Conclusion

The results summarized in this chapter indicate a broad synchroneity in the initiation and timing of LIA glacial events along the PEP 1 transect, with initial glacier advances in the thirteenth through fourteenth centuries in the Northern Hemisphere and Patagonia; scattered evidence for extended glaciers during the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries; and the "classic" LIA advances during the seventeenth to early twentieth centuries. In detail, however, particularly at the decadal level, there is considerable variability in both the relative extent and timing of events and the dating of the LIA maximum position. These differences reflect varying dominance of precipitation and temperature controls of mass balance, as well as nonclimatic influences on glacier behavior. There remains a significant need for detailed, well-dated records of glacier fluctuations, coupled with a better understanding of the factors that control glacier mass balance. Some interpretative problems may be resolved by the development of complementary proxy records (e.g., from tree rings), which are sensitive to similar climatic parameters. For example, Villalba et al. (2000) demonstrate strong correlations between sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and tree-ring chronologies in both the Gulf of Alaska and Patagonia. The Alaskan and the Patagonian tree-ring records clearly show the documented 1976 transition from cold to warm conditions over the tropical Pacific and are significantly correlated over the 1591-1988 period, reflecting a common climatic forcing mechanism that affected past temperature variations in both regions. The Pacific forcing also appears to be reflected in the temperature-sensitive glacier fluctuations of these two regions. Such comparative analyses might ultimately enable large-scale reconstructions of regional patterns of temperature/precipitation variation along the PEP 1 transect at decadal scales for the last several hundred years.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the many colleagues who have provided us with material included in this chapter, particularly Jean Grove, Charles Warren, Masamu Aniya, and Greg Wiles. Stephan Hastenrath, John Clague, Greg Wiles, and an anonymous reviewer have provided comments on the manuscript. We thank the Cartographic Section at the University of Western Ontario for the diagrams and Vera Markgraf and Malcolm Hughes for their invitation to present this chapter. This chapter has been partially supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Argentinean Research Council (CONICET) the Argentinean Agency for the Promotion of Science (PICT0703093), and a Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Post-Doctoral Fellowship to R.V.

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