SE Jorgensen

DFH, Institut A

Environmental Chemistry Section Universitetsparken 2,2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark

ELSEVIER

Amsterdam - London - New York - Tokyo 1993

ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V Molenwerf 1

P.O. Box 211,1000AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

ISBN: 0-444-89152-8

© 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.

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Studies in Environmental Science

Other volumes in this series

1 Atmospheric Pollution 1978 edited by M.M. Benarie

2 Air Pollution Reference Measurement Methods and Systems edited by T. Schneider, H.W. de Koning and L.J. Brasser

3 Biogeochemical Cycling of Mineral-Forming Elements edited by P.A. Trudinger and D.J. Swaine

4 Potential Industrial Carcinogens and Mutagens by L. Fishbein

5 Industrial Waste Management by S.E. J0rgensen

6 Trade and Environment: ATheoretical Enquiry by H. Siebert, J. Eichberger, R. Gronych and R. Pethig

7 Field Worker Exposure during Pesticide Application edited by W.F. Tordoir and E.A.H. van Heemstra-Lequin

8 Atmospheric Pollution 1980 edited by M.M. Benarie

9 Energetics and Technology of Biological Elimination of Wastes edited by G. Milazzo

10 Bioengineering, Thermal Physiology and Comfort edited by K. Cena and J.A. Clark

11 Atmospheric Chemistry. Fundamental Aspects by E. Mészâros

12 Water Supply and Health edited by H. van Lelyveld and B.C.J. Zoeteman

13 Man under Vibration. Suffering and Protection edited by G. Bianchi, K.V. Frolov and A. Oledzki

14 Principles of Environmental Science and Technology by S.E. J0rgensen and I. Johnsen

15 Disposal of Radioactive Wastes by Z. Dlouhy

16 Mankind and Energy edited by A. Blanc-Lapierre

17 Quality of Groundwater edited by W. van Duijvenbooden, P. Glasbergen and H. van Lelyveld

18 Education and Safe Handling in Pesticide Application edited by E.A.H. van Heemstra-Lequin and W.F. Tordoir

19 Physicochemical Methods for Water and Wastewater Treatment edited by L. Pawlowski

20 Atmospheric Pollution 1982 edited by M.M. Benarie

21 Air Pollution by Nitrogen Oxides edited by T. Schneider and L. Grant

22 Environmental Radioanalysis by H.A. Das, A. Faanhof and H.A. van der Sloot

23 Chemistry for Protection of the Environment edited by L. Pawlowski, A.J. Verdier and W.J. Lacy

24 Determination and Assessment of Pesticide Exposure edited by M. Siewierski

25 The Biosphere: Problems and Solutions edited by T.N. Veziroglu

26 Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and their Impact on the Environment edited by G.B. Marini-Bettôlo

27 Fluoride Research 1985 edited by H. Tsunoda and Ming-Ho Yu

28 Algal Biofouling edited by L.V. Evans and K.D. Hoagland

29 Chemistry for Protection of the Environment 1985 edited by L. Pawlowski, G. Alaerts and W.J. Lacy

30 Acidification and its Policy Implications edited by T. Schneider

31 Teratogens: Chemicals which Cause Birth Defects edited by V. Kolb Meyers

32 Pesticide Chemistry by G. Matolcsy, M. Nadasy and V. Andriska

33 Principles of Environmental Science and Technology (second revised edition)

by S.E. J0rgensen and I. Johnsen

34 Chemistry for Protection of the Environment 1987 edited by L. Pawlowski, E. Mentasti, W.J. Lacy and C. Sarzanini

35 Atmospheric Ozone Research and its Policy Implications edited by T. Schneider, S.D. Lee, G.J.Ft. Wolters and L.D. Grant

36 Valuation Methods and Policy Making in Environmental Economics edited by H. Folmer and E. van lerland

37 Asbestos in Natural Environment by H. Schreier

38 How to Conquer Air Pollution. A Japanese Experience edited by H. Nishimura

39 Aquatic Bioenvironmental Studies: The Hanford Experience, 1944-1984 by C.D. Becker

40 Radon in the Environment by M. Wilkening

41 Evaluation of Environmental Data for Regulatory and Impact Assessment by S. Ramamoorthy and E. Baddaloo

42 Environmental Biotechnology edited by A. Blazej and V. Privarova

43 Applied Isotope Hydrogeology by F.J. Pearson Jr., W. Balderer, H.H. Loosli, B.E. Lehmann, A. Matter, Tj. Peters, H. Schmassmann and A. Gautschi

44 Highway Pollution edited by R.S. Hamilton and R.M. Harrison

45 Freight Transport and the Environment edited by M. Kroon, R. Smitand J. van Ham

46 Acidification Research in The Netherlands edited by G.J. Heij and T. Schneider

47 Handbook of Radioactive Contamination and Decontamination by J. Severa and J. Bar

48 Waste Materials in Construction edited byJ.J.J.M. Goumans, H.A. vanderSloot andTh.G. Aalbers

49 Statistical Methods in Water Resources by D.R. Helsel and R.M. Hirsch

50 Acidification Research: Evaluation and Policy Applications edited by T. Schneider

51 Biotechniques for Air Pollution Abatement and Odour Control Policies edited by A.J. Dragt and J. van Ham

52 Environmental Science Theory. Concepts and Methods in a One-World, Problem-Oriented Paradigm byW.T. de G root

53 Chemistry and Biology of Water, Air and Soil. Environmental Aspects edited by J. Tölgyessy

Preface

There is an increased interest for nitrogen removal in waste water treatment all over the world. We have therefore found it useful to give an overview of the wide spectrum of nitrogen removal processes available today.

Part A gives a very brief overview of nitrogen pollution sources, the global nitrogen cycle and the treatment methods. Part B presents details of all biological methods for nitrogen removal, while Part C treats the physico-chemical nitrogen removal methods. Design examples related to Parts B and C are given in appendices.

The volume is not a textbook written for engineers, but is rather written for a wide spectrum of environmentalists who would like to have an overview of the available methods from a biological and chemical point of view. Design equations are given in the text, but more emphasis has been laid on the profound understanding of the biological and chemical processes and the basic factors that influence these processes. Parameters and regression equations for a quantitative description of these factors and their influence on the key processes are presented in several tables. This feature makes the volume very useful as a handbook on nitrogen removal processes.

The authors, Copenhagen, 24 June 1993

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