used to make a crude nuclear weapon.

Ionizing And Nonionizing Radiation

Ionizing radiation includes any radiation process in which individual quanta of energy are capable of ionizing atoms or molecules within the material that absorbs the radiation. Ionizing radiation is produced by the natural radioactive decay of rocks and radioactive materials, by cosmic rays, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and by similar processes that occur in nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, X-ray equipment, and high-energy physics experiments. Ionizing radiation can cause chemical changes to the material and can damage biological tissues as well as rock and structural materials.

Archaeology Of The Arctic Canada And Greenland

Erik Holtved's (1944, 1954) excavations of Thule culture winter sites in North Greenland during the 1930s and 1940s provided the first clear evidence of Thule culture activities at the major crossroads between High Arctic Canada and Greenland. His work established a close link between early Thule in the Far North and contemporaneous maritime cultures in Northwest Alaska. The excavations yielded a number of Norse artifacts thought at the time to indicate intertribal trade originating in West Greenland. After the end of World War II, the pace of archaeological investigations increased significantly. Meldgaard's investigation of the Mosegaard 1948 collection from Saqqaq resulted in the formal recognition of two Paleo-Eskimo complexes Saqqaq and Early Dorset. Excavations by Larsen and Meldgaard (1958) at the Sermermiut site located near Jacobshavn (Ilulissat) provided an important chronological framework consisting of three components Saqqaq, Dorset, and Thule. Numerous Saqqaq...

Millions of Years Ago

Beginning in 1911, astronomer Milutin Milankovitch made a series of laborious hand calculations of the amount of solar radiation received by latitude and by season over the entire Earth during the last several hundred thousand years. His calculations continued in a jail cell where he was imprisoned by the Austrians during World War I and then afterward when he was paroled. He took into account the two factors that Isaac Newton had centuries ago shown to be the major controls on solar radiation (1) the varying angle of incoming solar radiation relative to the surface of the Earth (the effect of tilt), and (2) Earth's distance from the Sun (the combined effects of eccentricity and precession). These laborious calculations, now done with much greater accuracy by computers in just minutes, laid the groundwork for many discoveries, the most important of which are covered in the next two chapters.

The Birth of Modern Recycling Programs

Garbage Barge Mobro 4000

Even though recycling was commonly practiced by all households during pre-industrial ages, large-scale recycling programs did not arise until the twentieth century. The first organized programs were created in the 1930s and 1940s, when a worldwide depression limited people's ability to purchase new goods and the outbreak of World War II dramatically increased demands for certain materials. Throughout the war, goods such as nylon, rubber, and various metals were recycled and reused to produce weapons and other materials needed to support the war effort. After the war ended in 1945, however, the United States and other countries experienced a postwar economic boom that produced many new products and caused recycling to fade into oblivion for several decades.

The Planet As National Sacrifice Zone

Even in peacetime, as indicated above, modern military industrial activities are particularly dangerous to species and the environment. For example, the process of creating and maintaining the world's stockpile of over 50,000 nuclear weapons is, as one US General Accounting Office (GAO) report put it, one of the more potentially dangerous industrial operations in the world.40 Not only does nuclear weapons production involve the intricate manipulation and transportation of enormous quantities of radioactive materials it also creates great volumes of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. And because all operations are carried out under strict secrecy, civilian environmental agencies and citizen watchdog groups are kept in the dark.41 Moreover, the military enterprises are also the least regulated hazardous industries in the world. Because of the extensive military use of electronics and fire extinguishers, the ozone damage of military endeavors is extensive. The US Defense Department,...

Ecology And Modern Warfare

The history of modern industrial warfare is the history of a movement from limited to unlimited, or total, war - a war without mercy. This holds true also for relations between society and nature. For most people today, the two world wars seem a long time ago. Still, these massive conflicts were the first international wars in which the ecological and social resources of nations were mobilized.15 The two world wars set ominous precedents for the remainder of the twentieth century. Among other developments, they reflected the brutal face of modernity in the tacit acceptance of biological and chemical warfare, not to speak of nuclear weapons.16 The Cold War represented the logical next step of a capitalist modernity that produced a military-industrial complex and an arms race of previously inconceivable proportions.17 According to a US army medical doctor who oversaw the physical examinations of the irradiated indigenous people of Rongelap Atoll, a nuclear test site in Micronesia Those...

December 26 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Although the energy of the tsunami was much less than that of the earthquake, it still had a remarkably high energy equivalent of about five megatons of TNT. For comparison, this is more than double the amount of energy released by all the bombs and explosions (including the atomic bombs) in all of World War II.

Mitigating The Dangers Of Future Impacts

Time, rockets could be installed on the meteorite and fired to try to steer it out of its impact trajectory. However, many asteroids rotate rapidly, and rockets mounted on these asteroids would not be so effective at changing their course. other proposals have been made, including firing massive missiles at the asteroid, transferring kinetic energy to move it out of its collision course. However, if the object is very large it is likely that even all of the nuclear weapons or bombs on the planet would not have a significant effect on altering the trajectory of the meteorite or asteroid. Strategies for preventing catastrophic collisions of meteorites with Earth fall into two general categories those that attempt to destroy or fragment the asteroid into small pieces that would burn up upon passing though the Earth's atmosphere, and those that attempt to divert the asteroid and move it out of its trajectory toward Earth. In some cases it may be enough to simply delay the arrival time of...

The Planet As Sacrifice Zone

By World War II, as Manicas notes, class war had been diverted toward international war. The people, habituated in the class struggle to appeals calling them to fight for their rights and for better opportunities, to strike at privilege and oppression, now were told by the leaders of the hypernationalist and irrational modern mass movement known as fascism that they must continue to fight, not as traitorous members of a class but as patriots in a national cause. The German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels shrewdly mobilized on chauvinist-racial grounds by invocations of national-socialism. Class-oriented industrial production techniques of labor organization, such as the scientific management associated with Taylorism, became the shared ideological co-ordinates and performance principles ofboth the Stalinist East and the West. See Manicas, War and Democracy, p. 3 79. Laurence Badash, Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons From Fission to Limited Test Ban Treaty,...

Ion Exchange And Carbon Adsorption

The history of carbon adsoprtion in the pruification of water dates back to ancient times. Adsorption on porous carbons was described as early as 1550 B.C. in an ancicnt Egyptian papyrus and later by Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder, mainly for medicinal purposes. In the 18th century, carbons made from blood, wood and animals were used for the purification of liquids. All of these materials, which can be considered as precursors of activated carbons, were only available as powders. The typical technology of application was the so-called batch contact treatment, where a measured quantity of carbon and the liquid to be treated were mixed and, after a certain contact time, separated by filtration or sedimentation. At the beginning of the 19th century the decolourisation power of bone char was detected and used in the sugar industry in England. Bone char was available as a granular material which allowed the use of percolation technology, where the liquid to be treated was continuously...

Methods of drug development

Microbial diversity is a rich source of natural products chemistry, a source which has seen a consistent level of exploitation by industry's R&D departments since World War II. Penicillin, a host of subsequent antibiotics and many other products have been produced from microbial sources. Mevacor, a breakthrough cholesterol-lowering drug with sales of over 100 million in 1991, is just one of four products recently developed by the microbial screening program at Merck (Merck & Co., 1992). While the extent of microbial diversity is largely unknown, microbial diversity may equal or exceed that of all other diversity currently expected to be in the order of from 10 to 100 million species. Recent improvements in screening technologies complement the 'chemical inventiveness' of microorganisms in generating many new leads for drug development (Nisbet, 1992).

Commission For Scientific Research In Greenland

The Commission's historical emphasis on natural sciences continued with modernization in Greenland after World War II it even became clear that there was a tremendous need for insight into the social and cultural consequences of these changes. Especially after the establishment of Home Rule in Greenland (1979), pressure from the Greenland government articulated the need for a stronger focus on the social sciences and

Secondary plant metabolites and the chemical industry

The ingenuity of synthetic chemists allowed not only the reproduction of naturally-occurring molecules, but also the production of unnatural derivatives of natural compounds, as well as completely novel unnatural substances. Wholly synthetic molecules began to make a dramatic impact on the quality of human life in the twentieth century. The pesticide DDT, for example, rid urban slums of insect pests and helped change the fortunes of combat troops during World War II. Synthetic polymers changed life everywhere. Although interest in some natural products persisted, notably those of microorganisms in the search for new antibiotics following the discovery of penicillin, living higher plants were all but abandoned as a source of inspiration or raw material for an industry confident that synthetic molecules would satisfy all needs.

Mitigation of Damages from Downslope Flows

After World War II, large earthwork projects were employed in the United States, particularly associated with construction started as a result of the Interstate Highway Act of 1955. At this time, a new style of landslide mitigation became common, that of excavating the entire slipped area, installing subdrainages, then refilling and compacting the slopes with the excavated material. These so-called buttress fills are still the most common form of landslide repair in the United States, and are moderately effective in most cases. Slopes can be modified and slip surfaces removed, and the subdrainages keep pore water pressures to a minimum.

The Third International Polar Year International Geophysical Year 19571958

Lawrence Donnell Young

On 5 April 1950, in Silver Spring, Maryland, a small group of eminent physicists gathered to meet in an informal meeting in Van Allen's home. Among these were the house owner James Van Allen (1914-2006), Lloyd Viel Berkner (1905-1967), Siegfried Frederick Singer (born in 1924) and Sidney Chapman (1888-1970) (Fig. 2.6), all of whom had been involved in research for military applications during the World War II. They realised the potential of the new technologies such as rockets, radar and numerous other geophysical techniques perfected during the war, and hoped to

Major Reservoir Development Programs

Hydroelectric power in Canada Hydroelectric power generation in Canada began in the last decades of the 19th century, with construction of facilities near waterfalls in Ontario, and grew steadily in the 20th century. Dam construction slowed in Canada during the Depression of the 1930s, but increased rapidly in the years following World War II. Several large reservoirs were constructed in the Ottawa River system bordering Ontario and Quebec. In the 1960s, a few very large hydroelectric dams were built in British Columbia, including a 244-m high dam that impounds Kinbasket Lake, and dams forming the Upper and Lower Arrow Lakes. The most extensive Small impoundments In addition to the thousands of large reservoirs that have been built in North America, millions of small impoundments dot the landscape (refer to 'see also' section), especially in the United States. The earliest of these were those associated with the water power, mentioned earlier. By the early 20th century a new form of...

Milankovitch Milutin 18791958

After World War I, Serbia joined with other Balkan countries to become part of Yugoslavia. The political environment of the Balkan area remained in flux, including involvement in the Balkan War, World War I, and World War II. In spite of the unrest in the region, and an arrest and imprisonment as a prisoner of war, Milutin Milankovitch continued his work to determine, mathematically, the cycles of ice ages. He built on the theory that the ice ages were cyclical, and the work on astronomical rhythms by Scottish geologist James Croll.

Etymology and definition

While the term geoengineering is an invention of the last few decades, explicit consideration of intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment has a history measured in centuries. This review focuses on the post-World War II history of weather and climate modification as a direct precursor to current thinking about geoengineering. Modern understanding of the CO2-climate problem emerged at a time when climate and weather modification was an While the focus here is post-World War II, the link between scientific understanding of the CO2-climate connection and proposals for its manipulation extends to the beginning of the twentieth century. Writing around 1905, Arrhenius speculated about a virtuous circle in which CO2 emissions from a growing fossil-fueled civilization would warm the climate, pushing back the northern limits of agriculture and so enhancing agricultural productivity as required to sustain the growth in population (Arrhenius, 1908). Similarly, Eckholm discussed...

History Of Exploitation

The ensuing slaughter was so effective that by 1823 elephant seals were almost extinct in the Scotia Sea, and sealers began moving into the Pacific, especially the islands to the south of New Zealand and Australia (McNab, 1907 Hindell and Burton, 1988a). Hunting of seals continued in these areas until after the Second World War, with some population extinctions. Surveys of fur seals and sea lions over the past 20 years have shown, however, that at least on the islands of the southwestern Pacific, the numbers are generally recovering (Croxall and Gentry, 1984 papers in Ridgway and Harrison, 1981a, b). Around the turn of the century, knowledge of the zoology of the Southern Ocean, particularly its whales and krill, increased markedly as a result of a number of scientific expeditions from Belgium, Germany and Britain (Deacon, 1984). The study of Antarctic natural history was further enhanced by investigations carried out in conjunction with the Heroic Age of Antarctic land exploration...

The Growth Of Environmental Awareness

1970s Environmental Disaster

Another factor that has helped focus attention on global warming in recent years is the growth of environmental awareness. Over the last few decades, there have been several notable anthropogenic environmental disasters. These have made the public more aware of environmental damage sometimes permanent. One of the worst anthropogenic disasters was the explosion at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. A reactor exploded during a failed cooling system test and ignited a massive fire that burned steadily for 10 days. The accident released radioactivity 400 times more intense than that of the Hiroshima bomb in World War II. The accident affected a huge area the plume drifted over Europe, One topic that has been in the news recently that has made an impression on the public is the melting of the polar ice. Time magazine has run several special editions covering the melting of glaciers, rising seas, and diminishing icepack (April 9, 2001, April 3, 2006, April 9,...

The Opposition to Nuclear Power

One might hope that politicians would have the courage to take the hard decisions that are required to safeguard our long-term future. They have before them the evidence of countless scientific studies and reports by the Royal Society and the Federation of British Industry. However the next election looms larger in their minds than the future of mankind. The evidence for climate change is now so compelling that Governments have to be seen doing something about it. They dare not risk offending public opinion by choosing nuclear power. Instead they fasten on the renewables, especially wind power as a safe political choice, in spite of the arguments showing its futility. Conferences are arranged to consider the problem of global warming and climate change and consider all means of preventing these harmful emissions such as improved energy efficiency, carbon emission taxes and wind and solar power, except the one source that is demonstrably the only practicable way to solve the problem....

North Africa and the Middle East

Efforts to design a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian struggle will be abandoned for the indefinite future because of a collective conclusion that the problem of sharing water supplies must be regarded as permanently intractable. War between Israel and Jordan over access to water is conceivable. Moreover, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey are likely to be enmeshed in an escalating struggle over the latter's command of waters feeding the Tigris and Euphrates systems. In the Gulf countries there will be a rapid expansion of nuclear power for desalinization. This in turn will become a contributing factor in the regional proliferation of nuclear weapons as insurance against predation.

Principles Of Ozone Effluent Treatment

Over 100 years ago it had been demonstrated that ozone (03), the unstable triatomic allotrope of oxygen, could destroy molds and bacteria and by 1892 several experimental ozone plants were in operation in Europe. In the 1920s, however, as a result of wartime research, during World War I, chlorine became readily

Climatic Data Nature of the data

World War II provided the equipment and capability for collecting data, while it was the failure to complete satisfactory models on a regional or geographically-limited basis that did not properly integrate global effects that stimulated the increase in the scope of data collection. Nevertheless, GISS models provide datasets in the following categories temperature radiation vertical heat fluxes salt water pressure height velocity and horizontal mass fluxes. Radiation is a crucial data element because the heat exchange of the atmosphere determines global warming and, hence, climate change to a large extent. Data are collected on the amount of solar energy reflected nd absorbed by the surface of the Earth. The nature and extent of cloud cover is monitored, as is the extent of energy rebounding off that cloud cover. Aggregate and grid-specific releases of energy data are collected one measure of atmospheric clarity that is employed is Boucher's Sulfate Burden, measured in milligrams per...

Effect of atmospheric solar absorption on pure radiative equilibrium

Sunlight in addition to being radiatively active in the thermal infrared. Strong solar absorption also would occur in the high-altitude dust and soot cloud that would be lofted in the wake of a global thermonuclear war or asteroid impact (the Nuclear Winter problem). If ts 1 the temperature decreases with height, and if ts 1 the temperature increases with height. Defining the skin temperature as Tskin ( (1-a)S))1 4 the temperature at the top of the atmosphere is (1 + 1 ts)Tsfcm, which reduces to the skin temperature when ts is large and becomes much greater than the skin temperature when ts is small. If the atmosphere is deep enough that essentially all solar radiation is absorbed before reaching the ground, then the exponential term vanishes in the deep atmosphere and the deep atmosphere becomes isothermal with temperature (1 + ts)Tskin. Thus, when ts is small, all the solar radiation is absorbed within a thin layer near the top of the atmosphere. The temperature increases rapidly...

Grabau Amadeus William 18701946 German American Geologist Paleontologist

He was a great contributor to systematic paleontology and strati-graphic geology and also a respected professor and writer. He spent half of his professional life in the United States and the last 25 years in China. Grabau studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and received a master of science and a doctorate of science degree at Harvard University, then returned as faculty at MIT from 1892 to 1897. He moved to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, from 1899 to 1901, and became a professor in paleontology at Columbia University in New York City in 1901. In 1912 Grabau married Mary Antin, a Russian immigrant from a shtetl who wrote a best-selling autobiography, The Promised Land. In World War I Grabau defended Germany's actions, which led to his divorce from Mary and his being fired from Columbia University. In 1919 Grabau moved to China and became a professor at Peking National University (now called Peking University).

Penetrating polar ice

The prospect of trekking up to Greenland, drilling into its ice sheet, and extracting a core to bring back and analyze in a freezing laboratory was an idea that, in the pre-World War II United States, attracted no one. Midwesterners know winter cold about as well as anybody, of course, but the country as a whole has no particular cultural affinity for the world of glaciers. European boys like Alfred Wegner may have grown up dreaming of heroic exploits on the polar ice, but the dreams of American youth were more likely to be set in warmer climes.Whatever territorial claims to the far north of Greenland that the polar expeditions of the American Robert Peary had established at the turn of the century were bartered away at the first opportunity in a telling transaction with Denmark in 1917. The United States ceded to the Danes all interests in northern Greenland and paid an additional 25 million in gold in exchange for the Virgin Islands. Norwegian hunters and fishermen kicked up a fuss...

Measuring Earthquakes

Seismographs are used in series, some set up as pendulums and others as springs, to measure ground motion in many directions. Engineers have made seismographs that can record motions as small as one hundred millionth of an inch, about equivalent to being able to detect the ground motion caused by a car several blocks away. The ground motions recorded by seismographs are very distinctive, and geologists who study them have methods of distinguishing between earthquakes produced along faults, earthquake swarms associated with magma moving into volcanoes, and even between explosions from different types of construction and nuclear blasts. Interpreting seismograph traces has therefore become an important aspect of nuclear test-ban treaty verification. Many seismologists are employed to monitor earthquakes around the world and to verify that countries are not testing nuclear weapons.

Utilizing part of the waste

Certain fish livers, particularly those of sharks, are so rich in vitamin A that sharks were hunted during World War II specifically for their vitamin A content and its supposed role in improving night vision in fighter pilots. Luckily, the development of synthetic vitamins put an end to this before the shark populations were decimated. It should be noted that fish-liver oil is so rich in the fat-soluble vitamins that acute fish liver intoxication has been described in the medical literature and is assumed to be caused by hypervitaminosis A.

Mean Monthly Seasonal and Annual Air Temperature

The instrumental records of Arctic temperature arc brief and geographically sparse. Only five records (Upernavik commenced 1874 Jakobshavn 1874 Godth&b 1876 Ivigtut 1880 and Angmagssalik 1895) extend back to the second half of the 19lh century. As can be seen, all climatic stations operating during the nineteenth century were located in Greenland. Outside of Greenland, the first station was established in Spitsbergen in 1911 (Green Harbour). In the 1920s, the next seven stations came into operation, mainly in the Atlantic region of the Arctic. Following the Second International Polar Year (1932 1933) most of the Russian stations were established, while most of the Canadian stations were founded after World War II. For this reason, both spatial distribution and reliable estimates of air temperature characteristics in the Arctic are only possible for the last 40-50 years. Reviewing the climatological literature after World War II, we find only a few more propositions (besides those...

American Meteorological Society

The publication of fundamental articles in the Bulletin, the production of books and monographs, and the organization of specialized meetings. World War II increased a new interest in meteorology. The conflict had shown the key role that the discipline played in support of military activities in ground and air operations. A large number of meteorologists were trained as part of the wartime effort and were employed in military research during the Cold War. After the war, the military and civilian sectors of society had a substantial number of meteorologists in their ranks. The AMS saw significant growth during this period, which corresponded to the birth of many departments of meteorology at universities. Because of new research and newly-trained meteorologists, the publications and meetings of the AMS increased. C.G. Rossby served as president of the AMS 1944-45, and developed the agenda for its first scientific journal, the Journal of Meteorology, which later divided into the two AMS...

Energy Potential Mapping 621 Background

The northern region has always played an important role in the energy provision of the Netherlands during the 19th century large areas of peat were colonised and excavated, and after World War II the discovery of oil and natural gas made it one of the most significant contributors to the national treasury. Although originally huge in size, the gas reserves are expected to deplete within 25 years, forcing gas-related companies to concentrate on import and storage of gas from elsewhere. Nevertheless, this will only postpone depletion.

Other Pollution Derived Aerosols

Active nuclides produced by nuclear weapons testing and by nuclear reactors also have been released into the environment, and these man-made nuclides also make up a component of the contemporary aerosol. The dispersal of these and other pollutant aerosols to the most remote parts of the globe is a measure of the efficiency with which atmospheric transport operates.

Atmospheric Shock Waves

A moderate-sized impact event, such as a collision with a meteorite with a 5-10 mile (8-16 km) diameter, moving at a moderate velocity of 7.5 miles sec (12 km sec), would release energy equivalent to 100 megatons, or about 1,000 times the yield of all existing nuclear weapons on Earth. The meteor-oid would begin to glow brightly as it approached Earth, encountering the outer atmosphere. As this body entered the atmosphere, it would create a huge fireball that would crash with the Earth after about 10 seconds. Events of this magnitude happen about

Conservation And Climate Change

After World War II, increased understanding of the sources of smog and acid rain and their negative environmental impact, led to pressure from conservationists to clean up pollutants from coal-fired plants and motor vehicles. Improved combustion and scrubbing BIBLIOGRAphY. Peter Hay, Main Currents in Western Environmental Thought (Indiana University Press, 2002) S.P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency The Progressive Conservation Movement 1890-1920 (Ath-eneum, 1980) Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac And Sketches Here and There (Oxford U. Press, 1968) Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America (Oxford University Press, 2004) S.L. Udall, The Quiet Crisis (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963) Spencer Weart, The Discovery of Global Warming The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect, American Institute of Physics, www.aip.org (cited July 2007).

Chamberlin Thomas C 18431928

CHAMBERLIN was an American glacial geologist and educator who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged the generally accepted Laplacian theory that the Earth was formed by hot gases and was gradually becoming cooler. He suggested the plan-etesimal hypothesis, arguing that the planets were formed after a star passed near the Sun, pulling away material from both bodies that later condensed into the planets. Chamberlin was one of the first scientists to emphasize the role of carbon dioxide in regulating the Earth's temperature, thus anticipating the current debates on global warming. Chamberlin also founded the Journal of Geology, acted as its editor for many years, and was the first director of the U.S. Geological Survey's Pleistocene Division (1881-1904). While at Chicago, Chamberlin worked with astronomer Forest R. Moulton to define the planetesimal hypothesis. Their research was published in Two Solar Families (1928). With Rollin Salisbury, he coauthored Geology...

Weather variations and agricultural production

The Soviet Union was favored by an exceptionally long drought-free period between 1939 and 1945. There were only localized weather problems, for example in 1942 and 1945, when frost killed the winter wheat crop in the Volga regions (Sel'skoe khozyastvo Povolzhya, 1957). The 1943 growing season was relatively unfavorable in central Russia there was too much rain, while in the south and east it was too hot and dry (Harrison, 1994). No information about weather problems is available for 1944, while 1945 experienced excellent weather conditions. Certainly any large drought during World War II would have had disastrous consequences for the country. This was confirmed during the first year of peace, 1946, when a drought occurred and famine followed (Wheatcroft and Davies, 1994).

History Of Oil Consumption

World War II proved an immense boon to the oil industry, both American and foreign. Thousands of new engineers received on-the-job training during the war, and governments as different as those of Nazi Germany and the United Kingdom perceived the need for more oil, something made evident by the dramatic success of Blitzkrieg, the German method of lightning warfare made possible by use of the combustion engine. The Age of Oil began sometime in the 1940s, and shows no sign of retreating today.

Innovative Energy Strategies forC02 Stabilization

The vast majority of the world's climate scientists believe that the build-up in the atmosphere of the heat-trapping gas carbon dioxide will lead to global warming in the next century unless we burn less coal, oil and natural gas. At the same time, it is clear that energy must be supplied in increasing amounts if the developed world is to avoid economic collapse and if developing countries are to attain wealth. Innovative Energy Strategies for CO2 Stabilization discusses the feasibility of increasingly efficient energy use for limiting energy requirements as well as the potential for supplying energy from sources that do not introduce carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The book begins with a discussion of concerns about global warming and the relationship between the growing need to supply energy to the globe's population and the importance of adaptive decision making strategies for future policy decisions. The book goes on to analyze the prospects for Earth-based renewables solar,...

Misleading and Irresponsible Statements

The public discussion of nuclear power began when the nuclear physicists who had worked on the atomic bomb during the war considered it their responsibility to do all in their power to inform the public of the dangers of nuclear weapons and the potentialities of nuclear power. Initially the response was very favourable and many countries started to build nuclear power stations, which proved on the whole very successful. It soon became clear that they were capable of providing the bulk of the power that the world so desperately needs. At this point strong political forces, for the reasons already mentioned, launched a strong and well-organised campaign against nuclear power. This was greatly strengthened by the accident at Three Mile Island and the disaster of Chernobyl. Several countries then resolved to stop building nuclear reactors and to phase out nuclear power as soon as possible. Worldwide the construction of nuclear power stations virtually ceased. In the same period people...

Humaninduced Changes And Their Effects On Biodiversity And Ecosystem Function

Century (Radk.au 1983) and spread to ail boreal countries by the early 20th century. However, management methods have undergone changes during process. Modern silviculture, aiming at the establishment of monoculture, even-aged strands growing in uniform conditions created by soil preparation, artificial fertilization and chemical pest control, took over during the decade following World War II. The negative ecological effects of intensive silviculture have become manifest thus, a timely challenge for ecologists is to give recommendations for forestry practices that would better conform with natural forest dynamics (Pastor and Mladcnoff 1992 Mladenoff and Pastor 1993 Haila 1994). As forests change continuously in several time-scales, human-induced change per se is not a problem what is at issue is the dynamic relationship between human-induced and natural change (Haila and Levins 1992). The patterns and dynamics that characterize the diversity and ecosystem processes of boreal regions...

Smagorinsky Joseph 19242005

AMERICAN METEOROLOGIST AND the first director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Joseph Smagorinsky developed influential methods for predicting weather and climate conditions and lectured at Princeton for many years. With his decision to move the GFDL to Princeton, Sma-gorinsky made the university a leading center for the study of global warming. earned his B.S. (1947), M.S. (1948), and Ph.D. (1953) at New York University. During his sophomore year there, he joined the Air Force and became a member of an elite group of recruits who had been selected for their talents in mathematics and physics. Because of his scientific interests, Smagorinsky was included in the Air Force meteorology program. As a part of the scheme, he was sent to Brown University to specialize in mathematics and physics for six months. Smago-rinsky was then sent to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to learn dynamical meteorology, under Ed...

Can Desalination Help SolvE The Water Crisis

Crota Terrestre

Several other processes have been less successful in desalination. These include freezing, which naturally excludes salts from the ice crystals. Membrane distillation uses a combination of membrane and distillation processes, which can operate at low temperature differentials but require large fluxes of salt water. Solar humidification was used in World War II for desalination stills in life rafts, but these are not particularly efficient because they require large solar collection areas, have a high capital cost, and are vulnerable to weather-related damage. accumulated on the seafloor, releasing huge amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is a greenhouse gas, and its increased abundance trapped solar radiation in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. In addition volcanic eruptions released vast outpourings of mafic lavas in the North Atlantic Ocean realm, and the accompanying liberation of large amounts of CO2 would have increased the greenhouse gases in the...

Natural Resources Defense council NRDc

THE NATuRAL RESouRcES Defense Council (NRDC) describes itself as the nation's most effective environmental action organization, and indicates that the world's foremost environmental problem is global warming. In 2007, the NRDC was a founder and organizer of the U.S. Climate Action Partnership, a coalition of environmental organizations and corporations advocating legislative action to address global warming. Incorporated in New York in 1970, the NRDC also has offices in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Chicago, and Beijing. Frances Beinecke was named president in January 2007. NRDC has frequently appeared before the U.S. Supreme Court, and has been involved in federal, state, and local litigation. NRDC was partially responsible for passage of the Clean Water Act, which allowed citizens to sue water polluters directly. Removal of lead from gasoline and the increase of energy efficiency in home appliances have also resulted from NRDC's actions. A 1976 court battle resulted...

Geomorphological expression of glacial erosion or lack thereof

The years following World War II saw earth scientists exploring a wide range of glacier environments from Antarctica to mountain glaciers and ice caps lying at the Equator. This geographical coverage combined with recruitment into the new field of 'glaciol-ogy' of physicists and mathematicians led to the development of models of temperature conditions at the bed of glaciers and the large ice sheets. Sugden (1977, 1978) wrote two seminal papers that first developed an estimate for the temperature at the bed of a North American Ice Sheet (the ice sheet was not temporally fixed), proposed how this might affect glacial erosion or glacial protection, and then used maps and aerial photographs to produce a map of the bed of the LIS showing areas of scour, selective linear erosion (e.g. fiords), alpine glaciation, and areas showing little evidence for glacial erosion. As a dramatic example of the protective nature of an ice sheet where the bed is frozen there is a thin (few centimetres thick)...

Rossby Carl Gustav 18981957

CARL-GUSTAV ROSSBY WAS a Swedish-American meteorologist whose innovations in the study of large-scale air movement and introduction of the equations describing atmospheric motion were largely responsible for the rapid development of meteorology as a science. Rossby explained the large-scale motions of the atmosphere in terms of fluid mechanics and was one of the first scientists to notice the problem of global warming. waves of large amplitude, now known as Rossby waves, are generated by perturbations caused in the westerlies by variations in velocity with latitude. Rossby also showed the importance of the strength of the circumpolar westerlies in determining global weather. When these are weak, cold polar air will sweep south, but when they are strong, they cause the normal sequence of cyclones and anticyclones. Rossby worked on mathematical models for weather prediction and introduced the Rossby equations, which, with the introduction of digital computers in the 1950s, were of...

Atmospheric Component of Models

One particular problem was that it was necessary to compare results that had been calculated with real-world data and there were insufficient mechanisms to make those measurements. World War II was the impetus to measure climatic conditions (for inherently military purposes) that provided the amount of data necessary to refine and improve models. Contemporaneous improvements in computers made more rapid and wide-scale calculations possible, and a series of researchers, mostly based in the United States, were able to improve their models over the subsequent decades.

Work In The Petroleum Industry

By the end of World War I Holmes had written three books but was still only a demonstrator at Imperial College. In 1918 the Holmeses had their first child, Norman, and a demonstrator's income was not sufficient to support the family. The Yomah Oil Company hired Holmes as chief geologist with the promise of a much larger salary. His family moved to Burma in November 1920 and settled in Yenangyaung, where Holmes spent two years frantically searching for new oil finds to save the struggling company. Loyalty to the company kept him working long after the then bankrupt company stopped paying him, and before they finally returned to England in late 1922, Norman died from severe dysentery.

Afterword Sustainable Energy The Challenge of Choice

One salient example for the current energy debate can be found in the early history of nuclear power. Here, the urgent Cold War climate in the aftermath of World War II drove a rapid consolidation of nuclear reactor design philosophies around two military applications. The first was the desire to recover the plutonium produced in nuclear reactions, in order to use this in nuclear weapons manufacture. This meant removing irradiated fuel before its useful energy content had been fully depleted. The resulting need for 'on-load refuelling' in turn led to an early concentration on graphite-moderated designs, such as the steam-cooled reactor used at Chernobyl and the gas-cooled design widely deployed in the UK. Secondly, early nuclear reactor design was driven by the demand for highly compact sources of power suitable for use in the confined spaces of a submarine. This led to the high power density light water reactor design, presenting particular challenges for the effective removal of...

Historical perspective

Misconception regarding the circulation north of the sub-polar centers of action is not surprising given the dearth of observations. It was not until the 1940s and early 1950s that data were sufficient to make more definitive conclusions. Sea level pressure (SLP) analyses in the US Historical Weather Map Series produced during World War II contained strong positive biases prior to the 1930s away from the North Atlantic sector. Smaller errors are apparent up to 1939. As noted by Jones (1987), these maps were prepared by relatively untrained analysts, who tended to extrapolate into the data-poor Arctic with the concept of an Arctic high-pressure cell still in mind.

Evaluating the scale of crop failure

During the last century there were remarkable changes in both grain production and grain requirement in Russia. Before World War II, during the period of collectivization, grain harvests were low. Only after the late 1950s could considerable progress in grain production be observed. This was achieved as a result of two different agricultural policy programs implemented in the Soviet Union. Between 1955 and 1965, a remarkable expansion in crop area in the USSR took place through the so-called virgin land campaign inspired by the then party leader Nikita Khrushchev. In the course of this campaign the total crop area of the USSR increased by 42 million hectares (or 23 percent), mostly at the expense of pasture and grasslands in Kazakhstan and Western Siberia. Such an enormous expansion in arable land over three years is unique in modern world history. As a result of the campaign, the gross cereal production increased, although yields remained unsatisfactorily low.

OECD Climate Change Documents

Of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC), which had administered the American and Canadian funds of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. OECD's main commitment is to foster cooperation among countries that adhere to the principles of democracy and free market economy. OECD's aims are to support sustainable economic development, to expand the job market, to raise living standards and contribute to the growth of global trade. In addition to working with its member countries, OECD also lends its expertise to more than 100 other countries.

Actors and actor networks

This is also where I see it as necessary to complement the actor-network analysis with one that also pays attention to the role of political structures. Appropriate questions include What political dynamics has driven the development of a particular technology and what has allowed or limited its use For example, would satellite technology be used in science to the extent that it is used today had the Arctic still been divided by Cold-War conflicts To what extent has internationalist science politics after World War II favored the development of global climate models at the expense of methods that take their starting point in the regional, sub-regional, or local To what extent will the current Arctic regime favor development and use of different technologies that can bring other aspects of Arctic change to the fore

Charney Jule Gregory 191781

JULE GREGORY CHARNEY was an American meteorologist who contributed to the advance of numerical weather prediction and to increased understanding of the general circulation of the atmosphere by devising a series of increasingly sophisticated mathematical models of the atmosphere. Charney was one of the dominant figures in the field of atmospheric science in the decades following World War II. Jule Gregory Charney was born in San Francisco, California, on January 1, 1917, to Ely Charney and Stella Littman. His parents were Yiddish-speaking Russian Jews who worked in the garment industry and were left-wing militants. The family moved to Los Angeles in 1922.

The Diminution Of Natural Resources

Sands of years, the ability of man to harvest resources, renewable resources in any case, was exceeded by the fertility of nature in replacing them. The development of industrialized harvesting techniques succeeded not only in depleting the stocks of the fish, but also seriously damaged the environment, including the ecology, in which the cod thrived. The diminution of this resource, in common with so many others, has been so severe that it is not possible to recreate a satisfactory understanding of the amount of the resource previously available. This makes it extremely difficult to identify means of returning to the status quo before overexploitation and, hence, it is not very likely that such a state could ever be attained. It would take an event as severe in its impact as World War II, which effectively prevented deep sea fishing in the Atlantic Ocean altogether for several years, for fish stocks to be replenished to any meaningful degree.

Budyko Mikhail 19202001

Budyko was born January 21, 1920, in Gomel, a small Belorussian town (then in the Soviet Union), and before World War II moved to Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), Russia, to pursue his higher education. He received his Master of Science degree in Hydro-AeroDynamics in 1942 from the Division of Physics of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. Immediately following, he was employed as a scientific researcher in the Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (MGO), the oldest Russian meteorological research institution, which during World War II was evacuated from Leningrad to Sverdlovsk (near the Ural Mountains). Within two years (in 1944), Budyko earned his Candidate Degree (Ph.D.), and, in 1951, he defended his Doctoral Degree, the highest scientific degree in Russia. In 1961, Budyko recognized anthropogenic(human-induced) global warming. Primarily through analysis and interpretation of observational data, Budyko developed a quantitative relationship between surface temperature and incoming...

National center for Atmospheric Research NcAR

The core research of NCAR is based on the assumption that human activities are causing large-scale changes in the Earth system. The advances in scientific understanding, Earth system modeling, and computational and observational technology can shed new light on how the Earth system works. NCAR's activities contribute to the development of a predictive Earth system science that can help sustain Earth's habitabil-ity, improve environmental quality, safeguard human health, reduce the impacts of natural disasters, and increase economic productivity. This predictive Earth system becomes of particular importance in the face of global warming. The Climate and Global Dynamics Division of the Earth and Sun Systems Laboratory conducts broad-ranging research on all aspects of climate. The center explicitly connects global climate change, whether it involves more heat or more cold, more NCAR has taken a clear stance on global warming, arguing that the data collected for more than 100 years on the...

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD

The organisation FOR Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was tasked by its founding convention (December 14, 1960) with assisting member countries with sustaining economic expansion, increasing employment, raising their standards of living, and maintaining financial stability while developing a sustainable global economy benefiting humankind. The OECD seeks to meet these goals by the collection, evaluation, and dissemination of pertinent data, by fostering cooperation between governments and economies, and by assisting governments in developing and evaluating policies that positively and negatively impact these goals. In 1961, the OCED absorbed the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) that starting in 1947 had administered American and Canadian aid for the post-World War II Marshall Plan reconstruction of Europe.

Post Combustion Emission Controls

Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology provides an example of both the scale and challenge of solving an environmental control comparable to carbon capture. Virtually all of the technologies for carbon capture will require conditioning the gas stream to eliminate the presence of sulfur (to prevent degradation of the solvents). FGDs were first installed in England to combat the environmental impacts associated with SO2 from coal burning. Using a process developed by ICI (Imperial Chemicals Industries), three large fossil steam plants were retrofitted early in the twentieth century, although work on FGDs came to a halt during the Second World War 2 . The first full-scale FGD in the US was installed in 1967 on a plant operated by Union Electric. Despite a several decade head start on the technology, many of the first adopters experienced significant challenges in plant reliability with what was perceived as a relatively simple emission control adaptation. A large number of fossil...

Nuclear Power and World Peace

It is sometimes argued against nuclear power and nuclear weapons that it poses such a serious threat to world peace that all nuclear activities, including nuclear power plants, should be abandoned. However, nuclear weapons certainly pose a serious danger, but there are already several nations with nuclear weapons and it is too late to abolish them the

Looming Resource

To take one last scenario, a 'resource war' could be fought more by accident than design if international powers start to step up their military presence in any region and exchange aggressive rhetoric. In this state of mistrust, small incidents on the ground can quickly spiral out of control, leading to a much wider confrontation. This could happen even if there are no territorial disputes in the Arctic, in the same way that so many other conflicts - most obviously the First World War - began in a similar state of mistrust or 'fear'.18

Office of Naval Research

Robofly is the Navy's stealth robotic flyer the size of an actual fly, capable of searching for chemical and biological warfare agents. Robofly is the Navy's stealth robotic flyer the size of an actual fly, capable of searching for chemical and biological warfare agents.

Themes and Periodization

Throughout the Arctic, scholars have investigated diverse themes in a historical perspective, such as interethnic relations (including alliances, trade, and war), consequences of commercial whaling and the fur trade, Christianization, migrations, responses to environmental change, health, etc. In North America, the concept of dependency has loomed central in some interpretations. In such historical reconstructions, for the purpose of narration time was divided up into periods of sufficient stability to be described synchroni-cally, separated by so-called watersheds in which most of the social, political, and historical change emerged. The changes identified correspond to further losses of independence in relation to the incoming non-Native population. These scenarios usually include a first period during which, despite some contacts and trade, the Native cultures remain traditional. Some events, such as an epidemic or a famine, which may have been caused by changes in the exploitation...

Russian national security

The Kremlin was equally concerned about the possibility of a NATO assault from the west. During the Second World War the Germans had tried and very nearly succeeded in cutting off the Baltic sea lanes and Allied shipping that sustained the Russian war effort in 1942, despite the immense difficulty of sailing into ice-laden seas, the German ship, Admiral Scheer, even managed to sail into the Kara Sea and succeeded in sinking the Russian icebreaker, Sibiryakov. Moscow was later convinced that its Cold War enemies would prioritize the elimination of its fleet and attack its northern coasts. Russian planners always responded quickly to match NATO's efforts to build up its naval presence in the northern Atlantic and the Norwegian seas, and in the event of war would probably have tried their utmost to seize the Svalbard islands on the pretext that the United States had already broken the ninth article of the Spitsbergen Treaty, which guarantees the demilitarization of the archipelago.31...

Coastal connections and resource conflicts

Much of The Netherlands was reclaimed from the sea and the small land area has been protected for centuries by systems of dikes and canals that were significantly strengthened after World War II. More recently, given sea-level rise forecasts, The Netherlands is exploring floating housing systems and other alternatives to adapt to the changing sea level as their engineers have determined that raising the dikes is no longer practical (Kolbert, 2006).

Persistent Organic Pollutants POPs

The discovery and extensive use of organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, lindane and toxaphene began during and after World War II. Although chemists were aware that these compounds are very stable, there was little concern about possible long-term environmental effects. In 1962 the book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson raised public concern, drawing a link between the use of organochlorine insecticides and declining bird populations as a result, in the following years intense research was carried out on the environmental fate and biological effects of what we now call POPs. Since then many books have been published on POPs (e.g. Edwards 1973 Hutzinger et al. 1974 Kurtz 1990 Mackay 1991 Howard 1991 Mackay et al. 1992 Beek 2000).

The collectivization of Soviet agriculture 19291940

In contrast with the previous decade, this period saw a very centralized, autocratic development of the economy. During the 1930s, a Socialist economic system was being constructed, the first in the world. This new system was characterized by the priority it gave to the development of heavy industry, its extremely centralized management, the drafting of detailed five-year plans for all industrial and agricultural branches, strong administrative control over the realization of these plans, and the rapid mobilization of massive human and material resources when needed for the most important Soviet projects. Simultaneously, the actual performance of the Soviet economy became more difficult for outsiders to interpret as Soviet statistics were increasingly distorted. On the eve of World War II the country became richer due to its accelerated industrialization, but the majority of the Soviet people still lived in villages and found themselves poorer and consuming less than in the 1920s.

Resources and Economy

A unique installation of national importance is the Plisetsk space center. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, it is the sole site of operation for the Russian space program equipped with complete facilities for launching space vehicles. Another unique object is the chief nuclear weapons testing ground on Novaya Zemlya, where nuclear tests have been conducted since the 1950s. In 1990, Russia announced and still observes the moratorium on nuclear testing. However, the Novaya Zemlya test site continues to be used for basic and applied research. Belushiya Guba, founded in the late 19 th century, is the administrative center of the testing ground and in fact the capital of Novaya Zemlya.

Biodiversity And The Design Of Agricultural Systems

In the last decade cortccrrts for sustainability have replaced the maximisation of productivity as the target for agricultural development. This has generated increased interest in agroecosystem design , a more holistic concept than the commodity-led technology development paradigm which has dominated the post-world-war period of agricultural development. The fundamental features of this sustainability agenda, are that productivity should meet the aspirations of the farmers and society, whilst at the same time conserving resources and environments for the future. It has been hypothesised that the inclusion of biodiversity is a key feature of such sustainable agroecosystem design (izac and Swift 1994). Agroecosystem design should thus draw on scientific information derived from the study of complex agroecosystems rather than simply on reductionist information drawn from the study of crop plants in isolation. Fundamental to this information base are the principles associated with the...

Richardson Lewis Fry 18811953

Richardson was working for the Meteorological Office as superintendent of the Eskdalemuir Observatory at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Because of his Quaker beliefs, he declared himself a conscientious objector and could not, therefore, be drafted into the military. This choice implied that he would never be able to qualify for university posts. While Richardson was not involved in military operations, from 1916 to 1919 he served in the Friends Ambulance Unit, attached to the 16th French Infantry Division, where his work earned him praise. After the war, Richardson returned to his position in the Meteorological Office, but had to resign from it in 1920 when the Meteorological Office became part of the Air Ministry. His pacifist beliefs could not allow him to continue to work for an institution which was part of the military. Richardson then went back to teaching. From 1920 to 1929 he headed the Physics Department at Westminster Training College, and from 1929 to 1940, he was...

Impact of Climate Change on Fuel Types

This EIA projection provides a useful policy-neutral reference case for analyzing the pressures that climate change will exert on patterns of energy production and consumption. There will be significant foreign policy and national security implications for energy exporters and importers alike, including the following a strengthened geopolitical hand for natural gas-exporting countries and, potentially, biofuel-exporting countries as well a weakened hand, both strategically and economically, for importers of all fuel types, who will find themselves increasingly vulnerable to supply disruption growing nuclear safety and proliferation threats and a steady increase in the economic and environmental cost of delaying the implementation of global carbon reduction policies.

Greenpeace International

Greenpeace international IS an environmental organization that uses creative confrontation, usually in the form of media spectacles, to draw attention to specific environmental problems. Abrupt climate change caused by human-induced global warming is atop the organization's list of concerns. Scientists predict that if humans continue to burn fossil fuels at present rates, global warming will have catastrophic effects on existing ecosystems, natural landscapes, plant and animal populations, and human life. Greenpeace, which is a nongovernmental organization sup ported by charitable grants and membership fees, is at the forefront in the struggle to convince governments, businesses, and individuals that global warming is a real threat, and in finding ways to lessen human dependence on fossil fuels. From its headquarters in Amsterdam, the Stiching Greenpeace Council gathers almost three million supporters, directs activities in 27 national and regional offices located throughout the...

Government And Markets

Tools to shift assets to long-term value aligned with ecological health. But many, in Peter Senge's words, fail to summon the imagination and courage to face the fact that they are selling the wrong products . . . to the wrong customers (Senge, 2008, p. 310). Few will, without strong, imaginative, and farsighted government leadership of the kind we associate with the founding of the United States, Lincoln's response to the secession of the Southern states, and Franklin Roosevelt's leadership in the 1930s and during World War II. Corporations acting in disorganized or unregulated markets will not act consistently for the public good when it no longer serves their short-term shareholder interests. To do otherwise would be fatal to the management of underperforming companies. The cardinal rule of capitalism is to make money, and no amount of greenwashing can hide that fact.

The Problem With Lead

In 1912 Imperial College offered Holmes a position as a demonstrator in geology, and in July 1914 the 23-year-old geologist married Margaret Howe. Holmes kept busy lecturing and researching the pet-rographical material he brought back from Mozambique. When World War I broke out in August, the military declared Holmes unfit for military service because of his recurring bouts of malaria. His contributions toward the war effort included making scaled topography maps for naval intelligence and researching alternative sources of potash, an ingredient of fertilizer formerly supplied to Great Britain by Germany.

Sea Lanes and Strategy

His purchase, for the nominal price of just seven dollars, was the port facilities at Churchill, a tiny, windswept outpost on the southwest coast of Hudson Bay, below the Arctic Circle, that almost no one wanted to buy and almost everyone was anxious to avoid. It was home to only around 1,000 people who depended upon hunting, fishing and an influx of tourists who arrive every winter to watch and photograph polar bears. True, it had had its moment of glory during the Second World War, when the Canadian government had made good use of its facilities to ship to Russia thousands of tons of grain that were desperately needed to sustain the war effort. But once the conflict was over, the port had gradually fallen into disuse, having been made virtually redundant by the far more efficient, privately run operations in Thunder Bay and Vancouver. In the post-war years it had become largely forgotten, particularly since it had no roads linking it to the rest of Canada, and was highly dependent...

Ice Component of Models

CLIMATE MODELS HAVE developed from mathematical formulas used in the 19th century to try to predict the weather. The lack of accurate and comprehensive data and the need to rely on manual calculation techniques made these approaches very difficult, and ultimately, they were abandoned as it became clear that the results of the equations did not match real-world conditions. During World War II, military expediencies demanded that more data be collected about the atmosphere, and this capacity remained in force after the war. The quantity of data available enabled researchers to check their calculations against real-world conditions. The advent of computers reduced the time needed to complete calculations. As global warming and climate change continue to intensify, the amount of ice on the Earth's surface will continue to decrease. Estimates suggest that, if current trends continue, Himalayan ice will have disappeared within three decades, while polar ice is breaking up and melting at an...

International scientific collaboration

International collaboration has been a theme in climate data gathering and analysis. During the war years, it was hampered by geopolitical circumstances and relatively weak institutional structures at the international level. For example, both the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), and the International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU) were non-governmental organizations. After World War II, the international scene changed. Powerful state interests favored the building of international regimes under the umbrella of the United Nations and around a number of specific issues, including meteorology and climate science as well as the environment more generally. Organizationally, the emerging global climate regime is now represented by entities such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The...

Weather observations and early international coordination

Ing.19 The Brussels conference became a starting point for further international collaboration, and at the First International Meteorological Congress in Geneva 1873, the International Meteorological Organization (IMO) was created. This brief look at the history of meteorology shows how the practical needs of weather forecasting were an important driver in making formal connections among actors in different countries, with the actors being the meteorological offices. The initially fragile actor networks became increasingly formal structures. The IMO was a non-governmental organization and active until the end of World War II, when its role was taken over by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a special agency of the United Nations. The IMO can thus be seen as a model for the norms of international coordination and sharing of data, which later became central for structuring global climate science under the auspices of the WMO.

Earlier energy crises

In 1973 4 a combination of Middle East conflict and concerted action by OPEC pushed up oil prices dramatically - almost five-fold in two years. Prices doubled in just one month at the end of 1973. Oil had been relatively cheap since the Second World War, and industrialised nations had become dependent on supplies from international markets. The price increase had serious short-term economic effects, and also raised

Department of Energy uS

Department of Energy is to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States to promote scientific and technological innovation in support of that mission and to ensure the environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex. To achieve this mission, the Department of Energy (DOE) has outlined five strategic themes energy security, nuclear security, scientific discovery and innovation, environmental responsibility, and management excellence. The Office of Policy and International Affairs, a part of the Department of Energy, is the watchdog office for climate change. Within this Office, there are six initiatives regarding global warming and climate change. These initiatives are the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum, the Clean Energy Initiative, Climate VISION, Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidelines, the Security and Prosperity Partnership North American Energy Working Group , and the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program.

Conclusions of postwar development and politics of the atmosphere

The period after World War II up until the 1990s and the firm establishment of climate science and policy into international governance can be characterized as a time of strong drive towards multilateralism as a political ideal and internationalization of science. The drivers for the internationalization of science were both political and scientific. Geopoli-tically the United States, in particular, has at times used these ideals as tools in promoting liberal democracy and keeping communism at bay, not least in relation to poor

Jussi Paivinen and Marja Hokkanen

Around two thirds of Finland's land area is covered by forest. For hundreds of years, slash-and-burn agriculture and tar burning have influenced the structure of forests. Also, the intensive forestry practised after the Second World War has caused significant changes in forest habitats. Few natural forests remain, and they are fragmented and now found mainly in protected areas.

Scientific developments

Scientifically, the question of global warming was not a major issue at the time of the International Geophysical Year. Rather, the general understanding at the time was that the oceans would absorb almost all the excess carbon that humans may put in the atmosphere. Moreover, the war years had unusually cold weather, which made it less pertinent to discuss global warming. If anything was on the agenda, it was the perpetual question of the ice ages and the potential of a returning ice age on Earth. However, experiences of the vast impact of technology from using atom bombs had raised the legitimacy of ideas that people were able to affect the climate. There are examples of both scientists and politicians mentioning nuclear weapons and climate change as comparable threats to civilization. A popular belief was that fallout from the bombs could cause climate cooling.60 This theme resurfaced in the environmental debate in the early 1980s under the rubric of nuclear winter.61 61 Constance...

Indigenous Education in Arctic Canada

After World War II and the movement of Inuit into settlements, northern administrators established community councils. Initially, the councils had little real power they functioned more as intermediaries, carriers of complaints and questions, than as partners in the governing of communities. With the establishment of provincial schools in Arctic Qu bec, government administrators created parent committees, something that federal schools had not initiated. However, in reality, the parent committees made few decisions, and wielded little impact on the day-to-day operations of the schools and none on the instructional program or overall policy. School administrators invited Inuit to participate, but set limits on community involvement.

World Meteorological Organization WMO

Meteorology was an area in which international collaboration was already organized at the end of World War II, but not through governmental cooperation. However, in 1947, representatives of 31 countries attending the Eighth Conference of Directors of the IMO endorsed the transformation of IMO into the intergovernmental World Meteorological Organization (WMO), which was created in 1950. In 1951 the WMO became a special agency under the United Nations.45

Environmental Pressures on Agriculture and Forest Resources

The degradation of environmental assets, especially soils, air and water, severely challenges the productivity of agriculture and forest resources (Pinstrup-Andersen and Pandya-Lorch, 1998, Price et al., 1999a,b). In the post-World War II period, approximately 23 of the world's agricultural and forestlands were classified as degraded by the United Nation's Environment Programme (Oldeman et al., 1991). Irrigated land is particularly vulnerable, although the expansion of irrigation is slowing.

Postwar National Programs

Following World War II, France resumed glaciological and geophysical work on the Greenland ice sheet. The Expedition Polaire Francaise (Mission P.E. Victor) operated from Station Centrale at the Eismitte site (70.9 N 40.7 W, 3000 m) during 1949-1950. This set the stage for the French-German-Swiss Expedition Glaciologique Internationale au Groenland (EGIG), which in 1959 surveyed a section through the ice sheet. Resurvey on the two EGIG flow lines in 1969 produced the first evidence of an ongoing change in the ice sheet shape. Important work on the radiation and energy balance of the ice sheet (Ambach, 1963) was also carried out. Station Northice (78.1 N 38.5 W, 2343 m) of the British North Greenland Expedition was occupied from November 1952 to August 1954. Its observations, together with the Station Centrale and EGIG data and the prewar records, provided the bulk of the information on ice sheet climate until the advent of automatic weather stations in the 1980s (Putnins, 1969).

The prerevolutionary period 19001916

This period covers the last years of the Russian Empire. From the point of view of economic development, the pre-war period presents a continuation of the process of reform in Russian society which started with the abolition of serfdom in 1861. The process of the modernization of the country was at times held up by more conservative moves. An unprecedented growth in the population and a shortage of land in the central regions made reform very urgent. In 1904 and 1905 there were numerous incidents of peasant unrest in many provinces in European Russia. From 1906, more radical reforms were launched in order to transform the country from an agrarian society based on patriarchal peasant communes into a capitalist society with a class of free farmers. By the early 1910s, the market economy was already affecting the lives of millions of Russian peasants. However, the main characteristic of the period as a whole is that Russia remained a poor country in which the majority of the population...

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