Number of bed volumes

Figure 9.4. An ammonium break through curve is shown. The ammonium-N concentration in the effluent is plotted versus the number of bed volumes treated.

Furthermore, it is recommended to use two or more columns in series, because this makes it possible to utilize the entire capacity of the first column and let the second column provide the required concentration of ammonium-N in the final effluent. After regeneration of the first column at saturation, the second column becomes the first and the freshly regenerated column number two in the series. Thereby it becomes possible simultaneously to achieve a low concentration in the effluent and a full utilization of the ion exchange capacity.

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